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ists? and what will become of all history in the eighteenth Hour when ill" world itself,-'even tile whole Muulin Jol„ shall come to its end, and be buried in universal ruin i''
To m;;, after all my eager pursuits, no solid pleasures now remdin, but the reflection of id long life spent in meaning well, the sensible conversation of a few good lady ephemene, and now and then a kind smile and a tune from the ever amiable Brilliant.
MORALS OF CHESS.
Plating at chess is the most ancient ami most universal game known among men ; for its original is beyond the memory of history. and it has, fomumberless ages, been the amusement of all the civilized nations o.f A'sia, the Persians, the Indians. and the Chinese. liltrope has had it above a thousand years, the Spaniaids have spread it over their part of America, ami it begins lately to make its appearance i:> these states. It is so interesting in itself, as not to need the view of gain to induce engaging in it; and thence it is never played for money. "1 hose, ther fore, who have leisuie. lor such diverions, can iOt find one that is more innocent; and the following piece, written with a view to cor'ect (among a f \v ydung fiends) some little i m prop ie'.ies in the practice of it, shews at the same lime, that it may, in its effects on the mind. lie no'. merely innocent, but ad vantage. Jus, io the vanquished as well as the victor.
The game of chess is not m r. 1> an idle amusement. Several valuable qualities of the mi.id. Useful in the course of human hi'., a>e to be acquired or strengthened by it, so as to become habits, r< ady on all occasions. For life is a kind of chess. in which we have otten . poin's to gain. and competitors 0' adversaries to contend vvitii,. and in winch there is 4 vual VAUeiy of ^ood
ahd ill events, that are, in some degree, the effects, of prudence or the want of it. By playing at chess, then, we may learn—
I. Foresight, which looks a little into futurity, and considers the consequences that attend an action; for it is continually occurring to the player, "If I move this piece, what will be the advantage of my new situation? Whsat use can my adversary make of it to annoy rue? What other moves can I make to support it, ai d 10 defend myself from his attacks?"
II. Circifmsfiection, which surveys Hie whole chessboard, or scene of action, the relations of the several pi' ces and situations, the dangers they are respectively exposed to, the several possibilites of their aiding each Other, the probabilities.that the adversary may take this or that move, and attack this or the other piece, and what different means can be used to avoid his stroke, or turn its consequences against him.
'III. Camion, not to make our moves too hastily.— This habit is best acquired by observing stwelly the laws of the game, such as, ,• If you touch a piece, you must move it somewhere; if you set it down, you must let it stand " and it is therefore best that these rules should be observed, as.,the game thereby becomes more the image <;f human life, and particularly of war ; in which, it you have incautiously put yourSiii into a bad and iiar.gerous position, you cannot obtain your enemy's leave to withdraw your troops, and pluce them more securely, but you must abide all the Consequences of your rashness. ,
Anc, lastly, we learn by chess the habit of not beihg diJCourugid by firrsmt baa apfiearunctn in the state of our a/fairs, the l.abit ol hj/iingjlr a javoruile chunge ai,d t;,.'t offirrse.vcriig in'thc sea ch of resources. The game is no full t;f events,there ia such a vane'.y of turns m it, the fortune of it is eo subject to sueid..n vicissitudi s, and Oi.e so frequently after long contemplatmg, discovers t.: i nil ans of extiiia m;; on. self fro.n a su;.p ised insurSmuuuiubie uiuieuU), uial one la encoUru^eU to coiHtnue the contest to the last, in hopes of victsry. by ant' ski Lor at least of giving » stale mate, by negligence of our adversary. And whoever considers what in chess. he often sees instances ol', that particular pieces of success are apt to produce presumption, and its consequent. inattention, by which the loss may be recovered, will. learn not to be too much discouraged by the present success of his adversary, nor to despair of final goodfortune, upon every little check he receives in pursuit fif it.
Tha^ we may, therefore, be induced more frequently to choose this beneficial amusement, in preference toothers, which are not attended with the same advantages, every circumstance which may increase the pleasures of it should be regarded; and every action of. void that is unfair, disrespectful, or that in any way may give uneasiness. should be avoided, as contrary to the immediate intention of both the players, which ia. to pass the time agreeably.
