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tecting the Constitution from infringement | lature steadily refused to substitute a more upon its powers. John Tyler, of Virginia, modern and republican constitution for the was among those who voted against the bill. old, but simple and strong, government of
This act was followed by one of concession the Charter. Thomas W. Dorr, an attorney and compromise, introduced by Henry Clay, at law, of Providence, and a member of the proposing a graduated scale, by which the Assembly, sought to introduce a reform; but, duties were to be abated annually. This bill for a long time labored in vain. When allowed Government the needed benefits of brought to a vote his proposition for a change the revenue, only detracting from the tariff obtained only seven out of seventy votes. one-tenth each year upon all articles tariffed Not to be thwarted, Dorr then appealed to orer twenty per cent., thus gradually reduc- the people, agitating the question of change ing the duties until they should strike the and reform in several mass conventions, held free list, in December, 1841. This act passed in 1840-41. When the movement had gained both Houses by good majorities, and was sufficient strength, a Convention of Delegates signed March 20, 1833. In the meantime, was called, which prepared a State ConstituFebruary 1st had come, and the Nullifiers tion to be submitted to a regular vote of the did not drive General Scott out of Fort Moul- people. It obtained 14,000 votes—said to trie, nor cease to pay their duties both to the have been a clear majority of the regular citiCollector and to the Government. Accepting zens of the State. The Chartists pronounced the “highly satisfactory settlement” of the the entire proceedings seditious and declared difficulty, it only remained for Governor the vote, illegal as it was, to have been largeHayne to summon the Convention to undo ly fraudulent. Dorr decided otherwise; and, what they had done. The delegates came with true Puritan pertinacity, proclaimed the together March 11th, placed South Carolina Constitution to be the law of the State. He back in the Union, declared the great princi- ordered, accordingly, an election to be held ple of State Sovereignty established, and, ad- for State officers. journed.
Dorr was chosen Governor, and a LegislaThis conspiracy left behind it the seeds of ture, composed exclusively of his supporters, disunion. The idea of a State independence, was elected, to meet at Providence on the of a power to control circumstances to their first Monday of May, 1842. The Charter own liking, of a disseverance of all bonds with party also held an election for State officers, the “ hated North,” was left to germinate and polling 5,700 votes, while the Suffrage party grow, to burst out again, when a weak Ex- claimed to have polled 7,300. ecutive should afford the opportunity, into On the 3d of May, Dorris Government attreason and revolution.
tempted to organize at Providence and seize the reins of power. They were resisted by
the legal State Government, which assembled DORR'S REBELLION, 1842.
at Newport on the same day, and at the head
of which was Gov. Samuel W. King. Both This merely local “ rebellion” deserves men- sides appealed to arms. The excitement was tion rather from its peculiar nature than from intense, and the people flocked to the respecits importance. Its circumstances were as tive standards in large numbers from various follows:
New England States. Gov. King proclaimed Down to 1833 the government of Rhode the State under martial law, called out the Island was based upon the original charter of militia and asked and obtained the aid of settlement, granted by Charles II. in 1663, by the United States to suppress the treason. which the elective franchise was restricted to On the 18th of May a portion of the Suffrage persons possessed of real estate to a specified party assembled at Providence under arms amount, and to their eldest sons. This dis- and attempted to seize the arsenal, but were franchised fully two-thirds of the actual citi- dispersed by Gov. King and a military force. zens. Yet, so prevalent were old prejudices, They assembled again, to the number of seveso powerful old associations, that the Legis- ral hundred, May 25, 1842, at Chepachet Hill,
ten miles from Providence, but again dispers- years. It was one of the most fatal acts for ed on the approach of the State forces. Three the peace of the country which could have days afterwards the affair was over. Dorr been conceived. It alarmed the North. The fled from the State, and took refuge first in country flew to arms. From the South came Connecticut, and then in New Hampshire. A armed bands, who, as a posse comitatus, under reward of $4,000 being offered for his appre- authority of the President, pursued the Antihension by Rhode Island, he voluntarily re- slavery settlers with a vengeance making the turned home, was tried, convicted of high record of 1855 and 56 one of outrage and treason, and sentenced to imprisonment for bloodshed. The North, aggravated by this life. In 1847 he was pardoned, and, in 1852, armed attempt to make a Slave State out of the Legislature restored him to his civil soil unfitted for slave labor, poured in its setrights, and ordered the record of his sentence tlers, armed them for defence, gave them supto be expunged. He lived to see a liberal plies to sustain them through the day of trial, constitution and his party in possession of and, eventually, obtained the victory through the reins of government.
