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ing reprefented to him, That it would be shameful to receive the Seal after fuch a Profanation. His Holiness now acknowledged, by The Pope writes a publick Notification to the King of to K. Henry. England and the Cardinal, that they had

been the great Inftruments of procuring his Liberty, and defired the King to continue his Protection and Favour to the Papal See.

Great Rejoye

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The News of the Pope's Efcape was no fooner known in England, but, on the 5th of Jan. 1528, Cardinal Wolfey repaired in great State to St. Paul's, to return God Thanks for his Holiness's Deliverance from his Captivity. On this Occafion the Cardinal landed at Black-fryars, between eight and nine in the Morning, attended by feveral Noblemen and Gentlemen, where he was met by the Ambaffadors of the Pope, the French King, of Venice, of Florence, and of Milan; from thence this grand Company proceeded on Horfe-back to St. Paul's, at the Door whereof they were met by the Officers at Arms, and four of the Prebends, who received the Cardinal under a Canopy of Gold Cloth, in which manner he proceeded into the Church, having the Pope's Ambaffador on the right Hand, and the French Ambaffador on the left, till he came to the Arches, where was prepared a Place with Cushions and Carpets: Here the Cardinal kneeled, and the Bishops of London, Bath, Landaff, the Priors of Westminster, and St. Saviours, the Abbots of Strafford and Tower-bill, with others to the Amount of 16 Mitres, in Proceffion met him. From hence the Cardinal proceeded up to the High Altar, where he performed his Devotions: Then, with the other Prelates, Nobles, and the whole Choir of St. Paul's, and that belonging to himfelf, in rich Copes, went in the fame Order round the Church, the Officers at Arms attending; next after them the Ambaffadors, then the Lord Mayor, Recorder, Aldermen and Livery of Lon

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don. The Proceffion being over the Mafs of the Holy Trinity was fung by the Bishop of London, the Prior of St. Mary Spittal, Gofpeller, the Prior of Christ Church, Epiftoler. Mafs being ended the Cardinal with his Attendents went to the Choir-door, where Dr. Capan declared to the People the great Calamity that our Mother the Holy Church had fuftained, as well through the Lutheran Sect, as by the irreverent Treatment his Holinefs had met with in the forrowful Deftruction of Rome and his Imprisonment; but that, by the Help of God, he had happily escaped their Hands Wherefore the Lord Legate's Grace, by the King's Commandment, caused this noble Affembly to meet, in order to return Thanks to God Almighty, and the whole Company of Heaven, for fo great a Restoration. The Doctor having done speaking, the Cardinal gave his Benediction to all the People, whereat there was a great Shout. From hence the Cardinal again returned to the Altar, where he fung Te Deum, which was commonly fung by the King's Trumpets, &c. as well English as Venetians. After the Ceremony was ended the Cardinal returned to his Palace to Dinner, attended by the Ambaffadors and other great Men; and the whole Proceffion was concluded without the leaft Disorder.

England and France proclaim War against the Emperor.

As the Emperor's Proceedings had given very great Diffatisfaction to the Kings of England and France, they, the beginning of this Year, fent to their refpective Ambaffadors to quit the Imperial Court; and, as they were eager in the Purfuit of their Projects, on the 21st of July, 1528, their Ambaffadors in Spain defired the Emperor's Leave to retire; and the next Day Clarencieux and Guienne, Heralds, the one of England and the other of France, arrived there, when they demanded an Audience of the Emperor, which was granted, and his Imperial Majesty with great Solemnity was feated on his Throne, attended

attended by all his Grandees: Then the Heralds, after they had imparted the Caufe of their coming to the Emperor's Court, concluded their Harangue with proclaiming War in the Name of their Mafters. Charles anfwered each particularly, but in a very different Manner; in fpeaking to the English Herald he made ufe of civil and honourable Terms, denoting that he was not at all pleased at having the King his Mafter for an Enemy, and complaining that Henry had ufed him ill, in defigning to give him in Marriage a Princefs whom he had purposed to bastardize, fince he was fueing to be divorced from the Queen; (concerning which Matter we fhall speak hereafter) nor did he fpare Cardinal Wolfey, as he could not carry his Point in corrupting him, he now charged him with being one of the principal Causes of the intended Rupture.

