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fil: and in the mean time, this nation must there is in the numbers of people, buildings, necessarily supply them with the manufac-rents, and the value of land and of the protures they consume; because the new settlers duce of land ; even if he goes back no farther will be employed in agriculture; and the new than is within man's memory. Let him comsettlements will so continually draw off the pare those countries with others on the same spare hands from the old, that our present co island, where manufactures have not yet exlonies will not, during the period we have tended themselves: observe the present difmentioned, find themselves in a condition to ference, and reflect how much greater our manufacture, even for their own inhabitants, strength may be (if numbers give strength) to any considerable degree, much less for when our manufactures shall occupy every those who are settling behind them. part of the island where they can possibly be

Thus our trade must, till that country be subsisted. comes as fully peopled as England (that is But, say the objectors, “there is a certain for centuries to come) be continually in- distance from the sea, in America, beyond creasing, and with it our naval power; be which the expense of carriage will put a stop cause the ocean is between us and them, and to the sale and consumption of your manuour ships and seamen must increase as that factures; and this, with the difficulty of trade increases.—The human body and the making returns for them, will oblige the inpolitical differ in this; that the first is limit- habitants to manufacture for themselves; of ed by nature to a certain stature, which, course, if you suffer your people to extend when attained, it cannot ordinarily exceed: their settlements beyond that distance, your the other, by better government and more people become useless to you :” and this disprudent policy, as well as by the change of tance is limited by some to two hundred manners and other circumstances, often takes miles, by others to the Apalachian mounfresh starts of growth, after being long at a tains.-Not to insist on a plain truth, that no stand; and may add tenfold to the dimensions part of a dominion, from whence a governit had for ages been confined to. The moment may on occasion draw supplies and ther, being of full stature, is in a few years aids both of men and money (though at too equalled by a growing daughter: but in the great a distance to be supplied with manucase of a mother-country and her colonies, it factures from some other part) is therefore to is quite different. The growth of the chil- be deemed vseless to the whole; I shall endren tends to increase the growth of the mo-deavour to show, that these imaginary limits ther, and so the difference and superiority is of utility, even in point of commerce, are longer preserved. Were the inhabitants of much too narrow. The inland parts of the this island limited to their present number by continent of Europe are farther from the sea, any thing in nature, or by unchangeable cir- than the limits of settlement proposed for cumstances, the equality of population between America. Germany is full of tradesmen and the two countries might indeed sooner come artificers of all kinds, and the governments to pass : but sure experience, in those parts there are not all of them always favourable to of the island where manufactures have been the commerce of Britain; yet it is a wellintroduced, teaches us —that people increase known fact, that our manufactures find their and multiply in proportion as the means and way even into the heart of Germany. Ask facility of gaining a livelihood increase : and the great manufacturers and merchants of the that this island, if they could be employed, is Leeds, Sheffield, Birmingham, Manchester, capable of supporting ten times its present and Norwich goods; and they will tell you, number of people. În proportion, therefore, that some of them send their riders frequentas the demand increases for the manufactures ly through France or Spain, and Italy, up to of Britain, by the increase of people in her co- Vienna, and back through the middle and lonies, the number of her people at home will northern parts of Germany, to show samples increase; and with them, the strength as well of their wares, and collect orders, which they as the wealth of the nation. For satisfaction receive by almost every mail, to a vast amount. in this point, let the reader compare in his Whatever charges arise on the carriage of mind the number and force of our present goods are added to the value, and all paid by fleets, with our feet in queen Elizabeth's the consumer. If these nations, over whom time,* before we had colonies. Let him com- we can have no government, over whose conpare the ancient, with the present state of sumption we can have no influence, but what our towns on or near our western coast arises from the cheapness and goodness of our (Manchester, Liverpool, Kendal, Lancaster, wares, whose trade, manufactures, or comGlasgow, and the countries round them) that mercial connexions are not subject to the trade with any manufactures for our colonies control of our laws, as those of our colonies (not to mention Leeds, Halifax, Sheffield, and certainly are in some degree; I say, if these Birmingham,) and consider what a difference nations purchase and consume such quantities

of our goods, notwithstanding the remoteness * Viz. forty sail, none of more than forty gung.