the action of that very principle of " Squatter Rhode Island is now as democratic as any Sovereignty.” The Northern "Squatters” of her sister States. She boasts a population became vastly more numerous even than the nearly as great as that of Texas, and twice Missouri invaders and the vagabonds from that of Florida, while, in intelligence and in- Arkansas and Mississippi introduced by Capt. dustrial enterprise, she is vastly before either Titus and his coadjutors, and, by mere force of the States named. In the hour of the Ge- of numbers, obtained control of affairs. neral Government's peril she has proven a
What was most important, however, in this tower of loyalty, and the names of her sons unfortunate re-opening of the Slavery quesoccupy a favored place in the record of the tion, was, not the local struggle which followstruggle against revolution and national dis- ed, but the great political party which it integration.
called into existence. Taking the powerful issues of opposition presented, of the non-extension of slavery and the freedom of the
territories, the Republican party sprang into THE KANSAS-NEBRASKA TROUBLES.
life, and, ere long, began to carry all before
it in the Northern States. Mr. Fremont, as The years 1854–58 are “representative" in its candidate for the Presidency in 1856, the history of the country. On the 4th of needed but the vote of Pennsylvania to have January, 1854, Mr. Douglas, as chairman of made him President; and Mr. Lincoln, its the Committee on Territories, in the United candidate in 1860, was elected to that high States Senate, introduced the bill for the or- office by heavy majorities in seventeen States. ganization of the territories of Nebraska and Had it not been for that Kansas-Nebraska Kansas. It provided as follows:
bill the Republican party never would have “When admitted as a State, the said terri- had existence, upon such issues as “no more tory, or any portion of the same, shall be re- Slave territory, "-"no Slavery in the territoceived into the Union, with or without Sla- ries,”—“no more Slave representation in Convery, as their constitution may prescribe at gress from new Slave States." the time of their admission.”
The matter resulted :Thus abrogating the venerable and respect 1. In the admission of Kansas as a Free ed Missouri Compromise Act, of 1820, while State. it further established the principle of “Squat 2. In the formation of the Republican ter Sovereignty,” which gave to the people Party. of a territory the right to make their own 3. In the election of a Republican Presilaws-denying to Congress the power to le- dent. gislate laws for its territories.
4. In the “rebellion" of the Slave States That act became a law, after one of the against his rule. most exciting sessions of Congress known for 5.
HIST O.R.ICAL SUMMARY OF EVENTS,
FROM NOVEMBER 6, 1860, TO DECEMBER 27, 1860.
Nov. 6.--Presidential Election day. Four candi- | arsenals, &c., in the Southern States, are as follows: dates before the people, viz. : Abraham Lincoln, at Fort Monroe, Va., eight companies of artillery; Republican, of Illinois ; Stephen A. Douglas, Demo- at Fayetteville arsenal, N. C., one company of arcrat, of Illinois; John C. Breckenridge, Democrat, of tillery ; at Fort Moultrie, s. C., two companies of Kentucky; John Bell, Unionisl, of Tennessee. Seven- artillery ; at Augusta, Ga., one company of artillery; teen States out of thirty-three States cast their ma- Key West, Florida, one company of artillery ; Bar. jority vote for Lincoln electors; eleven States for rancas barracks, near Pensacola, Fla., one company Breckenridge: three for Bell; while Douglas received of artillery; Baton Rouge, La., one company of artii. the vote of Missouri, and three-sevenths of the vote lery ; total, about 800 men. There are about 120 of New-Jersey.
