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true enjoyment of their benevolence considered, that minds elevated like increased by the blesling being confer. his, capable of exertions beyond be. red unseen? Would not the omnipo- lief, need relaxation from severity of tence of Britain be demonstrated to study, perhaps more than the hind, the wonder of nations, by stretching whose mouth never receives but what its mighty arm across the deep, and the sweat of his brow procures, does faving by its fiat distant millions from from his labour. The difficulties he destruction ? And would the blessings may have encountered in pecuniary of the people thus faved dislipate in matters are more chargeable to the empty air ? No! If I may dare to use goodness of his heart than the extrathe figure, we shall constitute Heaven vagance of his conduct : an amiable itself our proxy, to receive for us the weakness, that harbours no suspicion, blellings of their pious gratitude, and and makes him too prone to believe , the prayers of their thanksgiving. men what he wishes them. On the
lo his private character, Mr She- whole, it appears his public characsidan is bumane and generous in the ter is irreproachable, his abilities suextreme ; social in his semper, and per-eminent, uniting in one the first friendly in his habits ; and, when in dramatic writer with the most accombis power, more ready to confer than plished orator of his time; and to his folicit a favour. He has been charged private, we may justly say with Golde with indolence; but perhaps those who smith, have attributed this to him have little His very failings lean to Virtue's fides
Ulloa's Account of the Indigenous Inhabitants of America. Continued. T HE huts of the American In- cepting the dimensions, which vary
1 dians are of a round shape, fome, according to the number of indivduals what lower than the height of a man, in the family, the construction of every The walls are raised perpendicularly, hut is the same. and covered with a contexture of Each tribe has also a common hut, branches in the form of a pyramid: a- furnished with the same scaffolding in round the interior circle of the hut the inner part of the walls. This is they range a kind of scaffolding, over necessarily of much larger dimensions which they throw the skins of animals than the others, and differs also in its taken in chace. This serves for their shape, which is either square or recSleeping place. In the middle is the tangular. Here the whole tribe affre. The only opening is the door, fembles to deliberate about their comwhich has no more height or width mon interests, and to appoint the time than is absolutely necessary for an en- of setting out on their expeditions of trance. The smoke therefore has no hunting or fishing. Here they arrange other iffue than partly thro' this, and the separate parties in such expedipartly thro'the interstices of the branch- tions, appoint the quarters they are to es that form the roof. The materials of occupy, and fix the time of their retheir huts are either mud and stones, or turn. Here too they settle their plans when stones are not at hand, timber, of hostile incursion, either upon their with the interstices filled up with mud. neighbouring tribes, or upon the colo
A few piches constructed in the pies of Europeans : in a word, every inner part of the wall serve as the thing which relates to the general inonly repositories of the few articles of terest of the community. It is also furniture which they poffefs. Ex- in this common hut that they assemble Yol. VII. No 39.
for their public diversions, that is, to assemblies, they would hold them by drink and dance. The upper part of night, and in remote places, where is the building serves as a granary, where would be impossible to learn their delithey deposit the maize, and the cala- berations. balhes of the former harvest. The The labour of the mines is not at ordinary huts are placed at random, all hurtful to the Indians of Peru. without any regard to the formation The aversion of those who are made of streets, or regular rows, and the to work in them proceeds entirely favourite situation is commonly along from their indolence, and would be the banks of a river.
the same with respect to any other The civilized Indians of Peru con- kind of employment. Repeated obstruct their lodgings in the same man- fervation has thewn, that, were they ner, and have also a common place of left to their own choice, they would meeting in order to settle the plans of occupy themselves in nothing beyond the community. When these meetings the little agriculture which they prac. are conducted under proper regula- tise, as is the case with all the indetions, so as to prevent the abuses into pendent tribes. which they are apt to degenerate, they i Neither are the services required of are found to be of advantage to the them in the employments of pasturage civil government. They furnish a and agriculture at all oppreslive, so far means of keeping them in obedience, as they are regulated by the prescripthe more effectual that it coincides tions of government. Even the mawith their national habits. Proper nufactures in which their labours are objects are fuggested for their confi- exacted would involve no great hardderation ; laudable, or at least innocent ships, if individual matters would momodes of occupation are proposed to derate the talk which they lay on them, them, which may divert their natural and encourage them by a more adcpropensity tó mischief and disorder. quate recompence. But many of
With this view, both the civil and these consider nothing but their own ecclefiaftical ministers of government interest, and overlook the obligations keep a watchful eye over these affem- of humanity with respect to their blies, and are careful that no improper workmen. From this, and not from subject of consultation be moved in any severity in the regulations of gothem. Certain trusty Indians are em- vernment, has arisen the dininution ployed as fpies to report all that passes of the species. The only remedy for at their meetings : and whenever it is this evil, would be to liberate these fufpected that they are likely to devise Indians from all obligation to labour, any mischief, the judges or curates re- and to employ free people taken from pair thither, dissolve the assembly, and among the Metiss, and other castes. infli& fome gentle punishment on the who are entirely without employment. authors of such improper suggestions. An edi&t ought to be issued, threatenThis degree of attention generally suffi- ing, on the part of the government, all ces to defeat their machinations. Strict- vagrant and idle persons with perpeer precautions are used, and more fe- tual imprisonment, and withdrawing vere penalties inflicted, when informa- from individual employers the liberty tion is procured of any deep-laid plot of punishing their workmen at pleasure. against the governinent.