of their situation from the sea ; how much less

likely is it that the settiers in America, who sea-ports from interior America, will not seem must for ages be employed in agriculture incredible, when we reflect, that hemp for. chiefly, should make cheaper for themselves merly cane from the Ukraine and most souththe goods our manufactures at present supply ern parts of Russia to Wologda, and down the them with; even if we suppose the carriage Dwina to Archangel; and thence, by a perilfive, six, or seven hundred miles from the sea ous navigation, round the North Cape to Eng. as difficult and expensive, as the like distance land, and other parts of Europe. It now comes into Germany: whereas in the latter, the na- from the same country up the Dnieper, and tural distances are frequently doubled by po- down the Duna,* with much land-carriage. litical obstructions; I mean the intermixed Great part of the Russia iron, no high priced territories and clashing interests of princes.* commodity, is brought three hundred miles But when we consider, that the inland parts by land and water from the heart of Siberia. of America are penetrated by great navigable Furs (the produce too of America) are brought rivers: and there are a number of great lakes, to Amsterdam from all parts of Siberia, even communicating with each other, with those the most remote, Kamstchatka. The same rivers, and with the sea, very small portages country furnishes me with another instance here and there excepted; † that the seacoasts of extended inland commerce. It is found (if one may be allowed the expression) of worth while to keep up a mercantile commuthose lakes only, amount at least to two thou- nication between Pekin in China, and Peterssand seven hundred miles, exclusive of the ri- burgh. And none of these instances of invers running into them (many of which are land commerce exceed those of the courses by navigable to a great extent for boats and ca- which, at several periods, the whole of the noes, through vast tracts of country;) how trade of the East was carried on. Before the little likely is it, that the expense on the car- prosperity of the Mameluke dominion in riage of our goods into those countries should Egypt, fixed the staple for the riches of the prevent the use of them. If the poor Indians East at Cairo and Alexandria (whither they in those remote parts are now able to pay for were brought from the Red Sea), great part the linen, woollen, and iron wares they are of those coinmodities were carried to the at present furnished with by the French and cities of Cashgar and Balk. (This gave birth English traders (though Indians have nothing to many towns, that still subsist upon the but what they get by hunting, and the goods remains of their ancient opulence, amidst a are loaded with all the impositions fraud and people and country equally wild.) From knavery can contrive to enhance their value) thence those goods were carried down the will not industrious English farmers, hereafter Amû (the ancient Oxus) to the Caspian Sea, settled in those countries, be much better able and up the Wolga to Astrachan; from whence to pay for what shall be brought them in the they were carried over to, and down the Don, way of fair commerce.

to the mouth of that river; and thence again If it is asked, What can such farmers raise, the Venetians directly, and the Genoese and wherewith to pay for the manufactures they Venetians indirectly (by way of Kaffa and may want from us? I answer, that the inland Trebisonde) dispersed them through the Me. parts of America in question are well known diterranean and some other parts of Europe. to be fitted for the production of hemp, flax, Another part of those goods was carried over potash, and above all, silk; the southern parts land from the Wolga to the river Duna and may produce olive oil, raisins, currants, indigo, Neva ; from both they were carried to the city and cochineal. Not to mention horses and of Wisbuy in the Baltic (so eminent for its black cattle, which may easily be driven to sea-laws ;) and from the city of Ladoga on the the maritime markets, and at the same time Neva, we are told they were even carried by assist in conveying other commodities. That the Dwina to Archangel; and from thence the commodities first mentioned may easily, round the North Cape.- If iron and hemp by water and land carriage, be brought to the will bear the charge of carriage from this in

land country, other metals will, as well as * Sir C. Whitworth has the following assertion : iron; and certainly silk, since 3d. per 1b. “ Each stale in Germany is jealous of its neighbours; | is not above 1 per cent. on the value, and mit of its neighbour's products or manufactures

