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originator of the lectures at the Lowell Institute, as well as to its judicious director. But may we ask without impertinence and without offense, Why are the lectures of Dr. James Walker on similar themes, so long withheld from the public eye?

The American Almanac and Repository of Useful Knowledge for the year 1850.

Boston: Little & Brown. 12mo, pp. 348. This invaluable book of reference has reached its 21st volume, and is now regarded as indispensable, not merely for its accurate and copious astronomical knowledge, but also as a compend of ample information in general statistics. The fullest exhibition is here given of the office-holders, institutions, financial condition and expenses of each state in the Union, and of the officers and foreign representatives of the general government. A copious and well digested exhibition of the condition of the kingdoms of Europe is found in the volume, and ready answers are given to the numerous questions, which Americans are prone to ask upon these subjects, but which they find it difficult to answer. The obituary notices for the year previous, and the chronicle of the most important events, add greatly to the value of the work. The man who preserves the volumes of this work from year to year, will find that this chronicle of the successive years will by-and-by present to him vivid and distinct pictures of the events of absorbing interest which occupied his attention, and then gave way to the shadows of the succeeding hour.

HUYSEN.

Is Christianity from God? or, A Manual of Bible evidence for the People. By John CUMMING, D.D. With an Introduction by Hon. THEODORE FRELING

New York: M. W. Dodd. 1849. 18mo, pp. 276. This book is divided into twelve chapters, with the following titles. Is the soul immaterial and immortal ? Does Creation prove the existence of God ? Is a revelation from God to man probable and necessary? Is the Bible genuine and authentic? Is the Bible inspired? (2 chapters.) General characteristics of the Bible. Is the Bible contradictory or inconsistent? (2 chapters.) Doctrinal difficulties. Texts cavilled at. Conclusion. An able work written upon the plan of this, and brought within a brief compass is greatly needed. There are times and those of not infrequent occurrence, when a pastor wishes to place such a manual in the hands of an inquiring or skeptical friend. So far as we have examined the volume, it seems better adapted to such a case, than any other which we remember have seen. We do not believe in all its reasonings, but think that as a whole, it is successful in argument and felicitous in its arrangement and illustrations.

A System of Ancient and Mediæval Geography, for the use of Schools and Colstudied most thoroughly in the early part of the academical course. To the student of ancient history it is a work of great value. The work is founded on that of Cramer, with copious additions. It seems to be thoroughly methodized, and to be condensed and concise without being repulsive and dry.

leges ; by CHARLES Anthon, LL.D., Prof. &c. New York: Harper and Brothers. 1850. 8vo, pp. 769.

This seems to us one of the most valuable volumes which Prof. Anthon has offered to the public. It is designed to present a picture of the ancient world, as far as this world can be revived to a modern eye. Each country is separately treated, its physical features and divisions are fully detailed with the ancient and later names attached to each; then the products of the country are exhibited, and the historical epochs in their order of succession, and lastly, the various races that successively occupied its territory in whole or in part, are described in their origin and names. The book is no dry enumeration of names and facts now passed from the memory and the thoughts of men, but it is a most interesting transcript of the world which was, and is no longer. As a companion to the student of the classics, it is invaluable and ought to be

The Mercy Seat: Thoughts suggested by the Lord's Prayer; by GARDINER

SPRING, D.D. New York : M. W. Dodd. 1850. 12mo, pp. 383. This volume consists of sixteen lectures or meditations on the various topics, which are suggested by the perusal in order of the several portions of the prayer of our Lord. They are less formal than sermons, and are better adapted for general reading. The thoughts are presented in a somewhat more natural and lively way, and the illustrations are more free and varied, than is usual in volumes prepared for devotional and meditative uses; and like every thing which comes from Dr. Spring, are earnest and impressive. The volume is beautifully printed, and opens to us pages that are most attractive to the eye.

