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modern times, is matter of history: Napoleon died rapid circulation of that inward fluid, which gives in excommunication, and yet a priest attended him, lite and glory to the entire fabric. and the circumstance is scarcely mentioned, of so Of all the different systems in the human body, little importance is it esteemed.

the use and necessity are not more apparent, than The Greek and Roman Catholic churches both the wisdom and contrivance, which has been exertmake use of the anathema. In the latter, it can be ed in putting them all into the most compact and pronounced only by a pope, council, or some of the convenient form; in disposing them so that they superior clergy. The subject of the anathema is shall mutually receive and give helps from one andeclared an outcast from the Catholic Church, all other; and that all, or many, of the parts, shall not Catholics are forbidden to associate with him, and only answer their principal end or purpose, but utter destruction is denounced against bim, both operate successfully and usefully in a variety of soul and body.

secondary ways. If we consider the whole animal

machine in this light, and compare it with any, in ANATOMY. This word is of Greek origin and which human art has exerted its utnost skill, (suppose means to dissect; more particularly as applied to the the best constructed ship that ever was built,) we shall human frame. The dissection of other animals, be convinced, beyond the possibility of doubt, that and comparing them with the human body, is call- there exists intelligence and power far surpassing ed comparative anatomy. The dissection of the what human art can boast of. One superiority in human body was but little practised by the ancients. the animal machine is peculiarly striking. In maThe old Egyptians held it in great abhorrence, and chines of human contrivance, or of art, there is no even pursued with stoves those men, who, in em- internal power, no principle in the thing itself

, by balming the dead, were obliged to cut open their which it can alter and accommodate itself to any bodies. The Greeks were prevented by the princi- injury that it niny suffer, or make up any injury that ples of their religion from studying anatomy, since admits of repair: but in the natural machine, or these required them to bury bodies of the deceased animal body, this is most wonderfully provided' for as soon as possible. Even in the time of Hippoc- by the internal powers of the machine itself, many rates, anatomical knowledge was imperfect, and of which are not more certain and obvious in their was probably derived froni the dissection of ani- effects, than they are above all human comprehenmals.

sion, as to the manner and means of their operation. The utility of anatomy is such, that no one who Thus, a wound heals up of itself; a broken bone is gives the subject the least reflection, will deny its made firm again by a callus; a dead part is separatparamount iinportance to the wellbeing of man. ed and thrown off; noxious juices are driven out Who would trust a surgeon to amputate a limb, if he by some of the emunctories; a redundancy is rewere not convinced that the surgeon was well ac- moved by some spontaneous bleeding; a bleeding quainted with the structure of that upon which he naturally stops of itself; and a great loss of blood, operates? As, therefore, a knowledge of anatomy from any cause, is in some measure compensated by is essential to the education of a medical man, and a contracting power in the muscular system, which inost of all of a surgeon, it is evident that such accommodates the capacity of the vessel to the knowledge cannot be obtained without practice up- quantity contained. The stomach gives information on dead bodies, in order that such knowledge may when the supplies have been expended; represents, be acquired. Considerable repugnance, among the with great exactness, the quantity and quality of inoderns, as well as among the ancients—among what is wanted in the present state of the machine; Christians as well as among heathens, has always and, in proportion as she meets with neglect, rises been manifested, by the illiterate and uninformed, in her demand, urges her petition in a louder tone, to the dissection of the dead; but it is sincerely and with more forcible arguments. For its protechoped that, as knowledge becomes more diffiised, tion, an animal body resists heat and cold in a very and the conviction of its absolute necessity more wonderful manner, and preserves an equal tempergenerally prevails, such prejudices will in time be ature in a burning and in a freezing atmosphere. done away; and that, while anatomy be pursued These are powers which mock all human invention with decency and privacy, and some restrictions or imitation: they are characteristics of the Divine removed which now prevent the obtaining of sub- Architect ! jects, anatomical dissection will be rendered at once, and forever, legitimate, respectable, and mer- ANCESTORS. All nations, in any way civiitorious.