In a word, the fame measures onghe It is imposible to prevail on these to be adopted that are established with people to renounce their ancient ha- respect to the manufacturers of Europe. bits; the attempt would be attended It is well known that penal sanctions with the utmost danger. Were an in- are necessary for keeping them in orterdiet to be ifsued against these open der; But this does not prevent thele
penalues penalties from being moderate, and in could in one day do more, without the power of the magistrate only to any exceflive exertion, than all this inflict. Such chastisements would be numerous company. They carry with far more effectual for correcting their them to the field their flutes and propensities to idleness and diforder, drums, with a plentiful provision of lithan the capricious and arbitrary ones quor. Thcy work, they eat, and they inflicted by idividual employers. Pu- drink to the sound of these instruments; nithments, in this case, would never be they repose themselves by turns, and carried to an excess of cruelty, the the whole parade of their united la. forms of law would tend to open the bours amounts only to a day or two eyes of the offenders to their faults, of amusement. The case is the same and the resentment they now feel at the in the Harvest, so that the greater cruelty of individuals, would change part of the crop is frequently consumed into a salutary apprehension of the Ic- in the time of reaping. No consideraverities of law.
tion whatever could bring them toge. It appears then, in opposition to the ther, without the attractions of drink. general belief, that it is not expedient ing and dancing. for individual masters to poffeís a def- . Those who do not know from expotical power over their workmen. It perience the character, genius, and is however true, that a kind of per- dispositions of the American Indians, petual compulsion must be used with might imagine that there was a degree these people, not only for the sake of of tyranny in making them work fo their master's interest, but even for hard, especially in the mines. But their own, in what concerns the com- this is a mistake. There is, with re-, non sowing of their lands, and other spect to every nation on earth, a ceroccupations that relate to their cloth- tain form of government, and mode of ing. Reasonable motives have no in- legislation corresponding to their pefluence with them, every species of culiar character, which are absolutely Jabour is contrary to their inclinations, necessary to the maintenance of their and force must be used to procure the public happiness and good order. But proportion of work exacted of the the characters and inclinations of the different bands into which they are Indians are so different from those of arranged.
every other people, that no ordinary The work which an Indian performs standard of legislation is applicable to in a day is hardly equal to what an or- them. The immoderate ofe of spiridinary European labourer would per- tuous liquors destroys more of them form in half the time. Yet it is not in one year, than the labour of the that they want strength, but that their mines docs in fifty, cven including extreme indolence seems, as it were, those who suffer by extraordinary ac. to benumb all their powers. Those who cidents, such as the falling in of the. remain in their primitive condition, earth. In fact, the ordinary manuoccupy themselves in nothing but the factures are much more destructive necessary tasks of hunting and fishing than the labour of the mines : for in to procure their food. As long as the spite of all the precautions of governprovision procured by these means ment in appointing infpectors to visit lasts, they surrender themseves to ab- these manufactures from time to time, folute inaction.
the workmen employed in them too The conquered Indians fow their often experience unjustifiable cruelties lands in common. All that belong from their masters. to one parish, men, women, and chil. Norwithstanding all that they suffer dren, convene, and form what they from Europeans, the Indians still concall a Chaco. Six or eight Europeans sider themselves as a race of men far
superior to their conquerors. This pompous, and, according to their owo proud belief, arising from their per- notions, sublime harangues, but withverted ideas of excellence, is univer- out any method or connection. The fal over the whole known continent of whole is a collection of disjointed me. America. They do not think it pos- taphors and comparisons. The light, fible that any people can be so intel. heat, and course of the sun, form the ligent as themselves. When they are principal topic of their discourse ; and detected in any of their plots, it is their these unintelligible reasonings are al. common observation, that the Spani. ways accompanied with violent and ards, or Viracochas, want to be as ridiculous gestures. Numberless reknowing as they are. Those of Lou- petitions prolong the oration, whichig ifana and the countries adjacent, are if not interrupted, would last whole equally vain of their superior under- days : At the sanic time, they meditate ftanding, confounding that quality with very accurately before hand, in order the cunning which they themselves to avoid mentioning any thing but constantly pra&tisę. The whole object what they are defrous to obtain. . of their transactions is to over-reach This pompous faculty of making those with whom they deal. Yet fpeeches is also one of the grounds on though faithless themselves, they never which they conceive themselves to be forgive the breach of promise on the superior to the nations of Europe : part of others. While the Europeans They imagine that it is their eloleek their amity by presents, they give quence that procures them the favours themselves no concern to secure a re- they ask. The subjected Indians con. ciprocal friendship. Hence, probably, verfe precisely in the same stile. Proarises their idea, that they must be a lix and cedious, they never know when fuperior race of men, in ability and to stop ; so that, excepting by the dif. intelligence, to those who are at such ference in language, it would be im. pains to court their alliance, and avert possible, in this respect, to distinguish their enmity.
