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officers wear a broad lace on the cuff of the sleeve and the collar, on the last of which the major has one star, the lieutenant-colonel two, and the colonel three. The generals wear, according to their grades, similar lace and stars; but in ordinary service the colour of their coat is nearly a sky-blue grey, and they wear a gold-laced hat with green plumes.
The officer always wears his uniform-he is proud of himself in this attire-he honours it by obedience and excellent conduct; but, as he constantly wears it, some care is paid to the demands of conveniency, and so the officer off duty wears a very elegant little blue cap, whose sole ornament is a rose, with the embroidered initials of the emperor's. name: this cap is soft, and can be put in the pocket. The officer is allowed, when not on duty, to wear any trousers he pleases, but they must be either blue, white, or grey, according to the climate and season. He frequently wears a waistcoat too, which may be noticed under his. half-opened coat; and he never lays aside his sabre, which, except when on parade, he wears under his tunic. The dress of the non-commissioned officers is of the same cloth as the privates, and their grades are distinguished like the officers, by stars on the collar, which, however, in their case are embroidered in wool.
Discipline in the Austrian army is very strictly observed, and till very recently was maintained by a plentiful use of the stick. It formed a peculiar ornament of the non-commissioned officers and corporals, who carried it attached to their sabres. It has now been abolished, and in the eyes of the public the regulation punishment of the stick has disappeared. We say purposely “in the eyes of the public,” for we feel convinced that it still exists in the Austrian army, and will do so for a long time hence, as institutions of this nature cannot be abolished in a moment, without entailing serious dangers. Thus, then, the punishment has been deprived of that humiliation which it found in the sight of the Germans. and foreign armies—public disgrace; but it is still flourishing. The common punishments are corvées, guard-mountings, and parades. More serious faults are punishable with arrest, with or without chains, and bread and water, or else by removal to a disciplinary company.
The system of rewards in the Austrian army is a subject of special attention for the government. Soldiers and non-commissioned officers can earn their medals in the field: 1. The gold medal, to which is attached the privilege of drawing the pay for life, of that grade which the soldier held at the time of the reception of the medal; 2. The silver medal, 1st class, with the privilege of drawing half-pay; 3. The silver medal, 2nd class, merely an honorary distinction. There are invalid hospitals for old or sickly soldiers; they have also a claim to a large number of civil offices ; but the French system of retraite does not exist in Austria. The officers in the time of war can claim four honorary distinctions::. the Maria Theresa Order, the Leopold Order, the Order of the Iron Crown, and the Cross of Military Merit. Several branches of these orders, entitle the holder to elevation into the nobility; and we may repeatedly notice in the official journal the name of some officer, who, as commander or knight of one of these orders, has received the title of baron of the empire. Though not desirous to write a history of the orders: of the Austrian monarchy, we cannot pass by in silenca one of the
greatest military institutions of the country, and one of the most esteemed orders in Europe—the Maria Theresa Order. It was founded on the 17th of June, 1757, by the empress of that name, on occasion of the battle of Kollin, gained by Marshal Daun over Frederick the Great. The emperor is grand-master. Officers of all grades, strangers without distinction of birth and religion, can be received into it. The only requirement for investiture is the performance of some brilliant deed. The Grand Cross is given to those persons who have carried out any great operation, through their high position in the command of the army. *Joseph II. founded a middle class, that of the commanders. It is a pity that nò class has as yet been founded for non-commissioned officers and privates; for, though there may be a difference of rank among brave men, yet they all belong to one family; they are all brothers, and by this title they have an equal claim, though in different grades, to equal public honours. The order possesses a revenue of 400,000 florins, out of which the grand crosses receive a pension of 1500 florins (125l.). The remainder of this sum is paid to the elder knights, in pensions of 501. and 361. Widows receive one-half of the pension : those knights who are not pensioned receive them according to seniority: only foreigners have no claim. Up to the present, the Maria Theresa Order has been most scantily bestowed, for, in an army of 540,000 men, we only find 4 grand crosses (including the emperor as grand-master), 14 commanders, and 43 knights. This amount gives about one knight to every 9000 men, which is evidently too limited a number.
The Austrian infantry is of very noble appearance, and its behaviour under arms exceedingly soldierlike. Their immobility is not merely of an automatic nature-a reproach formerly cast on German troops, but it proves the observance of a duty: the strictest silence is ordered. All that takes place in this army bears a dignified character. The highest officers, like the commonest soldier, when prayers are offered up for the emperor, and salvos are fired in his honour, bow reverentially and salute during the whole duration of the prayers or the salvo.
The infantry are armed with a firelock, much resembling our own in weight and calibre. It has neither percussion nor flint-lock; but the old pan has been so altered as to hold a very small cylinder filled with detonating powder, which is attached to a thin wire. This powder is covered by a spring-rack, after the fashion of the front hammer of the old wheellock. This spring-rack is provided with a cog pressing on the powder, and the gun is immediately discharged by the blow of the hammer on the cog. This arm is subjected to repeated trials, and can even be fired under water, which is, probably, unnecessary precaution. The regulation-musket is not the sole arm of the infantry. On the march each company has several tirailleurs on its flank, armed with rifles, rather shorter than the musket, but of greater range. These soldiers wear the regimental uniform, and are only distinguished by wearing a shoulderstrap of the same colour as the facings. The light infantry consists of 1 regiment of imperial chasseurs (Tyrolese), and 25 chasseur battalions, who are all first-rate troops, carefully selected from among the recruits. Their armament and equipment resembles that of the French chasseurs au pied ; their uniform is well adapted to the service for which they are intended, and, in spite of its grey colour, is pleasant to the eye. These troops served as the model for the organisation of the French chasseurs, who, however, are far superior to them in every respect. The Austrians, though picked men and well-built, have not the broad shoulders, the prominent chest, and iron muscles, or the incessant activity which characterise the French chasseurs.