United States marines at Norfolk and Pensacola. Nov. 10.--Bill introduced in South Carolina Legis Nov. 17.-Grand gathering of citizens of Charleslature to call out and equip 10,000 volunteers. ton, S. C., "to inaugurate the revolution.” Pine
-United States Senator, James Chesnut, Jr., from pole, 100 feet high, raised, and the Palmetto flag unSouth Carolina, resigns his seat in the Senate.
furled. Hotels, private residences, and public build
ings all display the flag. Great rejoicing. Secession - South Carolina Legislature orders an election of badges worn by men, women and children. Delegates to a Convention for taking action on the
Nov. 18.—General depreciation of government and question of secession ; the election to be held Dec. state stocks, railway shares, &c. Very unsettled 6th ; the Convention to assemble Dec. 17th.
state in the money market. General suspension of -Georgia Legislature refuses to order an election payment of debts due the North by Southern merof United States Senator, to succeed Alfred Iverson. chants, looked for in New York and Philadelphia.
-Immense excitement throughout the South. -Georgia Legislature appropriates $1,000,000," to Large meetings held in New Orleans, Augusta, arm and equip the State.” Orders an election of Montgomery, Vicksburg, &c., to favor disunion. Ex- Delegates to a State Convention, to be held Janciting cabinet session at Washington, to “take ac- uary 2. The Convention to assemble January 9. tion on the alarming state of the country." Great - Major Anderson ordered to Fort Moultrie, to renumber of resignations of Post-masters, Custom- lieve Col. Gardiner, who is ordered to Texas. house officers, &c., received at the Departments in
Nov. 19.-Gov. Moore, of Louisiana, orders the Washington. "Minute men” organizations making Legislature of that State to convene, Dec. 10. throughout the Cotton States. --South Carolina Legislature authorizes banks to the South. Heavy orders received and filled in New
Nov. 20.—Large arrivals in New York of arms for sospend specie payment.
York for rifles, ammunition, pistols, &c., for the Nov. 11.-United States Senator Hammond, of Southern States. South Carolina, resigns his seat in the Senate.
Nov. 22.-—The Washington and Philadelphia banks Nov. 13.- South Carolina Legislature adjourns suspend specie payment. The banks of Baltimore sine die.
and Richmond suspended specie payment two days Nov. 14.-Immense torch-light procession in Colum- previously. Notes of all Southern banks at a heavy bia, S.-C., in honor of the action of the Legislature of discount in New York. The New York banks reS. C.
solve to consolidate funds and afford relief by a libe
ral line of discount. -Florida, by her Governor, telegraphed to the Governor of South Carolina, " Florida is with the
Nov. 23.—Suspension of North Carolina banks' legallant Palmetto flag."
galised by the Legislature of that State. Numerous Nov. 15.-Senator Toombs makes a “powerful se
bank suspensions announced in Pittsburg, Pa., Tren
ton, N. J., Charleston, S. C. The Boston banks recession speech" in Milledgeville, Georgia.
solve to adopt the course of the banks of New York. -Governor Moore, of Alabama, announces his intention to order an election of Delegates to a State President is understood to take strong grounds
- Disagreements in the Cabinet reported. The Convention ; the election to be held Dec. 24. He against the right of secession. Messrs. Cobb, advises the people to prepare for secession. The Thompson and Floyd are reported as threatening Convention to assemble January 7th.
to resign in consequence. They are understood to -Governor Letcher, of Virginia, calls an extra ses- favor a “ peaceful separation." sion of the Legislature, to assemble Jan. 7, to "take into consideration the condition of public affairs."
Great public meeting in New Orleans, to organ
ize a " Southern Rights Association," whose pur - The United States troops garrisoning the forts, pose is to aid in carrying the State out of the Union.