, they amounts to 281. per ton. If the growths of a have all recourse to strangers." State of Trade, p. xxiv. country find their way out of it; the manu

* From New York into lake Ontario, the factures of the country where they go will but about twenty-seven miles. From lake Ontario infallibly find their way into it. into lake Erie, ihe land.carriage at Niagara is but They, who understood the economy and about twelve miles. All the lakes above Nigara communicate by navigable straits, so that no land-carriage is necessary, to go out of one into another. From Presqu'isle on lake Erie, there are but fifteen miles the river Dwina.—The fork of the Ohio is about four Jand-carriage, and that a good wagon road, to Beef hundred miles distant from the sea, and the fork of the River, a branch of the Ohio ; which brings you into a Mississippi about nine hundred :'it is four hundred navigation of many thousand miles inland, if you take miles froin Petersburgh to Moscow, and very congitogether the Ohio, ihe Mississippi, and all ihe great ri. derably more than four thousand from Petersburgh to


* The reader will not confound the river Duna with

vers and branches that run into them.

principles of manufactures, know, that it is facturers into different parts of Christendom. impossible to establish them in places not The former conquests of its provinces, had populous: and even in those that are populous, before done the same. The loss of liberty in hardly possible to establish them to the preju- Verona, Milan, Florence, Pisa, Pistoia, and dices of the places already in possession of other great cities of Italy, drove the manuthem. Several attempts have been made in facturers of woollen clothes into Spain and France and Spain, countenanced by govern- Flanders. The latter first lost their trade and ment, to draw from us, and establish in those manufactures to Antwerp and the cities of countries, our hardware and woollen manu- Brabant; from whence, by persecution for factures; but without success. The reasons religion, they were sent into Holland and are various. A manufacture is part of a great England : while the civil wars, during the system of commerce, which takes in conve- minority of Charles the First of Spain, which niences of various kinds; methods of provid- ended in the loss of the liberty of their great ing materials of all sorts, machines for expe- towns, ended too in the loss of the manufacditing and facilitating labour, all the channels tures of Toledo, Segovia, Salamanca, Medina of correspondence for vending the wares, the del Campo, &c. The revocation of the edict credit and confidence necessary to found and of Nantes communicated, to all the protestant support this correspondence, the mutual aid part of Europe, the paper, silk, and other vaof different artizans, and a thousand other luable manufactures of France; almost pecuparticulars, which time and long experience liar at that time to that country, and till then have gradually established. A part of such in vain attempted elsewhere. To be cona system cannot support itself without the vinced, that it is not soil and climate, nor even whole: and before the whole can be obtained freedom from taxes, that determines the resithe part perishes. Manufactures, where they dence of manufacturers, we need only turn are in perfection, are carried on by a multi- our eyes on Holland; where a multitude of plicity of hands, each of which is expert only manufacturers are still carried on (perhaps in his own part; no one of them a master of more than on the same extent of territory any the whole; and, if by any means spirited away where in Europe) and sold on terms upon to a foreign country, he is lost without his which they cannot be had in any other part fellows. Then it is a matter of the extremest of the world. And this too is true of those difficulty to persuade a complete set of work- growths, which, by their nature and the labour men, skilled in all parts of a manufactory, to required to raise them, come the nearest to leave their country together, and settle in a manufactures. foreign land. Some of the idle and drunken As to the common-place objection to the may be enticed away; but these only disap- North American settlements, that they are point their employers, and serve to discourage in the same climate, and their produce the the undertaking. If by royal munificence, same as that of England ;-—in the first place and an expense that the profits of the trade it is not true; it is particularly not so of the alone would not bear, a complete set of good countries now likely to be added to our setand skilful hands are collected and carried tlements; and of our present colonies, the proover, they find so much of the system imper- ducts, lumber, tobacco, rice, and indigo, great fect, many things wanting to carry on the articles of commerce, do not interfere with trade to advantage, so many difficulties to the products of England: in the next place, overcome, and the knot of hands so easily a man must know very little of the trade of broken by death, dissatisfaction, and desertion; the world, who does not know, that the greatthat they and their employers are discouraged er part of it is carried on between countries, together, and the project vanishes into smoke. whose climates differ very little. Even the Hence it happens, that established manufac- trade between the different parts of these Britures are hardly ever lost, but by foreign con- tish islands is greatly superior to that between quest, or by some cminent interior fault in England and all the West India Islands put tomanners or government; a bad police oppress- gether. ing and discouraging the workmen, or religious If I have been successful in proving that a persecutions driving the sober and industrious considerable commerce may and will subsist out of the country. There is, in short, scarce between us and our future most inland settlea single instance in history of the contrary, ments in North America, notwithstanding where manufactures have once taken firm their distance; I have more than half proved root. They sometimes start up in a new no other inconveniency will arise from their place; but are generally supported, like exotic distance. Many men in such a country must plants, at more expense than they are worth" know," must“ think," and must « care" for any thing but curiosity; until these new about the country they chiefly trade with. seats become the refuge of the manufactures The juridical and other connexions of governdriven from the old ones. The conquest of ment are yet a faster hold than even comConstantinople, and final reduction of the mercial ties, and spread, directly and indiGreek empire, dispersed many curious manu-l rectly, far and wide. Business to be solicited