The Austrian artillerymen do not differ much from the infantry. We find no giants among them, and the men are not picked for personal appearance, but those men are selected at recruiting who have a trade adapted for ordnance purposes, as the men are very clever in the management of every sort of tool. The train-horses are very handsome, and remarkable for well-formed limbs, and hoofs, and broad chests: they carry themselves well, and their heads are generally very small. Even the few faults which might be objected as to their appearances are really good qualities for their special service. Thus they have generally a short neck and very stout shoulders. The harness is elegant and solid ; iron and steel are very much used in it, and are advantageously substituted in various portions which in other countries are made of leather or rope. Much has been recently done to improve this arm of the service, but any change is only effected with great caution, that they may not be compelled to return to the old system.
The Austrian cavalry enjoys in Europe an old and well-merited reputation. To judge from the events of the great French campaign, in which several Austrian cavalry officers who joined the armies of Napoleon distinguished themselves highly, we may form a very favourable idea of the school in which they were educated. We are speaking of a remote period, but, in a matter like this, traditions exercise a great influence on the state of the present. In the organisation of armies, more especially in a moral respect, nothing can be invented impromptu. Traditions are of more value to a regiment than is history: these are its property, its sole inheritance; it is proud of them, and justly so. In Austria these traditions are carefully treasured by the greatest lord and the lowest peasant. Some possess them in wretched daubs_wretched only with reference to their artistic merits for the thought that created them is one of the most noble and honourable: others raise splendid monuments to them, like the one which a Prince of Liechtenstein, one of that family of great lords and heroes, erected in honour' of four hussars who saved his life in an engagement, when the prince was wounded and could not extricate himself from his horse.
The Austrian cavalry is divided into two so materially different parts, that they only have the word of command and military regulations in common. Men, horses, arms, uniform, language, race and character, everything in these two descriptions of cavalry differ. The cuirassiers, dragoons, and chevaux legus are called “ German cavalry," and correctly so, both men and horses being German or Bohemian. The hussars are all Hungarians or Transylvanians, and the hulans, Poles. Each of these varieties of cavalry possesses the qualities peculiar to its nation and the nature of the horses. The German cavalry have large men and horses : they are regular and solid, but perhaps still rather slow in their movements, in spite of the progress recently made under this head. But it must not
be forgotten that heavy cavalry cannot move rapidly for any length of time without suffering a terrible loss in horses. The Hungarian hussar has served as a model for the hussars of every country, and will remain so for ever. The Hungarian is almost: born in a saddle, and is attached to his horse, not like a useful domestic animal, but as a friend. The hussars may be detached without taking any care for their horses, for they are sure to find them provender, and would sooner sleep on the hard ground than leave the horse without straw. The hussar is a true pattern of the mythic centaur. In the saddle he manages his weapons excellently: he has: a sharp eye, is very determined, and possesses un deniable bravery. When to all these qualities we can add young and talented officers, as is the case at the present moment, this arm must be most valuable. The armament of the Austrian cavalry could be greatly im:: proved. The fire-arms are heavy, clumsy, and of old pattern; and though carbines have been lately served out, of a very great range, they are as awk ward to handle as the others. The sabres are of various patterns, and many of them are too light to guard off a blow. Recently, sabres à la Monts morency have been introduced; they are straight and flat, and as the Austrian cavalry, especially the hussars, are much more skilled in thrust ing than in cutting, this arm will be of great service to them. The lance, with a shorter shaft than the French, is far from being perfect. The pointe is flat, and not hollowed out ; it has also an iron band about seven or eight inches from the point, which entirely displaces the centre of gravity. With respect to defensive arms, the helmet is of an ungraceful shape, made of black leather and brass ornaments; they do not sufficiently protect the head of the wearer, and the cuirass only covers them in front. The Austrian cavalry, however, has been recently undergoing great changes, and it is very probable that they have by this time been placed on a state of equal efficiency, with the other arms.
After having thus described cursorily the various elements of which the Austrian army is composed, we cannot do better than complete our sketch by a tabular statement of its effective strength on the 25th of October, 1852. At that period it amounted to 477,069 men, and 54,620 horses, distributed in the following manner :
Number Effective Strength
TOTAL. of of each Squadron.
of each Arm. Squadrons. | Men. Horses. | Men. Horses. Men. Horses.
Total effective strength of Austrian Army.....477,069 men, 54,620 horses.
Though possessing such an imposing force Austria had, till very recently, no other reserve than the Landwehr, which was not even introduced through the whole of the empire. The present kaiser, seeing the disadvantage of such a system, abolished the Landwehr by a decree dated 30th July, 1852, and substituted for it a reserve, which embraces all the crown lands. The two last contingents to serve their time are intended to form a portion of the reserve. When we assume, then, that from 50,000 to 60,000 men are annually discharged, this new reserve may be safely estimated at 100,000 to 120,000 men; persons immediately at command, and still accustomed to the service, will continue to serve in the same arm to which they belonged, and their uniform and arms are now all in readiness for them. When we add to these the reserve naturally formed by the border regiments, of which only one battalion is attached to the active army, we may easily convince ourselves that the present reserve is very considerable, and that it could be incorporated with the active