lized, have paid respect to the memory of their anThe study of anatomy is useful to the Christian cestors. Some have gone so far as to offer them and the philosopher as well as to the practitioner in religious homage. All the Asiatic nations are proud surgery and medicine. Every part of natural science of a long line of ancestors. The Bible abounds in is calculated to impress the inind with the unboun- genealogies, and modern travellers observe that the ded wisdom and goodness of the Deity. We can- same pride of descent still prevails in the East. not survey his works without being led to admire Men of rank are there frequently entertained with them. In admiring them we are led to aspire after songs in praise of their ancestors,--a custom which the excellency in which they were conceived, and prevailed in Greece and Rome, and throughout Euby which they are sustained. And, in no portion rope in the middle ages. The Egyptians are known of his works, is this more evidently true, than in the to have paid particular attention to the bodies of contemplation of the human body. Nor is it easy their deceased relations; but no nation ever reverto say, which is most wonderful; the mechanical ed their ancestors in such a degree as the Chinese, skill displayed in every part of the skeleton; the di- whom Confucius directed to offer them sacrifice. versified muscular power with which it is clothed Filial love, in fact, is one of the essential elements and made capable of motion; or, the unceasing of the Chinese religion, politics, and domestic life. Esteem for parents and ancestors is so natural to man empire. The first empire, after the flood, was all mankind, that many, if they quarrel, as the readi- the Assyrian, whose capital was Ninevel, which est way of insulting an antagonist, will attack the was founded by Ashur, the grandson of Noah. The honor of his mother, the honesty of his father, or the ambitious wars of the Assyrians during five hundred general character of the family from which he is years, threw Asia into confusion. At length Babydescended. The inhabitants of the United States, ion of the Chaldees, from being the vassal of Nineand perhaps of New England, particularly, are not- veh, became her rival, and the seat of a new empire; ed for the esteem in which they hold their pro- and the Medes, sometime after shook off their yoke, genitors. This is indeed natural, for it seldom and dispossessed the Assyrians their former masters; happens that the happiness of a generation, both whose last king was Sardanapulus, the most effemsocial and individual, is so prominently referable to inate and debauched among human beings. The a line of ancestry, as in our own case. The civil, transfer of empire from the Assyrians to the Medes religious, and literary institutions of this country, so happened about nine hundred years before the nafrequently the subjects of eulogy, are the result tivity of our Saviour. The famous Cyrus, whose of that untiring enterprize, and that manly virtue, father was a Persian, and his mother the daughter whichi characterized the American pilgriins. We of Astyages, king of Media and sovereign over Asmay well glory in such a descent. For, notwith- syria, put an end to the Chaldean empire by the constanding the intellectual and moral defects of the age quest of Babylon; and afterwards driving Astyages, in which they lived, and of the country from which his grandfather, from his throne and kingdoms, he they emigrated-efects, in which it might be pre- united Media, Assyria and Chaldea, to Persia, and sumed they would of course partake, it cannot be thus raised the Persian empire to a prodigious greatdenied, that the first Europeans who planted them- ness. The Persians, under Cyrus, within the space selves in this then wilderness, ranked high for what of thirty years, extended their conquests from the enobles the human character.

river Indus to the Mediterranean sea. About three

hundred and thirty years before our Saviour's birth, ANCHOR. A heavy, strong, crooked instrument Persia was conquered by Alexander the Great; and of iron, cast or dropped fioni a ship into the water, to the Macedonian empire arose to a vast height of retain her in a convenient station in a harbor, road, power and splendor. This empire, which was or river. - Anchors were originally mere weights: spread in Asia, Europe and Africa, was crumbled to at present they are intended to fisien in the ground pieces, and brought into subjection by the Romans ; as hooks. They are contrived so as to sink into the who extended their dominion, for a long time, over earth us soon as they reach it, and to hold a great almost all parts of the known world. In the fifili strain before they can be loosened or dislodged. century, the western Roman empire was overrun They are composed of a shank, a stock, a ring, and and subdued by innumerable hordes of wandering two arms withi Nukes. The stock, which is a long shepherds, called Goths, Vandals, and Huns, from piece of timber fixed across the shank, serves to the forests of Germany, north of the Danube. Each guide the flukes in a direction perpendicular to the of these empires had been a mighty oppressor and surface of the ground; so that one of them sinks scourge to the human race; and each, in its turn, into it by its own weight, as soon as it falls, and is only the Persian excepted) has by the overruling still preserved steadily in that position by the stock, hand of Providence, been utterly wiped off from wbich, together with the shank, lies flat on the bot: the face of the earth.

