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Inur'd to hardfhip, and to homely fare.
Nor venerable age is wanting there,
In great examples to the youthful train :
Nor are the Gods ador'd with rites profane.
From hence Afirea took her flight, and here
The prints of her departing steps appear.

Virgil begins his third book with an invocation to some of the rural deities, and then, after complimenting Auguftus, addresses himself to Mecænas, and enters on his subject; which contains rules for the breeding and management of horses, oxen, sheep, goats, and dogs : and with these rules are interwoven descriptions of cha. riot races, of the battle of the bulls, of the force of love, and of the Scythian winter. He then speaks of the diseases incident to cattle, and concludes this Georgic with the description of a fatal murrain, which had raged among the Alps.

The whole book is wrought up with great art, and the descriptions in particular are extremely beautiful. His rules for training up young calves to the yoke, and of breaking horses to the different employments they were intended for, are also very happily expreffed.

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The calf by nature and by genius made
To turn the glebe, breed to the rural trade.
Set him betimes to school ; and let him be
Instructed there in rules of husbandry ;
While yet his youth is flexible and green';
Nor bad examples of the world has seen.
Early begin the stubborn child to break;
For his soft neck, a supple collar make
Of bending ofiers ; and (with time and care
Inu.'d that easy servitude to bear)
Thy flatt'ring method on the youth pursue :
Join'd with his school. fellows by two and two,
Persuade 'em first to lead an empty wheel,
That scarce the dust can raise or they can feel :
In length of time produce the lab'ring yoke
And shining shares, that make the furrow smoke.
Ere the licentious youth be thus restrain’d,
Os moral precepts on their minds have gain'd;

Their wanton appetites not only feed
With delicates of leaves, and marshy weed,
But with thy sickle reap the rankest land,
And minister the blade, with bounteous hand.
Nor be with harmful parsimony won
To follow what our homely fires have done ;
Who fill'd the pail with beestings of the cow,
But all the udder to the calf allow.

If to the warlike fteed thy studies bend,
Or for the prize in chariots to contend ;
Near Pild's flood the rapid wheels to guide,
Or in Olympian groves aloft to ride,
The gen'rous labours of the courser first
Must be with light of arms and sounds of trumpets nurst,
Inur’d the groaning axle-tree to bear ;
And let him clashing whips in ftables hear.
Sooth him with praise, and make him understand
The loud applauses of his master's hand :
This from his weaning, let him

well be taught ;
And then betimes in a soft snaffle wrought :
Before his tender joints with nerves are knit ;
Untry'd in arms, and trembling at the bit ;
But when to four full Springs his years advance,
Teach him to run the round, with pride to prance ;
And (rightly manag’d) equal time to beat,
To turn, to bound in measure, and curvet.
Let him, to this, with easy pains be brought :
And seem to labour.when he labours not.
Thus, form'd to speed he challenges the wind;
And leaves the Scythian arrow far behind :
He scours along the field, with loosen'd reins ;
And treads so light, he scarcely prints the plains,
Like Boreas in his race, when rushing forth,
He sweeps the skies, and clears the cloudy north :
The waving harvest bends beneath his blast;
The forest shakes, the groves their honours cast;
He flies aloft, and with impetuous roar
Pursues the foaming surges to the shore.
Thus o’er the Elean plains, thy well-breath'd horse
Impels the flying cars, and wins the course.
Or, bred to Belgian waggons, leads the way;
Untir’d at night, and chearful all the day.

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When once he's broken, feed him full and high,
Indulge his growth, and his gaunt fides fupply.
Before his training, keep him poor and low
For his stout fomach with his food will grow ;
The pamper'd cold will discipline disdain,
Impatient of the lash, and reftiff to the rein.

The description which he has given us of a war-horse is (excepting that contained in the book of. Job) the most animated and beautiful that ever was drawn..

The fiery courser, when he hears from får, The sprightly trumpets and the shouts of war, Pricks up his ears, and trembling with delight, Shifts place, and paws, and hopes the promis'd fight: On his right shoulder his thick mane reclin'd, Ruffles at speed, and dances in the wind: His horny hoofs are jetty black, and round; His chine is double, starting with a bound: He turns the turff, and stakes the folid ground: Fire from his eyes, clouds from his nostrils flow : He bears his rider headlong on the foe.