Nov. 27.-Gov. Hicks, of Maryland, refuses to con to convene the Legislature; directing that a State vene the Legislature. He writes a letter, taking Convention be called, and telling the Southern strong ground against secession, and says his pur- States that Tennessee will stand by the action of pose is to avoid any precipitation in action on the the Southern Convention for weal or woe. part of the secessionists in the State.
Dec. 3.-Preamble and resolutions adopted in the Nov. 29.--A dispatch from Washington says: “Let Georgia Legislature, (House,) proposing a Conferters from members of Congress and others, in Southence of the Southern States, åt Atlanta, on the 20th Carolina, written before the Presidential election, of February, to counsel and advise as to the mode are exhibited here, proving that this revolutionary and manner of resistance to the North in the existscheme was concocted long ago, and that a secret ing exigency, was made the special order for to. military organization was formed to carry out the morrow. The preamble and resolutions take strong scheme of resistance in the event of Mr. Lincoln's grounds in favor of having all sectional questions success."
finally settled, and objects to separate action. -The Vermont Legislature -- 125 to 58 — votes -Meeting in Boston, to commemorate the anniågainst a repeal of its Personal Liberty bill. versary of John Brown's execution broken up.
-Day of Thanksgiving observed in most of the Considerable violence shown to its participators. States. Sermons were preached by eminent divines,
-Congress meets at Washington. Full repregenerally urging a policy of peace, concession, sentation from most of the States. South Carolina and fraternization in the great questions of the representatives in their seats, except Mr. Bonham. times.
Her Senators absent. -The Mississippi Legislature authorizes the Gov. -President's Message read to the two Houses, ernor to appoint as many Commissioners as he may and the Department reports sent in. The Message deem necessary, to visit each of the slave-holding takes strong grounds for conciliation ; blames the States, to inform them that the Mississippi Legislature North for its aggressions on Slavery: proposes plans had authorized a Convention to consider the neces of compromise ; denies the right of secession, yet sary steps for meeting the crisis. The Commissioners disparages coercion. Message was attacked fiercely were to solicit the co-operation of Legislatures to in the Senate by Clingman, of North Carolina, and devise means “for their common defence and defended by Crittenden, of Kentucky. In the House, safety." The following gentlemen were afterward Mr. Boteler, of Virginia, offered a resolution to apnamed by the Governor: Virginia, C. P. Smith ; point a Special Committee of one from each State, Georgia, W.L. Harris; Maryland, A. H. Handy; Ten to whom should be referred so much of the Presinessee, T. J. Wharton; South Carolina, C.E. Hooker; dent's Message as "relates to the present perilous Alabama, J. W. Matthews; Kentucky, W. S. Feather condition of the country.” ston; Louisiana, Wirt Adams; Arkansas, Geo. R. Fall; Dec. 4.-The President dispatches a messenger Texas, H. H. Miller ; Florida, E. M. Yerger ; Dela- (Mr. Trescott) to South Carolina, to urge a postware, Henry Dickinson ; North Carolina, Jacob ponement of action in regard to secession or nullifi. Thompson.
cation, until Congress could act on compromises --Dispatches from New Orleans state :" Abolition and remedies. ists are daily arrested. There is immense excite Dec. 5.-Meeting of the State Electoral Colleges. ment, and the secession feeling momentarily increas- Abraham Lincoln for President, and Hannibal Haming. Disunion is inevitable.”
lin for Vice-President, receive the votes of seventeen Nov. 30.--The North Carolina Legislature refuses States or one hundred and eighty electoral votes. to go into an election for United States Senator, in -Exciting speeches in the United States Senate place of Mr. Clingman.
by Southern Senators looking to secession as their -The Bank bill to suspend specie payment of only relief from Northern domination. banks in Georgia re-passed over the Governor's Dec. 6.-Great Union meeting and oration in Richveto.
mond, Va. -Bill introduced into the Georgia Legislature --The Speaker of the United States House of Re(House) prohibiting the levying of any execution presentatives announced the Committee of one from from the Courts of the United States on the property each State, called for under Mr. Boteler's resolution, of citizens of Georgia prior to December, 1861-all (Dec. 4,) to consider " so much of the President's sales under such process to be void.