In this situation, it must necessarily sustain a great effort before it can be dragged through the ANCIENT LANGUAGES. Much has been earth horizontally.

said, and much may always be said, for and against

the study of what are called the dead languages; ANCHOVY. A small fish of the herring genus. such as Hebrew, Greek, and Latin, which are now It is found in great abundance in the Mediterranean, only to be met with in books. A liberal man will, on the coasts of England, France, and Holland, perhaps, wholly join with neither the one disputant whither they come in immeuse shoals, like the larger nor the other. In all cases, those who give their herrings, for the purpose of spawning. The fisher- thoughts to the past, to the neglect of the present men provide themselves with floats, upon which a fire are to be blamed. If history is interesting; if antiis made, and these are placed, at different distances, quities, the documents of history, are interesting, over a very conside ble extent of sea.

then ancient languages must be interesting also. chovies approach these lights, and collect near them This agreed, the man who spends his life in studyin vast multitudes, when the fishermen silently sur- ing languages, if he communicates bis remarks, is round them with their nets, extinguish the tire, and by no means a useless member of the community; begin to beat upon the water. The frightened fish and if he does not, he is, so far, at least, as liis study immediately endeavor to make their escape, and, is concerned, an inoffensive one. He is, indeed, but rushing against the net, are caught by the meshes, a collector, a fitter, and polisher of the materials, which, passing over their gills, veither allow them with which a more lofty, but less patient genius, to advance, nor retreat. The fisherinen, as soon as erects bis fabric; and the passer by, no doubt, will the net appears sufficiently full, raise it, and remove forget the laborer while he praises the architect. the fish, and go to repeat their operations at the All men are prone to despise the pursuits, with the next light.

use or beauty of which they are unacquainted;

and it has been said, “ we may be allowed to revile ANCIENT EMPIRES. The most celebrated what we do not understand :" yet the linguist neiancient empires were the Assyrian, the Chaldean, the ther deserves the contempt, nor needs the compassion, Median, the Persian, the Macedonian, and the Ro- 1 of his spectators. He has his gratifications; and he

tom.

The an

may be left imdisturbed in a pursuit, which will dressed in a Turkish babit, and sitting behind a tanever give a rival to the merchant in his wealth, nor ble three feet and a half in length, two in depth, and to the poet in his fame.

two and a half in height, and running on four

wheels. The androides sits on a chair that is fixed ANCIENT LEARNING. Interested as we to the table, on which he leans his right arm, holdare in the history of man, we cannot be indifferent ing in his left a pipe or rod. In this state the mato those writings which have come down to us froin chine is moved about the room, that it may be ancient times. If we are unacquainted with ancient inspected, internally as well as externally: Nothing learning, we can scarcely avoid error in our estimate however is seen, but wheels, levers, cylinders and of its value: we shall probably reverence it too other pieces of mechanism. All this preparation much or too little. Certainly, neither ancient learn- being made, the automaton is ready to play, and it ing, nor any thing else that is ancient, is essential to always takes the first move. At every motion the the education of a good member of society; but it wheels are heard, the figure moves its head, and is very essential to taste, without a certain mixture seems to look over every part of the chess-board. of which, all the ingredients of society must soon When it checks the queen, it shakes its head twice, become horribly nauseous. While, on the one hand, and thrice in giving check to the king. It likewise however, it does not appear rational to join with shakes its head when a false move is made, replaces those who would banish an inquiry into ancient the piece, and takes the move from the adversary, learning from among the number of human studies; usually, although not always, winning the game. it is, on the other, most undoubtedly true, that the Maillardel, a native of Switzerland, has constructattainments of the ancients are frequently overrated. ed several androides of unrivalled excellence. One We have availed ourselves of their discoveries; we of these represents a beautiful female seated at a pihave perceived many of their mistakes; and though ano forte, on which she performs eighteen tunes. we may have lost part of their lessons, and commit- Independent of the execution of the music, which ted new errors of our own, still it is absurd to sup- is produced by the actual pressure of her fingers on pose that we have not surpassed them.

the keys, all her motions are elegant and graceful,

and so nearly imitating life, that even on a near apANDROIDES. A machine resembling the hu- proach the deception can hardly be discovered. man figure, and so contrived as to imitate certain mo- Before commencing a tune, she makes a gentle intions or actions of the living man. It is considered clination with her head, as if saluting the auditors; as the most perfect or difficult of the automata or and remains seemingly intent on the performance. self moving engines; because the motions of the hu- Her bosom heaves, her eyes move, and appear as man body are more complicated than those of any natural to follow her fingers over the keys, as if it other living creature. Hence the construction of an were real animation. The hands regulate the natuandroides, in such a manner as to imitate any of ral tones only, for the flats and sharps are played by these motions with exactness, is justly considered as pedals, on which the feet operate. It is likewise to one of the highest.