• a civilized Peruvian from an inhabi. The free tribes of Savages who en- tant of the most favage distries to the ter into conventions with the Euro- northward, peans, are accustomed to make long,
Account of the Discovery of the Mines of Potosi, in South America * THE famous Mountain of Potosi, months of May, June, July, and Av.
1 in the province of Charcas and gust. The country around is parch-, kingdom of Peru, is situated in twen- ed, barren, and naturally uninhabitabler ty-one degrees forty minutes South la- but the attraction of filver, and the viotitude, consequently within ivhat is lent desires af mankind for that preci, called the Torrid Zone. Notwith ous metal, have contributed to render standing this situation, the climate it the most populous district of the there is colder than in Flanders or in whole kingdom. All the necessaries and Old Caftile. This degree of cold is conveniencies of life abound there in owing to the great height of the land, consequence of the ready market which and to the piercing winds which blow it supplies. The mountain is of an from all quarters, especially that call- obscure reddish colour. Its general ed Tomahari, which reigns during the aspect is agreeable. The shape is co
nical, * Translated from Obfervations and Additions aux Discours de Don Ulloa ; past $. G. Schneider,
pical, and the summit far above that pery rich ore. It happened that the of all the neighbouring mountains. Indian was acquainted with the labour
The road, though very steep, is of the mines. He therefore examined practicable on horseback to the very the ground surrounding the vein thus top, which terminates in an obtuse accidentally discovered, and having vertex ; having, at the base of this gathered some pieces of de'ached mic highest point, a circumference of fix- neral which the action of the fun and tecn hundred Varas, or a quarter of of the waters had rendered almost una Spanish league. On the side of distinguishable, he carried them to Porthe mountain is to be seen an emi- co, in order to make the affay of their nence, where there were formerly se- quality by fire. The experiment haveral excavations which yielded a spe- ving ascertained their excellent qualicies of soft mineral, found in uncon- ty, he continued his researches, dig. nected parcels, and not in any regular ging secretly in the mountain, without vein. These minerals were very rich, communicating the discovery to any but in small quantities. The emi- other person.
. nence that produced them was called, This continued until another Indiin the language of the Indians, Huay- an, called Huanca, of the valley of na Potosi, or Potofi the Younger. Xauria, observed that the ore which Near to this eminence begin the dwell. Hualpa melted was different from that ings of the Spaniards and Indians, who of the mines of Porco ; that, besides, have settled there in order to fare in Hualpa formed larger lingots from his the profit or loss of the mines contain: ore, and that he appeared much easier ed in the mountain. The whole range than formerly in his circumstancesi of dwellings is about two leagues in On these grounds, he importuned him circuit. This is the centre of all the with such earnest and repeated inqui: commerce of Peru.
ries, that at length Hualpa, after ha· The Incas did not cause thefe mines ving enjoyed his discovery for two to be wrought, but only those of Por- months without a rival or partner, co, which are about the distance of consented to take the other with him, fix leagues from Potofi. It is pro- and communicate the treasure that bable they did not know them ; for had enriched him. Having led him the other reasons that are alledged are to the spot, he shewed him, both the no better than fables.
first vein, lince distinguished by the What follows is the account of the appellation of the Rich, and another discovery of those mines about twelve which he had discovered afterwards, years after the arrival of the Spa- and which he gave up to the possession niards in South America. . An Indi. of his companion. This last vein lies ao, named Hualpa, a native of Chum- at no great distance from the former, bibilca in the province of Cusco, was and is that called Diego Centeno. It pursuing some wild goats, who direc- is equally rich with the other, having ted their flight streight upon the moun- only the disadvantage of being more tain of Potosi, then almost entirely co- hard in the operation of reducing to vered with trees of the species called the pure metal. Having agreed upon Quinua, and other shrubs of different these terms, they returned to their hakinds. The Indian continuing his bitations. pursuit, arrived at a steep and difficult Huanca, however, foon became senpath which led to the heights of the fible of the difficulties attending the mountain. Taking hold of a branch process of the vein that had fallen to to affist him in climbing, his weight his posfellion. The other was obstitore up the tree, the roots of which nate in refusing to impart any share of brought up with them portions of a bis. A quarrel arose, and Huanca