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Be that as it was, the Emperor, seeing the ill Effect of the Pope's Captivity, dispatched the General of the Order of St. Francis to the Vice-roy of Naples, with Orders to release him; but the General, finding the Vice-roy dead, delivered the Instructions to Hugo de Moncada ; the Purport of which was in general, That his Holiness should be bound to pay the Arrears due to the Army, and give Security to forsake the League: But, as it was not easy for the Pope to find either Pledges or Money, the Affair having been so prolonged, in the mean while he follicited Lautrec, by private Messages, to approach Rome, in order to facilitate his Deliverance: And, though Lautrec had positive Orders not to make too much Hafte, his March was of good Service to the Pope ; for Moncada, seeing the Kingdom of Naples was about to be invaded, and that it was not possible to lead thither the Imperial Army, which was at Rome, without giving them Money, on the 2d of Oétober, concluded a Treaty with the Pope to this Effect:

“ Íhat the Pope should not oppose The Emperor's “ the Emperor in the Affairs of Naples General conor Milan : That he should grant to the

ty with the Emperor a Cruzade in Spain, and a

Pope. “ ioth in the rest of his Dominions: That " the Emperor should keep Civita Vecchia, Ostria, « Citta, Castellana, and the Castle of Furli: That " he should pay down to the German Troops 60,000 Ducats, and 35,000 to the Spaniards: That “ in a Fortnight after he should pay them 350,000

more : That, until the first Payments were made, “ he should be conducted to fome safe Place out of “ Rome, and give Hostages."

The Treaty being signed, and two Cardinals delivered as Hostages, it was agreed, That, on the roth of December, the Pope should be taken out of the Castle of St. Angelo, and conducted to a Place appointed : But, as he was afraid of a longer Confinement, Vol. IV.


because * A noble Memento this!

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because he was unable to perform the Treaty, he escaped in Disguise the Night before, and shut himself up in Orvieto

When Lautrec heard the Pope was at Liberty, he restored to him the City of Parma, and marched to Bologna, where he staid three weeks, expecting fresh Orders from the King his Master. Some Days after he received a Letter from the Pope, acknowledging himself indebted to him for his Liberty, and intimating, that, being

forced to grant the Imperialists whatever they required, he did not think himself obliged to perform his Engagements.

We here see, in the Compass of three Years Time, two Kings and a Pope were taken Prisoners by the Emperor's Forces : But neither the King of France nor the Pope thought themselves under any Obligation to perform the

hard Conditions they were obliged to submit to, in order to get rid of their Captivity.

For Varillas says expresly as to the Treaty signed by King Francis, when he was a Prisoner at Madrid, “ No body there imagined, that such an unrea“ fonable Convention ought to have been execut“ ed; and the Spaniards, who had no Share in the • Administration, had no sooner heard of it, but they “ published, though fallly, that the Flemings, who “ feconded it, had suffered themselves to be corrupted “ with Money : The Chancellor Gattinara constantly " refused to seal it, and, when the Emperor, after hav"ing to no purpose used Perfuasions and Intreaties with

him, fiew into a Passion, and commanded him to ex

pedite the Instrument, he answered, That an honest Man ought not, or any Occasion, to employ against bis

Mafter that Authority which be bad given him ; and at the faine time returned him the Seal. * The Em

peror received it only to feal the Treaty himself, s and returned it immediately after to the Chan" cellor : But it was with a great deal of Difficulty "he could perfuade him to take it, Gattinarą hav

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ing represented to him, That it would be mamefül
to receive the Seal after such a Profanation.
His Holiness now acknowledged, by

The Pope writes a publick Notification to the King of

to K. Henry. England and the Cardinal, that they had been the great Instruments of procuring his Liberty, and desired the King to continue his Protection and Favour to the Papal See.