be observed, that although the instrument resenibles Friar Bacon and Albertus Magnus both exercised a piano forte, it is in fact an organ, the bellows of their ingenuity in the construction of androides, which are blown by particular parts of the machiwhich appeared so wonderful to the ignorant mul- nery. The movements of this figure are effected titude, as to draw upon their inventors the danger- by means of six large springs, which, when comous imputation of being addicted to magic. Bacon pletely wound up, will preserve their action during constructed a brazen figure, it is said, capable of an hour. Twenty-five leaders or communications speaking; and Albertus Magnus formed an artificial produce the different motions of the body, and man, in the construction of which he spent thirty others proceeding from the centre of motion, are years of his life. This, we are told, was broken to distributed to the different parts of the instrument. pieces by Aquinas, who came to see it, purposely It was valued by the builder at six or eight thousand that he might boast how in one minute he had ren- dollars; which may in some respect prove the extent dered fruitless the labor of so many years.

of the labor and ingenuity in framing it. It is now very common to see androides, exhibit- Another piece of mechanism by the same artist ed, which are capable of imitating various actions has excited general curiosity. A figure, who is to of the human body, such as writing, drawing, play- answer to certain questions, appears seated at the ing on musical instruments, and the like. The wri- bottom of the wall. He is gravely habited, personting androides consists of a machine resembling the ating a magician or soothsayer, and holding a wand human figure, placed at a table, with a pen or pen- in one hand, and a book in the other. The quescil in its hand, and paper before it. The spectator tions ready prepared are inscribed on open medalis desired to dictate any word at pleasure, which is lions, one of which is put in a drawer, standing open instantly written by the androides in a fair and legi- to receive it, which shuts with a spring, until the ble hand. All this appears very wonderful, but no- answer is returned. Supposing a medallion with thing is more easily accomplished; for the androides the following question, is put into the drawer, What is placed near the partition of the room, behind is it that last deserts mankind? The figure rises, which an assistant it stationed, within hearing of all bows his head, draws circles with his wand, and that passes. It is this assistant that directs the hand consults the book, which he lifts towards the face. of the androides, by machinery, which passes from Thus apparently having spent sometime in study, its body, beneath the floor, into the next apartment. he raises his wand, and striking with it the wall

The celebrated automaton chess-player, exhibited, above his head, two folding doors fly open, and disa few years since, in many of the principal cities of play the answer to the question, namely, Hope. The this country, was another instance of this astonishing doors close, the magiciun resumes his original posimechanical skill. It was a figure as large as life, tion, and the drawer opens to return the medallion. There are twenty different medallions, all in which they had lately taken in their nets. With scribed with different questions, to which different nice execution they obeyed his orders. Every time answers are given with amazing precision. These he drew up his line, he succeeded. The cunning medallions are thin brass ellipses, exactly resembling Cleopatra, in rapturous language, extolled his art, each other in every respect; where the mechanism his address, and his fortune. Acquainted, how: must be of extreme nicety, to make the question and ever, with his artifice, she had recourse to the ingeanswer invariably correspond. Should the drawer nious stratagem of desiring one of her own attendbe shut when empty, the soothsayer rises, consults his ants to dive secretly, and attach to his hook a large books, shakes bis head, and seats himself again; the dried Pontian fish. At last, when pulling up the folding doors do not fly open, and the drawer is line, at the sight of the heavy salted fish, the specreturned empty. If two medallions are put in tators expressed their surprise by a loud laugh. together, an answer is given only to one, which Antony did not relish the joke, and seemed highly is the lowest. Some medallions bear a question in- displeased. The queen observing him in this scribed on each side, which are both answered in mood, immediately took him in her arms, and succession with some certainty.

fondly exclaimed, “ Leave, my dear general, ang

ling, to us petty princes of Pharos and Canopus ; ANEMOMETER. An instrument or machine your game is cities, kingdoms, and provinces.' for measuring the force and velocity of the wind. Among no people has this art attracted so much It derives its name from two Greek words, one sig- attention, and nowhere have so many persons of all nifying wind, and the other to measure.