Message as relates to the present perilous condiDec 1.-A committee of citizens of Texas, com
tion of the country." The names are as follows: prised of leading men, petitioned Gov. Houston to Ohio, Mr. Corwin, Chairman ; Virginia , Mr. Millson ; convene the Legislature. The Governor responded, Massachusetts, Mr. Adams; North Carolina, Mr. that, viewing the proposed measure unwise, he could Winslow ; New York, Mr. Humphreys ; South Caronot call the Legislature ; but if a majority of the lina, Mr. Boyce ; Pennsylvania, Mr. Campbell ; citizens of the State petitioned for it, he could not Georgia, Mr. Love ; .Connecticut, Mr. Ferry ; Marystand in the way. The secession feeling largely land, Mr. Davis; Rhode Island, Mr. Robinson; Delapredominates in the Southern and Eastern portion ware, Mr. Whiteley; New Hampshire, Mr. Tappan ; of the State.
New Jersey, Mr. Stratton ; Kentucky, Mr. Bristow ; ---- Florida Legislature passed the Convention Bill Vermont, Mr. Morrill ; Tennessee, Mr. Nelson; In? unanimously. The Convention to meet Jan. 3d.
diana, Mr. Dunn ; Louisiana, Mr. Taylor ; Mississippi,
Mr. Davis ; Illinois, Mr. Kellogg ; Alabama, Mr. -Banks in Georgia generally suspend specie pay. Houston; Maine, Mr. Morse ; Missouri, Mr. Phelps; ment.
Arkansas, Mr. Rust; Michigan, Mr. Howard ; Florida, -Immense secession meeting at Memphis, Ten- Mr. Hawkins ; Texas, Mr. Hamilton ; Wisconsin, Mr. nessee. Resolutions were passed accepting the Washburne ; lowa, Mr. Curtis ; California, Mr. Burch; "irrepressible conflict;" calling upon the Governor | Minnesota, Mr. Windom ; Oregon, Nr. Stout.
Dec. 7.-A circular is issued in iting the members urged the policy of strengthening Major Anderson of the Texas Legislature to assemble in Austin on fully. Mr. Cass, it was understood, made that policy the third Monday in December, for the purpose of a sine qua non of his stay in the Cabinet. holding an extra, session, and to take the necessary Dec. 14.--Lewis Cass, Secretary of State, resigns steps for calling a State Convention. Gov. Houston his seat in the Cabinet. His resignation causes much promises to resign if the people of the State demand feeling and comment. It was owing to his disapthe convoking of the Legislature. The hoisting of proval of the President's inaction in regard to re-enLone Star flags in the towns of Texas continues, and forcing Southern forts, arsenals, navy yards, &c. the people throughout the State appear to be united in their feeling of resistance to the administration cretary of State in place of Lewis Cass, resigned.
Dec. 15.--Attorney-General Black nominated Seof Mr. Lincoln.
--A meeting of members of the Georgia Legisla--The President to-day explicitly expressed his ture favoring co-operation, and urging a Convention determination to send no more troops to the forts of Southern States desirous of co-operating. An near Charleston, and said everything would be done address issued to the people of South Carolina, on his part to avoid a collision. Major Anderson
Alabama, Mississippi, and Florida, signed by 52 memhas made no request for re-enforcements.
bers of the Legislature. -A dispatch from Washington states that the Sec Dec. 17.—South Carolina Convention of Delegates etary of the Treasury, Howell Cobb, has had repeat-assembles in Convention. General Jamison elected ed interviews with Mr. Hunter, Chairman of the Coma President. Adjourned to Charleston. mittee on Finance in the Senate, and finds himself unable to extricate the Treasury from its present Governor of South Carolina. His Inaugural was
-Mr. Pickens inaugurated by the Legislature as bankrupt condition; consequently he proposes to decidedly for secession. resign at once.