In his Anfwer to the French Herald he fpoke not with that Regard and Caution, telling him, "That "his Mafter had done fally and bafely, as he had "told the Ambaffadors at Granada, bidding him know "of his Mafter, whether his Ambaffador had acquainted "him therewith." After the Audience was over the French Herald attended his Mafter's Ambaffador, and related to him what paffed; upon this the Ambaffador wrote a Letter to the Emperor, defiring his Imperial Majesty to give him the Words in Writing under his Hand, which the Emperor accordingly did, and they were sent to the King of France, who was fo exafperated thereat, that he fent his King at Arms back into Spain with an Anfwer, who, being introduced to his Imperial Majesty, delivered it into his Hands. This contained a written Challenge, wherein the King of France gave the Emperor the Lie, and demanded the Field of Battle to. fight him Hand to Hand. Then Guienne retired from the Emperor's Prefence; but, returning again, he, before the Emperor's Face, delivered another Writing to his Secretary, which contained a Vindication


of his Master's Proceedings, who charged all the Blame of the War on the Emperor.

The Herald having executed his Commiffion, a Paper was offered him to be carried to his Mafter, which Guienne refufed, faying, "He had Orders to "receive none unless it were the Emperor's Sécuri

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ty for the Field of Battle." Then the Emperor replied, "He would not refufe the Combat, but it belonged not to the King of France to prefcribe "him Laws; and therefore he would fend an An"fwer by his own King at Arms." This faid, he difmiffed Guienne, who was fafely conducted back tô the Frontiers, and generously treated, as he owned himself.

The Emperor, as foon as the French Herald was fet out for France, ordered Burgundy, his King at Arms, with all poffible Speed to repair to the Prefence of King Francis, and deliver him a Writing, wherein he charged that King again with his Breach of Faith, and appointed the Middle of the River, which parts Spain and France, where the King was exchanged for his two Sons, as the fittest Place for their Combat; the Weapons to be fixed, and Security on both Sides given, when they were nearer together; be fides this, Burgundy was charged with a Paper, in Anfwer to that delivered by Guienne to his Imperial Majesty's Secretary, which he was to deliver to the French Secretary, containing both Juftifications and Recriminations. Burgundy waited at Fuenterabia 50 Days for his Safe-conduct, but, having received it, fet forwards and came to Eftampes, about 14. Leagues from Paris, on the 2d of September, and was there met by Guienne, King at Arms, who told him, "The King was then abroad a hunting," and conducted him towards Paris, but would not fuffer him to go thither till the 9th of September; at laft he was introduced to the King, who would not allow him to speak or read the Emperor's Anfwer, but ftill preffed for the Security

Security of the Combat, which Burgundy offered to produce; however, his Majefty refused to hear what he had to fay, but left him, and, though the Herald endeavoured after that to obtain another Audience, the King denied it, on which he returned into Spain. Burgundy having made his Report before the Council of Caftile, it was there refolved, That the Emperor had done as became a Prince and a Gentleman, and there, fore was not obliged to take any further Notice of the Challenge, fince the King of France had not acted as became him, but refufed to hear the King at Arms, who carried the Security he demanded, and an Answer to all his Papers; and Copies of the whole Proceedings were fent by the Emperor, together with his Letters and the Refolution of the Council of Caftile, to all the Grandees, Prelates, and Cities of Spain, to acquaint them with the Fairnefs of his Majefty's Steps.

By what has been faid the Reader may judge which of them refused the Combat; however, they never met in Perfon on that Account, but left it to their Armies, who fought their Quarrel with the utmost Bravery; and when each Side was tired they clapt up a Peace, as will be seen in the Sequel.

This Year the Emperor's Son, Philip, was fworn Heir of Caftile, and his other Son, Prince John, died, which was a very great Grief to his Imperial Majefty.

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Hear laborious Rapin, upon what paffed in Spain.

Hugo de Mondofa, the Emperor's Ambaffador at "London, hearing what had paffed in Spain, would "have retired, but Cardinal Wolfey told him, that Cla"rencieux had exceeded his Inftruction in proclaiming "War against the Emperor, and fhould be punished at his Return. Whereupon the Ambaffador fent an Express to inform the Emperor, what the Cardinal "faid; Clarencieux, who was ftill in Spain, furprized "he fhould be made accountable for what he had exprefs Orders, demanded and obtained an authen"tick Copy of the Ambaffador's Letter. Upon his

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