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close remarks on the bypocrisy of this country, which encourages such a detestable commerce by laws for promoting the Guinea trade; while it piqued itself on its virtue, love of liberty, and the equity of its courts in setting free a single pegro. This was inserted in the London Chronicle of the 20th of June last.-I thank you for the Virginia address, which I shall also publish with some remarks. I am glad to hear that the disposition against keeping negroes grows more general in North America. Several pieces have been lately printed here against the practice, and I hope in time it will be taken into consideration and suppressed by the legislature. Your labors have already been attended with great effects : I hope therefore you and your friends will be encouraged to proceed: my hearty wishes of success attend you, being ever, my dear friend, Yours affectionately,
To Dr. PRIESTLEY. Moral Algebra, or Method of deciding doubtful Matters
with oneself DEAR SIR,
London, September 19, 1772. In the affair of so much importance to you, wherein you ask my advice, I cannot, for want of sufficient premises, counsel you what to determine ; but if you please, I will tell
When those difficult cases occur, they you are difficult chiefly because, while we have them under consideration, all the reasons pro and con are not present to the
mitous state of the enslaved negroes in the British dominions. In 1772, he published Historical Accounts of Guinea; with an Inquiry into the Rise and Progress of the Slave-Trade, its nature and lamentable effects. This amiable man seemed to have nothing else at heart but the good of his fellow-creatures ; and the last act of his life was to take from his desk six dollars for a poor widow.
mind at the same time, but sometimes one set present themselves; and at other times another, the first being out of sight. Hence the various purposes or inclinations that alternately prevail, and the uncertainty that perplexes us. To get over this, my way is, to divide half a sheet of paper by a line into two columns : writing over the one pro, and over the other con; then during three or four days' consideration, I put down under the different heads, short hints of the different motives that at different times occur to me, for or against the measure. When I have thus got them all together in one view, I endeavor to estimate their respective weights, and where I find two, (one on each side) that seemi equal, I strike them both out. If I find a reason pro equal to somé two reasons con, I strike out the three. If I judge some two reasons con equal to some three reasons pro, I strike out the five; and thus proceeding, I find at length where the balance lies; and if after a day or two of farther consideration, nothing new that is of importance occurs on either side, I come to a determination accordingly. And though the weight of reasons cannot be taken with the precision of algebraic quantities, yet, when each is thus considered separately and comparatively, and the whole lies before me, I think I can judge better, and am less liable to make a rash step; and in fact I have found great advantage from this kind of equation, in what may be called moral or prio dential algebra.
Wishing sincerely that you may determine for the best, I am ever, my dear friend,
yours most affectionately, B. FRANKLIN
Dissenters' Petition.- America known to the Europeans
before Columbus. REVEREND Sir,
London, July 7, 1773. By a line of the 4th past, I acknowledged the receipt of your favor of March 18, and sent you with it two pamphlets. I now add another, a spirited address to the bishops who opposed the dissenters' petition. It is written by a dissenting minister at York. There is preserved at the end of it, a little fugitive piece of mine on the same occasion.
I perused your tracts with pleasure : I see you inherit all the various learning of your famous ancestors, Cotton and Increuse Mather. The father Increase, I once heard preach at the Old South Meeting for Mr. Pemberton; and remember his mentioning the death of “that wicked old persecutor of God's people, Lewis the XIV;" of which news had just been received; but which proved premature. I was some years afterwards at his house at the north end on some errand to him, and remember him sitting in an easy chair apparently very old and feeble. But Cotton I remember in the vigor of his preaching and usefulness.
You have made the most of your argument, to prove that America might be known to the ancients. There is another discovery of it claimed by the Norwegians, which you have not mentioned, unless it be under the words " of old viewed and observed,” page 7. About twenty-five years since, Professor Kalm, a learned Swede, was with us in Pennsylvania, He contended, that America was discovered by their northern people, long before the time of Columbus; which I doubting, he drew up and gave me some time after, a note of those
discoveries, which I send you enclosed. It is his own handwriting, and his own English; very intelligible for the time
· This paper is wanting. We subjoin, however, another account of the discovery of America, which has lately appeared.
Brussells, Dec. 4, 1816. In the last number of the Magazine for the Sciences, Arts, und Leiters, published in Dutch at Amsterdam, it is proved from new documeats that are very authentic, that it is not to Columbus or to Vespatius that we owe the discovery of America, but to Martin Bevens, a native of Nuremberg in Franconia. He was a most learned geographer, astronomer, and navigator. He sailed in 1459, with a vessel equipped by the orders of Isabella, daughter of John II., King of Portugal, who was at that time governess of Burgundy and Flanders. He first discovered Fayal, with the adjacent islands called the Azores, which bore for a long time the name of the “ Isle of tlve Flemings." He inhabited for 20 years that city, where he established a colony of Flemings. Eight years before the expedition of Columbus, in 1484, he secretly applied to John II., who equipped a flotilla to give him all kinds of succors. Behens first discovered the Brazils, penetrated as far as the Straits of Magellan, and visited the country inhabited by the Patagonians. He made a map of his discoveries, delivered it to the King, and sent a copy of it to Nuremberg, his native city, where it is still preserved in the archives of the city. It was after the inspection of this map that Columbus undertook his expedition.-(From the Journal de lu Belgique, Dec. 5, 1816.)
The honor of this discovery has also been claimed by the Icelanders.
“ The Icelandic chronicles or annals, are in general very exact in relating their maritime expeditions in the northern seas, and even in preserving the adventurers' names. The following account stands on the testimony of Torsæus, and Angrim Jonas, two writers of undoubted credit, who have faithfully copied the old historians of their country.
"There was,' say they, an Icelander, named Heriol, who, with his son Biarn, made every year a trading voyage to different countries, and generally wintered in Norway. Tlappening in the year 1001, to
he had been among us. The circumstances give the account a great appearance of authenticity. And if one may judge
be separated from each other, the son steered his course for Norway, where he supposed he should meet his father ; but on his arrival there, he found he was gone to Greenland, a country lately discovered, and little known to the Norwegians, but which was settled by Eric Rufus, a young Norwegian nobleman, in the year 999, and before the eleventh century, churches were founded, and a bishopric created at Garde, the capital of the settlement. Biarn determined to follow his. father, set sail for Greenland ; although,' says Angrim, he had nobody on board who could direct him in the voyage, nor any instructions to guide him: so great was the courage of the ancient mariners. He steered by his observation of the stars, and from a remembrance of what he had heard of the direction in which the place he was in search of lay. During the three first days, he stood to the west, but the wind varying to the north, and blowing strong, he was forced to run to the southward. The wind died away in about 24 hours, when they discovered land at a distance, which, as they approached, appeared flat and low, and covered with wood; for which reason he would not go on shore, being convinced that it was not Greenland. They then stood to the north-west, and observed a bite of the sea which formed an island, but did not put in there. After some days they arrived safe in Greenland. In the summer of 1002, Biarn, accompanied by Lief the son of Eric Rufus, who had discovered Greenland, set out on a voyage to the land he had before seen, but after sailing about in various directions, they returned without any success. They however wintered in a place where the temperature of the air was mild, and the land fertile, producing fine grapes, from which they named it Vineland. The following year, a ship was sent out to push the discovery still further, but being overtaken by a storm, she was much damaged, and returned.'
« The Norwegians continued to visit Vineland yearly, and by this means partly established themselves as a colony there. This appears to be a fact well attested, but to settle the geography of that country is not so universally agreed upon. To succeed in an inquiry of his kind, we should know what part of America lies nearest to Green land, and by what nations it is inhabited,