Dec. 18.-Mr. Crittenden introduces into the UniDec. 8.-The Kentucky banks resolve to continue ted States Senate, Resolutions of Compromise and specie payment, as a suspension can afford no com
settlement of differences between the Slave and Free mercial relief.
States. The bill, as introduced, proposes : To re-Governor of Tennessee calls an extra session of new the Missouri Compromise Line ; prohibiting the Legislature, to convene Jan. 7th, to “ consider Slavery in the Territory north of 36 deg. 30 min., the present condition of the country."
and protecting it South of that latitude ; and for the Dec. 9.-Gov. Brown of Georgia publishes a letter admission of new States with or without Slavery, as favoring immediate secession.
their Constitutions shall provide : to prohibit the
abolition of Slavery by Congress in the States: to Dec. 10.—Howell Cobb, Secretary of the Treasury, prohibit its abolition in the District of Columbia so resigns his seat in the Cabinet. Mr. Toucey, Secre- long as it exists either in Virginia or Maryland: to tary of the Navy, acts in his stead, ad interim.
permit the transportation of slaves in any of the -United States Senator Clay, of Alabama, re- States by land or water: to provide for the payment signs his seat in the United States Senate after March
of fugitive slaves, when rescued : to repeal one ob4th, 1861.
noxious feature of the Fugitive Slave Law-the ine
quality of the fee to the Commissioner- and also to - It is divulged that the Democratic members of ask the repeal of all the Personal Liberty bills in the Congress from the North-Western States have held Northern States. These concessions are to be subseveral conferences. They take the position that mitted to the people in the form of amendments to the Cnion cannot be dissolved peaceably; that the
the Constitution, and if they are carried they are to North-West will, under no circumstances, consent to
be changed by no future amendments. be ent off from the Gulf of Mexico and the City of New York; that the Government, whatever may be
Dec. 18-19.-Andrew Johnson, United States Senaits faults, is of inestimable value.
tor from Tennessee, speaks on the resolutions propos
ing amendments to the Constitution. He denies the --Extra Session of Louisiana Legislature meets. right of secession, and calls upon the President to The Governor recommends a State Convention. enforce the laws regardless of consequences. TakConvention ordered--an election of delegates to ing up arms to resist the Federal laws he pronounces be held Jan. 23. Legislature adjourned Dec. 12th. treason. A military bill was passed, appropriating $500,000 to Arm the State for defence, and provisions made for
Dec. 19.-Governor Hicks, of Maryland, declines
to receive the Commissioner from Mississippi. He military organization and administration.
vindicates the course by expressing strong Union Dec. 12.--Assistant Secretary of State, Trescott, sentiments. resigns.
- The Commissioner of Mississippi to Maryland --Mr. Philip Frank Thomas, of Maryland, Com-addresses a large meeting in Baltimore, advising comissioner of Patents, is nominated Secretary of the operation on the part of the people of Maryland in Treasury, vice Cobb, resigned.
the secession movement. Dec. 13.-Immense Union demonstration in Phil Dec. 20.— The Ordinance of Secession passes the adelphia, by proclamation of the Mayor.
South Carolina Convention of Delegates unanimously. --Exciting session of the Cabinet in regard to the The announcement is received by the people of re-enforcement of Fort Moultrie, in Charleston har. The news throughout the North excites compara
Charleston with exciting manifestations of delight. bor. The President opposed its re-enforcement as impolitic, saying he had assurances that the fort tively little remark. would not be attacked if no re-enforcements were
-The Methodist Conference of South Carolina attempted. Mr. Cass, Secretary of State, and Mr. passes resolutions favoring secession. Toucey, Secretary of the Navy, both strenuously -Immense receipts of specie in New York. Nearly