The description he has given us of the distemper among the cattle, and the wonderful change it wrought in the disposition of animals, by making those who were of contrary natures, and obnoxious to each other grow familiar and herd together, is very finely, and very af fectingly expressed; especially this part of it.

Lo! while he toils the galling yoke beneath,
Foaming black blood, the bullock finks in death :
The penfive hind the brother-steer relieves,
Who faithful for his loft companion grieves,
And the fix'd share amid the furrow leaves.
Mean time, nor graffy mead, nor lofty grove,
The mournful mate's afflicted mind can move :
Nor yet from rocks delicious streams that roll
As amber clear, can sooth his forrowing foul;
His flanks Aow loose, his eyes grow dim and dead;
And low to earth he hangs his heavy head.

Ah! what avails his ceaseless useful toil?
What boots it to have gurn'd the stubborn foil ?


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Yet ne'er choice massie wines debauch'd his taste,
Ne'er did he riot in the rich repast;
His food is leafy browze, and nature's grass,
His draught fresh rills, that thro' the meadows pass,
Or torrent rushing from the rocky steep;
Nor care difturbs his falutary sleep.

Then cars were drawn, while fail'd th'accustom?d kine,
By ill-pair'd buffaloes, to Juno's shrine.
And men with harrows toil?d to till the plain,
And with their nails dug in the golden grain ;
The rattling waggon's galling yoke sustain'd,
And up the rocky steep laborious strain'd.

The wily wolf, no more by hunger bold, ,
With secret step explores the nightly fold.
Deers herd with hounds, and leave their sylvan seat;.
And seek with man to find a safe retreat.
Thick on the shores, like thip-wreck'd corses caft, 7
Appear the finny race of ocean vat;
Th’affrighted Phocae to the rivers haste.
His cave no more to shield the snake avails;
Th'astonishid hydra dies erecting all his scales.
Ey'n their own skies to birds unfaithful prove,
Headlong they fall, and leave their lives abave..

Virgil lays down the rules of tillage and planting with wonderful art in his two first books. He has, as the author of the essay on his Georgics observes, a sort of rustic majesty about him, and seems like a Roman dictator at the plough tail. The second book has indeed most wit in it, and abounds with bolder metaphors than are found in any of the rest; for in this the poet attributes the passions of human life to the vegetable creation. The third book, however, seems more laboured and {pirited, and the descriptions, in particular, are more animated and lively ; especially those of the murrain among the cattle, the Scythian winter, and the horse and chariot races. But he seems moft delighted with the subject of his fourth book, where he is got among the bees. In this Georgic he points out the situation most proper for bees ; tells us when they begin to gather honey, directs how to call them home when they swarm, and how to part them

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when they are engaged in battle. He then speaks of their different kinds, and, after a beautiful excursion, returns again to the hive, gives us an account of their political administration of affairs, and of the several dif. eases, that often rage among them, with the symptoms that attend each disease, and prescriptions for its cure. He then lays down a method for raising a new stock, when the whole breed is lost, and concludes with the history of its invention, which is fabulous and extravagant enough, but at the same time very poetical and pleasing. The nature and government of the bees he thus beautifully describes.

Describe we next the nature of the bees,
Bestow'd by Jove for secret services :
When by the tinkling sound of timbrels led,
The king of heav'n in Cretan caves they fled,
Of all the race of animals, alone :
The bees have common cities of their own,
And common fons, beneath one law they live,
And with one common stock their traffic drive.
Each has a certain home, a sev'ral stall :
All is the state's, the state provides for all.
Mindful of coming cold, they share the pain :
And hoard for winter's use, the summer's gain.
Some o'er the public magazines prefide,
And some are sent new forage to provide :
These drudge in fields abroad, and those at home
Lay deep foundations for the labour'd comb.
With dew, Narcissus leaves, and clammy gum.
To pitch the waxen flooring some contrive;
Some nurse the future nation of the hive :
Sweet honey some condense, fome purge the grout ;
The rest, in cells a-part, the liquid nečiar shut.
All, with united force, combine to drive
The lazy drones from the laborious hive.
With envy Aung, they view each other's deeds :
With diligence the fragrant work proceeds.
As when the Cyclops, at th'almighty nod,
New thunder haften for their angry God :
Subdu'd in fire the stubborn metal lies,
One brawny smith the puffing bellows plies ;

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