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and causes depending create a great inter- in North America should reside much in Eng. course, even where private property is not land; it is what may surely be expected, as divided in different countries ;- yet this divi- fast as such fortunes are acquired there. sion will always subsist, where different coun- Their having colleges of their own for the tries are ruled by the same government. education of their youth,” will not prevent it; Where a man bas landed property both in the a little knowledge and learning acquired inmother-country and the province, he will al- creases the appetite for more, and will make most always live in the mother-country; this, the conversation of the learned on this side though there were no trade, is singly a suffi- the water more strongly desired. Ireland cient gain. It is said, that Ireland pays near has its university likewise; yet this does not a million sterling annually to its absentees in prevent the immense pecuniary benefit we England : the balance of trade from Spain, receive from that kingdom. And there will or even Portugal, is scarcely equal to this. always be, in the conveniencies of life, the

Let it not be said we have no absentees politeness, the pleasures, the magnificence from North America. There are many, to of the reigning country, many other attracthe writer's knowledge; and if there are at tions besides those of learning, to draw men present but few of them, that distinguish them- of substance there, where they can (apparentselves here by great expense, it is owing to ly at least) have the best bargain of happiness the mediocrity of fortune among the inhabit-for their money. ants of the Northern colonies, and a more Our trade to the West India islands, is equal division of landed property, than in the undoubtedly a valuable one; but whatever is West India islands, so that there are as yet the amount of it, it has long been at a stand. but few large estates. But if those, who Limited as our sugar planters are by the have such estates, reside upon and take care scantiness of territory, they cannot increase of them themselves, are they worse subjects much beyond their present number; and this than they would be if they lived idly in Eng- is an evil, as I shall show hereafter, that will land ?-Ġreat merit is assumed for the gentle- be little helped by our keeping Guadaloupe. men of the West Indies, on the score of their - The trade to our Northern colonies is not residing and spending their money in Eng. only greater, but yearly increasing with the land. I would not depreciate that merit; it increase of people: and even in a greater prois considerable ; for they might, if they pleas- portion as the people increase in wealth and ed, spend their money in France : but the the ability of spending, as well as in numbers.* difference between their spending it here and

* The author afterwards obtained accounts of the exat home is not so great. What do they spend ports of North America, and the West India islands ; it in when they are here, but the produce and by which it appeared that there had been some increase manufactures of this country and would they though in a much less degree. The following extract not do the same if they were at home? Is it from these accounts will show the amount of the exof any great importance to the English farm- ports to each, in two different terms of five years ; the

terms taken at ten years distance, to show the increase, er, whether the West Indian gentleman viz. comes to London and eats his beef, pork, and First term, from 1744 to 1748, inclusive.