classes, both clerical and secular, resorted to ang

ling as an amusement, as in England, whose literANEMOSCOPE. Every contrivance which in- ature is richer than that of any other country, in dicates the direction of the wind is called by this works relating to this sport, both in prose and verse. name. The vane upon towers and roofs is the A similar fondness for angling exists in the United simplest of all anemoscopes. There are some also, States. In both countries, England and North where the vanes turn a moveable spindle, which America, angling is followed by many sportsmen descends through the roof to the chamber where with a kind of passion. In the latter country there the observation is made. On the ceiling of this is a great number of rivers rich in fish, and the angapartment a compass-card is fixed, and, whilst the ler has perfect liberty to prosecute his favorite wind turns the vane together with the spindle, an amusement at pleasure. The best months for angindex, fixed below, points out the direction of the ling are from April to October; the time of the day wind on a card. Some are so made as, even in early in the morning, or in the evening of hot days. the absence of the observer, to note down the changes of the wind.

ANGORA GOAT. A species of goat, so call

ed, because found in its highest excellence, in the ANGEL. Literally a messenger; particularly, neighborhood of Angora, a city of ancient Syria. the heavenly messengers sent by God, as ministers They are of a dazzling white color, and, in all, the to execute his commands.

hair is very long, thick, fine, and glossy; which is

indeed the case with almost all the animals of Syria. ANGEL. A gold coin, in value ten shillings, There is a great number of these animals about Anhaving the figure of an angel stamped upon it, in gora, where the inhabitants drive a trade with their commemoration of the saying of Pope Gregory, that hair, which is sold either raw or manufactured, into the English were so beautiful that they would be all the parts of Europe. Nothing can exceed the Angeli, not Angli, if they were Christiavs.

beauty of the stuffs which are made from the hair

of almost all the animals of that country. These ANGLE. In geometry, angle denotes the space are well known by the name of camlet. The great comprised between two straight lines that meet in antiquity of this kind of manufacture is evident ; as a point, or between two straight converging lines, we are told in sacred scripture, that the curtains of which, if extended, would meet; or the quantity by Moses's tabernacle were made of goat's hair, probawhich two straight lines, departing from a point, that of the Angora goat. diverge froin each other. The point of meeting is the vertex of the angle, and the lines, containing the ANIMAL. In natural history, an organized and angle, are its sides or legs.

living body, endowed with sensation. Minerals in

crease; plants grow and live; but animals have the ANGLING. Taking fish by a hook is called power of locomotion, of seeking and appropriating angling. This art has been long known, and al- nourishment. though we cannot trace it to its origin, yet we may see from scripture, and some of the old classic wri- ANIMAL HEAT. The property of all animals, ters, that it has been a very ancient sport. The by means of which they preserve a certain temperaprophet Isaiah speaks of casting angles into the ture, which is quite independent of that of the medibrooks.

um by which they are surrounded, and appears A very amusing story is told us, by Plutarch, rather to be in proportion to the degree of sensibility of Mark Antony, who was a skilful angler. One and irritability possessed by them. It is greatest in day, while Cleopatra and he were indulging in this birds. The more free and independent the animal sport, he was unusually unsuccessful. Hurt at is, the more uniform is its temperature. On this his disappointment in the presence of his mistress, account, the human species preserves a temperature he gave secret orders, to some of his fishermen, to nearly equal, about 96—100° Fahr., in the frozen dive under water, and to fasten unseen, to his hook, regions at the pole, and beneath the equator; and some of the finest and largest fishes, still alive, and I on this account, too, the heat of the human body

remains the same when exposed to the most extreme naked eye. All parts of the terraqueous globe, the degrees of temperature; in faci, cold at first rather air, the earth, and water, swarm with living crea-, elevates, and extreme heat rather depresses the tem- tures, which are so small as to be seen only by the perature of the human body. Fordyce and Blag- help of glasses. Lewenhoek reckoned up some den endured the temperature of an oven beated thousands of animalcules, furnished with fins, in a almost to redness, and two girls in. France entered a single drop of water. Others have been found, baker's oven heated to 269° Fahr., in which fruits whose feet are armed with claws, on the body of the were soon dried up, and water boiled. A Spaniard, fly, and on that of a flea. It is credible from analFrancisco Martinez by name, exhibited himself

, a ogy, that there are animals, or animalcules, feeding short time since, at Paris, in a stove heated to 279° on the leaves of plants, like cattle in our meadows; of Fahr., and threw himself