Gospel Studies. By ALEXANDER VINET, D.D. With an Introduction by Rob

ERT Baird, D.D. New York: M. W. Dodd. 1849. 12mo, pp. 373. Vinet is now known by name and reputation to many of our readers, but he can not be known too familiarly. As a scholar, a writer, and a Christian, he is the best of those writers of the evangelical school whose works have been translated from the French. This volume is a collection of discourses on various religious topics. It exhibits him as a preacher, rather than as a pamphleteer or a philosopher. And yet we find on every page, striking and interesting tokens, that they are the words of a man of vigorous thought, of high culture, and of most thorough acquaintance with the anti-Christian principles and writings, that abound in Europe. For these reasons, and especially the last, they occupy a place, which few volumes of a religious cast, can either claim or occupy.

Apostolic Baptism. Facts and evidences on the subjects and mode of Christian Baptism. By C. Taylor, editor of Calmet's Dictionary of the Bible; with thirteen engravings. New York: M. W. Dodd. 1850. 12mo, pp. 236.

This is a very curious book. It commences the argument in respect to baptism at the right starting point, and enforces it by reasoning of the most convincing character. It seeks to carry back the interpreter of the teachings of the Scriptures, to the time when the New Testament was written, and to enable him to read the passages under circumstances, like those under which they were originally heard. The engravings, which are copies of the oldest representations of the administration of the rite of baptism, in pictures, sculptures, and mosaics, speak forcibly to the eye and the mind.

Pastoral Reminiscences. By SHEPARD K. KOLLOCK. With an Introduction, by

A. ALEXANDER, Prof. &c. New York: M. W. Dodd. 1849. 12mo, pp. 236.

This work consists of several sketches, nine in all, of interesting and touching events, the like of which occur in the life of almost every pastor. Such narrations, if told to the life, furnish the most impressive commentary upon the value of the gospel, the terrible nature of sin, and the danger of irresolution and delay. There are fewer books of the kind than we should expect, and we doubt not that this will be welcomed, on account of the interesting nature of the topics, and the lively and affectionate manner in which they are treated.

The Histories of Caius Cornelius Tacitus ; with Notes for Colleges. By W.

S. TYLER, Professor of Languages in Amherst College. New York: D. Appleton & Company, 200 Broadway. Philadelphia: Geo. S. Appleton, 164 Chestnut Street. 1849. Pp. 453. PROFESSOR Tyler shows himself in this edition of Tacitus to be mindful of the progress of classical criticism. He seems to have made a very good use of the best commentaries, and has put in the hands of the student a condensed summary of them.

Family Pictures from the Bible. By Mrs. Eller, author of the Women of the

Revolution. New York: G.P.Putnam, 155 Broadway. London: Putnam's
American Agency. 1849.
The conception of this work is happy, and the execution successful.

A Philosophical Essay on Credulity and Superstition ; and also on Animal Fas

cination or Charming. By Rufus BLAKEMAN, M.D. New York: D. Appleton & Co., Broadway. New Haven: S. Babcock. 1849. pp. 206.

This volume contains a good deal of sound thought, but the style is so heavy, it is a laborious task to persevere in reading it through.

Exercises in Greek Composition, adapted to the first Book of Xenophon's Anaba

sis. By James R. Boise, Professor of Greek in Brown University. New York: D. Appleton & Company, 200 Broadway. Philadelphia: Geo. S. Appleton, 164 Chestnut Street. 1849. pp. 185.

We like the plan of this little volume very much, and cheerfully commend it to the attention of teachers.

The Practical German Grammar ; or a natural method of learning to read, write

and speak the German language. By Charles Eichorn. New York: D. Appleton & Company. Philadelphia : Geo. S. Appleton, 164 Chestnut street. 1850. pp. 284, This is a good grammar, but we can not say it is any better than several others which are in use.

Poems and Prose Writings. By RICHARD HENRY DANA. In two volumes.

New York: Baker and Scribner. 1850. We do no more now than announce these volumes, hoping in our next number to give a criticism of them.