Northern Colonies. tongues, fresh; or has them brought to him

1744.... £ 640,114 12 4.

.£ 796,112 17 9 in the West Indies salted ? Whether he eats his English cheese and butter, or drinks his

.754,945 4 3.. English ale, at London or in Barbadoes ? Is the clothier's, or the mercer's, or the cutler's, or the toyman's profit less, for their goods be

Total, £ 3,486,261 1 2 Total, £3,353,337 JO 10

Difference, ing worn and consumed by the same persons residing on the other side of the ocean? Would not the profits of the merchant and

Second term, from 1754 to 1758, inclusive. mariner be rather greater, and some addition

.....685,675 3 0 made to our navigation, ships, and seamen ?

........733,458 16 3 If the North American gentleman stays in his own country, and lives there in that degree of luxury and expense with regard to the use

Total, £7,414 057 4 3 Total £3,767,841 12 11 of British manufactures, that his fortune ena

Diference, 3,646,215 11 4 bles him to do; may not his example (from

£ 7,414,057 4 3 the imitation of superiors, so natural to man: In the first term, total of West In-} 3,363,337 10 10 kind) spread the use of those manufactures hundreds of families around him, and in the second term,

-3,767,841 12 11 among occasion a much greater demand for them,

Increase, only £ 404,504 2 1 than it would do if he should remove and live in the first

tooni total for North.} 3,486,268 1 2 in London? However this may be, if in our

..7,414,057 4 3 views of immediate advantage, it seems pre- In the second term, ditto....... ferable, that the gentlemen of large fortunes

Increase, £ 3,927,789 3 1

West India Islands.

1745. .....534,316 2 5.
1747......726,648 5 5...

.830,243 16 9........

.503.669 19 9
.472,994 16 7
.856,463 18 6
.734,095 15 3

122,930 10 4

£ 3,486,268 1 2

West India Islands.

......694,667 13 3

Northern Colonies.
1754......1,246,615 1 11.
1755......1,177,848 6 10.
1756......1,428,720 18 10.
1757......1,727,924 2 10..

.1.832,948 13 10.


.......776,488 06 ........877,571 19 11

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I have already said, that our people in the Scotland) to Pennsylvania ;* a colony most renorthern colonies double in about 35 years, markable for the plain frugal manner of livexclusive of the accession of strangers. That ing of its inhabitants, and the most suspected I speak within bounds, I appeal to the authen- of carrying on manufactures, on account of tic accounts frequently required by the board the number of German artizans, who are of trade, and transmitted to that board by the known to have transplanted themselves into respective governors; of which accounts I shall that country; though even these, in truth, select one as a sample, being that from the when they come there, generally apply themcolony of Rhode Island* a colony that of all selves to agriculture, as the surest support the others receives the least addition froin and most advantageous employment. By strangers. For the increase of our trade to this account it appears, that the exports to that those colonies, I refer to the accounts fre- province have in 28 years, increased nearly quently laid before parliament, by the officers in the proportion of 17 to 1; whereas the of the customs, and to the custom-house books: people themselves, who by other authentic from which I have also selected one account,* accounts appear to double their numbers (the that of the trade from England exclusive of strangers who settle there included) in about

By these accounts it appears, that the exports to the 16 years, cannot in the 28 years have inWest India Islands, and to the northern colonies, were creased in a greater proportion than as 4 to in the first term nearly equal (the difference being only 1. The additional demand then, and con122,9361. 103. 44,) and in the second term, the exports to those islands had only increased 404,5041. 2. 14. sumption of goods from England, of 13 parts -Whereas the increase to the northern colonies is in 17 more than the additional number would 3,927,730.. 38. Id, almost four millions.