The News of the Pope's E cape was Great Rejoycno fooner known in England, but, on the ings in Eng5th of Jan. 1528, Cardinal Wolsey repair- Pope's Delied in great State to St. Paul's, to return Ġod Thanks for his Holiness's Deliverance from his Captivity. On this Occasion the Car. dinał landed ai Black-fryars, between eight and nine in the Morning, attended by several Noblemen and Gentlemen, where he was met by the Ambassadors of the Pope, the French King, of Venice, of Florence, and of Milan; from thence this grand Company proceeded on Horse-back to St. Paul's, at the Door whereof they were met by the Officers at Arms, and four of the Prebends, who received the Cardinal under a Canopy of Gold Cloth, in which manner he proceeded into the Church, having the Pope's Ambassador on the right Hand, and the French Ambassador on the left, till he came to the Arches, where was prepared a Place with Cushions and Carpets : Here the Cardinal kneeled, and the Bishops of London, Bath, Landaff, the Priors of Weftminster, and St. Saviours, the Abbots of Strafford and Tower-bill, with cthers to the Amount of

16 Mitres, in Procession met him. From hence the Cardinal proceeded up to the High Altar, where he performed his Devotions: Then, with the other Prelates, Nobles, and the whole Choir of St. Paul's, and that belonging to himself, in rich Copes, went in the fame Order round the Church, the Officers at Arms attending; next after them the Amtafiadors, then the Lord Mayor, Recorder, Aldermen and Livery of Lon


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don. The Procession being over the Mass of the Holy Trinity was sung by the Bishop of London, the Prior of St. Mary Spittal, Gospeller, the Prior of Christ Church, Epistoler. Mass being ended the Cardinal with his Attendents went to the Choir-door, where Dr. Cepan declared to the People the great Calamity that our Mother the Holy Church had sustained, as well through the Lutheran Sect, as by the irreverent Treatment his Holiness had met with in the forrowful Destruction of Rome and his Imprisonment; but that, by the Help of God, he had happily escaped their Hands : Wherefore the Lord Legate's Grace, by the King's Commandment, caused this noble Assembly to meet, in order to return Thanks to God Almighty, and the whole Company of Heaven, for so great a Restoration. The Doctor having done speaking, the Cardinal gave his Benediction to all the People, whereat there was a great Shout. From hence the Cardinal again returned to the Altar, where he sung Te Deum, which was commonly sung by the King's Trumpets, &c. as well English as Venetians. After the Ceremony was ended the Cardinal returned to his Palace to Dinner, attended by the Ambassadors and other great Men; and the whole Procession was concluded without the least Disorder.

As the Emperor's Proceedings had England and France fro

given very great Diffatisfaction to the claim War Kings of England and France, they, the against the

beginning of this Year, sent to their reEmperor.

spective Ambassadors to quit the Imperial Court; and, as they were eager in the Pursuit of · their Projects, on the 21st of July, 1528, their Ambassadors in Spain desired the Emperor's Leave to retire, and the next Day Clarencieux and Guienne, Heralds, the one of England and the other of France, arrived there, when they demanded an Audience of the Emperor, which was granted, and his Imperial Majesty with great Solemnity was feated on his Throne,



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attended by all his Grandees : Then the Heralds, after they had imparted the Cause of their coming to the Emperor's Court, concluded their Harangue with proclaiming War in the Name of their Masters. Charles answered each particularly, but in a very different Manner ; in speaking to the English Herald he made use of civil and honourable Terms, denoting that he was not at all pleased at having the King his Master for an Enemy, and complaining that Henry had used him ill, in designing to give him in Marriage a Princess whom he had purposed to bastardize, since he was sueing to be divorced from the Queen ; (concerning which Matter we shall speak hereafter) nor did he spare Cardinal Wolfey, as he could not carry his Point in corrupting him, he now charged him with being one of the principal Causes of the intended Rupture.

In his Answer to the French Herald he spoke not with that Regard and Caution, telling him, “ That “ his Master had done fally and basely, as he had “ told the 'Ambassadors ar Granada, bidding him know “ of his Master, whether his Ambassador had acquainted “ him therewith.” After the Audience was over the French Herald attended his Master's Ambassador, and related to him what passed ; upon this the Ambassador wrote a Letter to the Emperor, desiring his Imperial Majesty to give him the Words in Writing under his Hand, which the Emperor accordingly did, and they were fent to the King of France, who was so exasperated thereat, that he sent his King at Arms back into Spain with an Answer, who, being introduced to his Imperial Majesty, delivered it into his Hands. This contained a written Challenge, wherein the King of France gave the Emperor the Lie, and demanded the Field of Battle to, fight him Hand to Hand. Then Guienne retired from the Emperor's Presence ; but, returning again, he, before the Emperor's Face, delivered another Writ-. ing to his Secretary, which contained a Vindication


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