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permit it. He said he would speak to lord On the morning of the same day, February Hyde, and send me word.

20, it was currently and industriously reportOn the Monday following, I received a let- ed all over the town, that lord North would ter from lord Howe. To understand it better, that day make a pacific motion in the house it is necessary to reflect, that in the meantime of commons, for healing all differences bethere was opportunity for Mr. Barclay to com- tween Britain and America. The house was municate to that nobleman, the REMARKS I accordingly very full, and the members full had made on the plan, the sight of which had of expectation. The Bedford party, inimical probably changed the purpose of making any to America, and who had urged severe meause of me on the occasion. The letter fol- sures

, were alarmed, and began to exclaim lows:

against the minister for his timidity, and the

fluctuation of his politics ; they even began “Grafton street, Feb. 20, 1775.

to count voices, to see if they could not, by “ Not having had a convenient opportunity negativing his motion, at once unhorse him, to talk with lord Hyde until this morning, on and throw him out of administration. His the subject I mentioned, when I had, my wor- friends were therefore alarmed for him, and thy friend, the pleasure to see you last, I now there was much caballing and whispering. give you the earliest information of his lord- At length a motion, as one had been proship’s sentiments upon my proposition. mised, was made, but whether that originally

He declares he has no personal objection, intended, is with me very doubtful: I suspect, and that he is always desirous of the conver- from its imperfect composition, from its insation of men of knowledge, consequently, in adequateness to answer the purpose previousthat respect, would have a pleasure in yours. ly professed, and from some other circumBut he apprehends, that on the present Ame- stances, that when first drawn it contained rican contest, your principles and his, or rather more of Mr. Barclay's plan, but was curtailed those of parliament, are as yet so wide from by advice, just before it was delivered. My each other, that a meeting merely to discuss old proposition of giving up the regulating them, might give you unnecessary trouble. duties to the colonies, was in part to be found Should you think otherwise, or should any pro- in it, and many who knew nothing of that pitious circumstances approximate such dis- transaction, said it was the best part of the tant sentiments, he would be happy to be used motion : it was as follows:as a channel to convey what might tend to harmony, from a person of credit to those in Lord North's Motion, Feb. 20, 1775. power: and I will venture to advance, from

“ That it is the opinion of this committee, my knowledge of his lordship's opinion of men that when the governor, council, and assemand things, that nothing of that nature would bly, or general court of his majesty's prosuffer in the passage.

vinces or colonies, shall propose to make "I am, with a sincere regard, your most provision according to their respective condiobedient servant,


tions, circumstances, and situations, for con"To Dr. Franklin."

tributing their proportion to the common

defence; such proportion to be raised under As I had no desire of obtruding myself upon the authority of the general court, or general lord Hyde, though a little piqued at his de assembly of such province or colony, and clining to see me, I thought it best to show a disposable by parliament; and shall engage decent indifference, which I endeavoured in to make provision also for the support of the the following answer:

civil government, and the administration of “ Craven street, Feb. 20, 1775.

justice in such province or colony, it will be

proper, if such proposal shall be approved by “Having nothing to offer on the American his majesty in parliament, and for so long as business, in addition to what lord Hyde is al such provision shall be made accordingly, to ready acquainted with from the papers that forbear in respect of such province or colony, have passed, it seems most respectful not to to levy any duties, tax, or assessment, or to give his lordship the trouble of a visit; since impose any further duty, tax, or assessment, a mere discussion of the sentiments contained except only such duties as it may be expein those papers, is not, in his opinion, likely dient to impose for the regulation of comto produce any good effect. I am thankful, merce; the nett produce of the duties last however, to his lordship, for the permission mentioned, to be carried to the account of of waiting on him, which I shall use if any such province, colony, or plantation excluthing occurs thạt may give a chance of utility sively." in such an interview.

“With sincere esteem and respect, I have After a good deal of wild debate, in which the honour to be, my lord, your lordship's most this motion was supported upon various and obedient humble servant, B. FRANKLIN. inconsistent principles by the ministerial peo. Lord Howe."

ple, and even met with an opposition from Vol. L...R

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some of them, which showed a want of con-| his lordship that I had proposed no such concert, probably from the suddenness of the dition of my engagement, nor any other than alterations above supposed, they all agreed at the repeal of all the Massachusetts acts: that length, as usual, in voting it by a large ma- what followed relating to the indemnification jority. Hearing nothing all the_following was only expressing my private opinion that week from Messrs. Barclay and Fothergill

, it would be just, but by no means insisting (except that lord Hyde, when acquainted with upon it. He said the arrangements were not my willingness to engage for payment of the yet determined on; that as I now explained tea, had said it gave him new life,) nor any myself

, it appeared I had been much misapthing from lord Howe, I mentioned his silence prehended; and he wished of all things I occasionally to his sister, adding, that I sup- would see lord Hyde, and asked if I would posed it owing to his finding what he had choose to meet him there, at Mrs. Howe's, or proposed to me was not likely to take place; that he should call upon me: I said that I and I wished her to desire him, if that was would by no means give lord Hyde that trouthe case, to let me know it by a line, that I ble. That since he (lord Howe) seemed to might be at liberty to take other measures. think it might be of use, and wished it done She did so as soon as he returned from the soon, I would wait upon lord Hyde: I knew country, where he had been for a day or two; him to be an early riser, and would be with and I received from her the following note, him at 8 o'clock the next morning; which viz.