Therefore, liist, if it is agreed to play according tor the stiict rules; then those rules arc to be exactly observed by bo.h parties, and should not be insisted on for one side, while deviated fiom by the other—for thisis not equitable.
Secondly, If it is agreed not to observe the rules exactly, but one party demands indulgence, he should then be as willing to allow them to the other.
Thirdly, no lalse move should ever bei made to extricate you'self ou' of a difficulty., or to gain an advantage. Tittre can be no pleasure in playing with % person once detected in such unfair practice.
1 ourthly, if your adversary is long in playing, you ought not to hurry him, or express any uneasiness at his delay. . You should i.otsing, nor vvhistL, nor look at your watch, nor take up a bonk to read, nor makt a tapping with your feet on the floor or with iour lingers on the table, nor do any thmg that may distuib his attention. For all these things th»pl.ase, and they tto not show your skui iu playing] Out your crafunesa ox your rudeness.
Fifthly, You ought not to endeavour to amuse and deceive your adversary, by pretending to have made. bad moves, and saying that you have now lost the game, in order to make him secure and careless, and inattentive to your schemes; for this is fraud and deceit, not skill in the game.
Sixthly, Vou must not, when you have gained a victory, use any triumphing or insulting expression, nof show too much pleasure ; but endeavor to console your adversary, and make him less dissatisfied with himself, by evety kind of civil expression that may be used with truth, such as, " You understand the gai^e better than I, but you are little inattentive;'' or, "you play too fast;" or, "you had the best of the game, but something happened to divert your thoughts, and that turned it in my favovr."
Seventhly, if you are a spectator while others play, observe the most perfect silt nee. for if you give advice, yoii.offentl both parties; him against whom vou give it, because it may cause the loss of his game ; him in whose favor you give it, because, though it be good and he follows it, he loses the pleasure he might have had, if you had permitted him to think until it had occurred to himself. Even after a move, or moves, you must not, by placing the pieces, show how it might have been placed better: for that displeases, and may occasion disputes and doubts about their true situation. Ali lulking to the players lessens or diverts their atteniioi^, ami is therefore unpleasiug. Nor should yt.u give the least hint to either party, by any kind of noise 0t motion. If you do, you are unwoithy to be a spectator. If) ou have a mind to exercise or shew your judgment, do it in playing your own game, when you have an opportunity, not in criticising, or meddlmg ^witL, or counselling the play of others.
Lastly, If the game is not to be played rigorously, according to t e rules above mentioned, then moderate your flesh e of \ ictory over your adversary, and be pleased with out over yuuisdi. tJuutch noteagerly at every advantage offered by his1 unskilfulness orinattention; but point .out 10 him kindly, that by such a move he place's 0t leaves a piece in danger or unsupported ; that by another he will put his kint* in a perilous situation, N&c I3y this generous civility (so opposite to the unfairness above foi bidden) you may, indeed. happen to lose the game to your opponent, but you will win what is better. his esteem, his respect, and his affection ; together with the silent approbation and good-i\ill of impartial spectators.
The Art of procuring pleasant Dreams.
INSCRIBED TO MISS ***,
Being written at her request.
As a great part of our life is spent in sleep*, during which ve have sometimes pleasing, and sometimes painful d earns, it becomes of some consequence to obtain the one kind, ami avoid the other; for whether real ot imaginary, pain is pain, and pleasure is pleasure. If we can sleep without dreaming. it is well that painful dreams are avoided. If. while we sleep, we can have any plea i.tg d'eams, it is, as the French say, tant gagne\ so much added to the pleasure of life.
To this end it i«, in the first place, nee ssary to be careful in preserving health, by due exercise, and great temperances for, in sickness the imagination is disturbed; and" disagreeble, sometimes terrible ideas are apt to present themselves. Exercise should precede meals. not immediately follow them: the first promotes the lat'er, uiiless moderate. obstructs digestion. If, after exercise, we feed sparingly the digestion will be easy and good, the body lightsome, the temper cheerful, and all the ammul functions perfo.med agreeably — Sleep, when it follows, will be natural and undisturbed. While indolence, with full' feedmg, occasion mght.dares and honor* inexpressible: we fall from precipi