We are compelled to omit notices which had been prepared, of Major Ripley's History of the Mexican War, published by Harper and Brothers; of the valuable work of Dr. Hooker, “ Physician and Patient,” published by Baker and Scribner; and of “Stanton's Reformers," published by Wiley. We have also on hand some other books, which will be noticed hereafter.

THE

NEW ENGL ANDER.

No. XXX.

MAY, 1850.

ART. 1.-EXAMINATION OF MILL'S PHILOSOPHY OF NECESSARY TRUTH, AND OF CAUSATION.

A System of Logic, Ratiocinative and Inductive ; being a con

nected view of the principles of Evidence, and the methods of Scientific Investigation. By JOHN STUART MILL. New York: Harper and Brothers.

MR. Mull's elaborate treatise has already been made the subject of a careful and extended notice, in our columns; with especial reference, however, to the principles of logic, and the theory of induction, which it develops. We propose now, to offer some observations upon a different aspect of the work, in the form of an examination of the metaphysical theories embodied in it: and as we must not unnecessarily prolong an effort, which we fear will be somewhat trying to the patience of our readers, we plunge at once, with only these few prefatory words, into the midst of the subject we have indicated."

One of the principal characteristics of Mr. M.'s work, viewed as an exposition of metaphysical theories, is its earnest opposition to the commonly received doctrine of necessary truths. In this doctrine Mr. M. is an unbeliever; and he enters into a very extended and profound examination of the subject, with the design of showing that all the truths most generally alledged as examples of our necessary belief, are in fact only generalizations from a wide induction of familiar facts. Among these, he includes the truths relating to quantity; and he points out, with a patience and ingenuity of effort which are almost amusing, the process by which we arrive at the general conclusion that two units and one unit, are in all cases identical with three units. The discussion is at length made to turn, by consent of himself and his oppoVol. VIIL

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nents, upon the question whether the truth that two straight lines can not enclose a space, is a necessary inference from our conception of the nature of straight lines, or a simple generalization from our experience. The advocates of the former view, (among whom Prof. Whewell of Cambridge stands prominent,) maintain that we derive this truth not from any examination of external nature, but from consciousness; and that we perceive intuitively, the impossibility alledged in the statement of it.

This appeal to consciousness Mr. Mill evades, by a view which certainly has much plausibility. He maintains that the nature of lines and angles is in itself so entirely simple, that we easily form imaginary pictures, corresponding accurately to the lines and angles which exist in nature. Hence he concludes that the intuition to which his opponents appeal, is nothing more than the inspection of an imaginary diagram. We form such a picture in the mind, examine it, and pronounce upon it, by a process which is as real an induction from particulars of experience, as it could be were the diagram drawn upon paper.

To the other principal argument of Mr. Whewell, that the affirmation is seen by every one to be necessarily true, inasmuch as we can not even conceive of two straight lines which shall enclose a space, Mr. M. replies in an argument of several pages, not by denying, but only by seeming to deny, it. The substance of his reply is that many things have been at various periods pronounced inconceivable, which have been afterwards ascertained to be actual facts, such for instance as the existence of antipodes, &c. ; leaving his readers to believe, what he hesitates to affirm, that the conception of two straight lines which shall enclose a space, may hereafter become as conceivable and familiar a one as that just mentioned. Had Mr. Mill maintained that the truth in question stands in his opinion entirely on a level with the examples he gives, in which the alledged inconceivableness of the thing denied was a mere prejudice arising from the novelty of the subject, we should have felt bound to attempt a refutation of his views. But, while he is careful not to intimate even an actual doubt of the truth of his opponent's position, that the necessity of the axiom is universally perceived, we can not think any refutation necessary. By Mr. Mill's virtual concession, the truth does not stand on the same ground with those he has adduced. It is a vecessary truth; the supposition of its falsity is not, in Mr. M.'s opinion, an admissible one in the nature of things. To what purpose is it then to refer to instances in which novelties have been hastily and erroneously pronounced inconceivable? To test the case, let us suppose that such an exception should be alledged to exist in the case of this axiom, as is found in some others of the general truths of observation; what would our author say of the allegation? It is a law that all matter expands

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