Some part of this increased demand for English goods require, must be owing to this; that the peomay be ascribed to the armies and fleets we have had ple having by their industry mended their both in North America and the West Indies; and so circumstances, are enabled to indulge themmuch for what is consumed by the soldiery; their cloth selves in finer clothes, better furniture, and a ing, stores, ammunition, &c., sent from hence on account of the governmeni, being (as is supposed) not in. more general use of all our manufactures than cluding in these accounts of merchandise exported; but heretofore. as the war has occasioned a great plenty of money in America, many of the inhabitants have increased their In fact, the occasion for English goods in N. B. These accounts do not include any exports and use them, is, and must be for ages to

North America, and the inclination to have from Scotland to America, which are doubtless propor. tionably considerable; nor the exports from Ireland. come, much greater than the ability of the

This is calculation carried on from where Dr. Frank people to pay for them; they must therefore, lin left it. For four years, from 1770 to 1773 inclusively, the same average annual exports to the same ports of as they now do, deny themselves many things the West Indies is 994.4631, and to the same ports of they would otherwise choose to have, or inthe North American plantations 2,919,6691. But the an. nual averages of the first and second terms of the for.

crease their industry to obtain them. And mer were 672,6631. and 753,5681. of the latter, 697,2541. thus, if they should at any time manufacture and 1,482,8111. In ten years therefore taking the middle years of the

some coarse article, which on account of its termy) the North American trade is found to have bulk or some other circumstance, cannot so doubled the West Indian; in the next sixteen years it well be brought to them from Britain ; it only becomes greater by three fold-With respect to itself, enables them the better to pay for finer goods, tremes of the terins) had quadrupled : while the West that otherwise they could not indulge themIndian trade increased only one half; of which increase selves in : so that the exports thither are not Jamaica alone gave something more than one third, chiefly in consequence of the quiet produced by the diminished by such manufacture, but rather peace with the Maroon negroes. Had the West Indian increased. The single article of manufacture trade continued stationary, the North American trade in these colonies, mentioned by the remarker, would have quadrupled with respect to it, in 20 years; and this, notwithstanding the checks given to the latter, is hats made in New England. It is true, by their non importation agreements and the encourage there have been, ever since the first settlement of their own manufactures.

There had been an accession to both these trades, ment of that country, a few hatters there; produced by the cessions at the treaty of Paris, not drawn thither probably at first by the facility port trade, from 1770 to 1773 inclusively, to the ceded of getting beaver, while the woods were but West India Islands, amounted to 258,2991. to the ceded North American territory it had been 280,4231. See Sir * An account of the value of the erports from England ta Charles Whitworth's State of Trade.

Pennsylvania, in one year, taken at different periods, * Copy of the report of governor Hopkins to the board of

trade, on the numbers of people in Rhode Island. In 1723 they amounted only to.. £ 15,992 194 In obedience to your lordship's commands, I have 1730 they were.

.49,597 5 caused the within account to be taken by officers under

.56,690 6 7 oath. By it there appears to be in this colony at this

.75.295 3 4 time 35,939 white persons, and 4697 blacks, chiefly ne. groes.

201,666 19 11 In the year 1730, by order of the then lords commis 1757.

968,426 6 6 sioners of trade and plantations, an account was taken N. B. The accounts for 1758 and 1759, were not thes of the number of people in this colony, and then there completed; but those acquainted with ihe North Ame appeared to be 15,302 white persons, and 2033 blacks. rican trade, know that the increase in those two years

Again in the year 1748, by like order, an account was had been in still greater proportion; the last year being taken of the number of people in this colony, by which supposed to exceed any former year hy a third: and this it appears there were at that time 29,755 white persons owing to the increased ability of the prople to spend and 4373 blacks.

STEPHEN HOPKINS. from ihe greater quantities of money eirculating among Colony of Rhode Island, Dec. 24, 1755.

them by the war. Vol. II. ...20



1747. 1752.

.82,404 17 7

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