, immediately after, into which repose under the shade of a down impercepcold water. Blagden was exposed in an oven to a tible to the naked eye. heat of 257°, in which water boiled, though covered with oil. There is also a remarkable instance of a ANNALS. In matters of literature, a species of similar endurance of heat by the convulsionaries, as history, which relates events in the chronological orthey were called, upon the grave of St. Medardus, der wherein they happened. They differ from perin France. A certificate signed by several eye- fect bistory in this, that anyals are a bare relation of witnesses, among whom were Armand, Arouet, the what passes every day; whereas history relates not brother of Voltaire, and a Protestant nobleman from only the transactions themselves, but also the causPerth, states that a woman named la Sonet, sur- es, motives, and springs of action. Annals require named the Salamander, lay upon a fire nine minutes nothing but brevity, history demands ornament. at a time, which was repeated four times within two hours, making in all, thirty-six nujnutes, during ANNEALING. This is a process particularly which time fifteen sticks of wood were consumed. employed in glass-houses, and consists in putting The correctness of the fact stated is allowed even the glass vessels, as soon as they are formed, and by those opposed to the abuses in which it origina- while they are yet hot, into a furnace or oven, not ted. The fames sometimes united over the wo- sq hot as to remelt them, in which they are suffered man, who seemed to sleep; and the whole miracle to cool gradually. This is found to prevent their is to be attributed to the insensibility of the skin and breaking so easily as they otherwise would, particunerves, occasioned by a fit of religious insanity. larly when exposed to heat. Unannealed glass, These facts are the results of a law of all living sub- when broken, often flies into powder, with great stances, viz. that the temperature of the living body violence, and, in general, is in more danger of breakcannot be raised above certain limits, which nature ing from a very slight stroke than from one of has fixed. There is also an increased flow of per- considerable force. An upannealed glass vessel spiration, by means of which the heat of the body is will often resist the effect of a pistol-bullet dropped carried off. The extreme degrees of cold which are into it; yet a grain of sand, falling into it, will make constantly endured by the human frame without in- it burst into small fragments, and, which is very sinjury are well known, and are to be explained only gular, it will often not burst until several minutes by this power in the living body to generate and afier being struck. preserve its own heat. The greater the irritability of individuals, whether from age, sex, or peculiarity ANNOTATION. This, in matters of literature, of constitution, the greater the warmth of the body: is a brief commentary, or remark upon a book or it seems also to depend, in part, upon the quickness writing, in order to clear up some passage, or draw of the circulation of the blood : thus children and up some conclusion from it. Thus Annotations small animals, whose circulation is lively, feel the have been written upon the Bible; and, thus the cold least. The heat and the power of preserving critics of the last age have made learned annotations it, differ also in the different parts of the body ; upon all the classics. those appearing to be warmest, in which there is the most copious supply of blood, as the brain, the head ANNUAL. An epithet for whatever happens and neck, the lungs and central parts of the body. every year, or lasts a year. Thus in Botany, plants We see, also, that when the irritability of the body, that rise from seed sown in the spring, arrive at maor of any part of it, is particularly increased the heat turity in the summer or autumn following, producof the part undergoes a similar change. Increased ing flowers and ripe seed, and which afterwards activity and motion of the body, as in walking, run- perish in their tops and roots, are commonly rening, &c., and diseases of increased excitement, as garded as annuals, fever and inflammation, produce a similar increase in the temperature of the body. All this justifies ANNUITIES. In the strict meaning of the the conclusion, that animal heat depends chiefly up- term, annuity signifies a stated sum of money payon the irritability of the body, and is thus most in- able at regular periods, and derived from a fund, or timately connected with the state of the nervous source, in which the annuitant has no further propsystem. This view is confirmed by the late exper- erty than the claim for the payment of his annuity. iments of Brodic, who ascribed this power of the Annuities are generally divided into two classes, living body to the influence of the brain. He destroy- called certain and contingent ; the former meaning ed the brain of a rabbit, and kept up the respiration such as commence at a fixed time, and continue for by artificial means; but the heat of the animal reg- a determinate number of years; the latter, those ularly diminished.

whose commencement, or continuance, depend on

some contingency, such as the life or death of some ANIMALCULES. Extremely small animals, particular person or persons. Life annuities, as they generally applied to such as are not visible to the are termed, are often created by contract, whereby

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