lord Howe undertook to acquaint him with:

but I added, that from what circumstances I “ Mrs. Howe's compliments to Dr. Frank- could collect of the disposition of ministry, I lin: lord Howe not quite understanding the apprehended my visit would answer no mamessage received from her, will be glad to terial purpose. He was of a different opinion, have the pleasure of seeing him, either be- to which I submitted. tween twelve and one this morning, (the only The next morning, March 1st, I according, hour he is at liberty this day,) at her house, ly was early with lord Hyde, who received or at any hour to-morrow most convenient to me with his usual politeness. We talked him.

over a great part of the dispute between the Grafton street, Tuesday."

countries. I found him ready with all the

newspaper and pamphlet topics, of the exI met his lordship at the hour appointed. pense of settling our colonies, the protection He said that he had not seen me lately, as he afforded them, the heavy debt under which expected daily to have something more ma- Britain laboured, the equity of our contributterial to say to me than had yet occurred; ing to its alleviation; that many people in and hoped that I would have called on lord England were no more represented than we Hyde, as I had intimated I should do when I were, yet all were taxed and governed by apprehended it might be useful, which he parliament, &c. &c. I answered all, but with was sorry to find I had not done. That there little effect; for though his lordship seemed was something in my verbal message by Mrs. civilly to hear what I said, I had reason to Howe, which perhaps she had apprehended believe he attended very little to the purporf imperfectly; it was the hint of my purpose to of it, his mind being employed the while in take other measures. I answered, that hav- thinking on what he himself purposed to say ing since I had last seen his lordship heard next. He had hoped, he said, that lord of the death of my wife at Philadelphia, in North's motion would have been satisfactory; whose hands I had left the care of my affairs and asked what could be objected to it. there, it was become necessary for me to re- replied, the terms of it were, that we should turn thither as soon as conveniently might grant money till parliament had agreed we be; that what his lordship had proposed, of had given enough, without having the least my accompanying him to America, might, if share in judging of the propriety of the mealikely to take place, postpone my voyage to sure for which it was to be granted, or of our suit his conveniency; otherwise, I should own abilities to grant; that these grants were proceed by the first ship. That I did sup- also to be made under a threat of exercising pose, by not hearing from him, and by lord a claimed right of taxing us at pleasure, and North's motion, all thoughts of that kind were compelling such taxes by an armed force, if laid aside, which was what I only desired to we did not give till it should be thought we know from him. He said my last paper of had given enough; that the proposition was REMARKS by Mr. Barclay, wherein I had similar to no mode of obtaining aids that ever made the indemnification of Boston for the existed, except that of a highwayman, who injury of stopping its port, a condition of my presents his pistol and hat at a coach window, engaging to pay for the tea, (a condition im- demanding no specific sum, but if you will possible to be complied with,) had discouraged give all your money, or what he is pleased to further proceeding on that idea. Having a think sufficient, he will civilly omit putting copy of that paper in my pocket, I showed his own hand into your pockets : if not, there

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is his pistol : that the mode of raising con-structions to act upon. That I was certainly tributions in an enemy's country was fairer willing to do every thing that could reasonathan this, since there an explicit sum was bly be expected of me. But if any supposed I demanded, and the people who were raising could prevail with my countrymen to take it knew what they were about, and when black for white, and wrong for right, it was they should have done :—and that, in short, not knowing either them or me: they were no free people could ever think of beginning not capable of being so imposed on, nor was I to grant upon such terms: that, besides, a capable of attempting it. He then asked my new dispute had now been raised, by the opinion of sending over a commissioner, for parliament's pretending to a power of alter the purpose mentioned in a preceding part of ing our charters and established laws, which this account; and my answer was to the same was of still more importance to us than their effect. By the way, I apprehend, that to give claim of taxation, as it set us all adrift, and me an opportunity of discoursing with lord left us without a privilege we could depend Hyde on that point, was a principal motive upon, but at their pleasure; this was a situa- with lord Howe, for urging me to make this tion we could not possibly be in, and as lord visit. His lordship did not express his own North’s proposition had no relation to this sentiments upon it. And thus ended this conmatter, if the other had been such as we could versation. have agreed to, we should still be far from a Three or four days after, I received the reconciliation. His lordship thought I mis- following note from Mrs. Howe. understood the proposition; on which I took it out and read it: he then waived that point, “ Mrs. Howe's compliments to Dr. Frankand said he should be glad to know from me lin: lord Howe begs to have the pleasure of what would produce a reconciliation. I said meeting him once more before he goes, at her that his lordship, I imagined, had seen several house ; he is at present out of town, but reproposals of mine for that purpose. He said turns on Monday, and any day or hour after he had ; but some of my articles were such as that, that the doctor will name, he will be would never be agreed to : that it was appre- very glad to attend him, hended I had several instructions and powers Grafton street, Saturday, March 4 4 5." to offer more acceptable terms, but was extremely reserved, and perhaps from a desire I answered that I would do myself the he did not blame, of doing better for my con- honour of waiting on lord Howe at her house stituents ; but my expectations might deceive the Tuesday following, at eleven o'clock. We me, and he did think, I might be assured, I met accordingly. He began by saying, that I should never obtain better terms than what had been a better prophet than himself

, in were now offered by lord North ; that ad-foreseeing that my interview with lord Hyde ministration had a sincere desire of restoring would be of no great use : and then said that harmony with America, and it was thought. he hoped I would excuse the trouble he had if I would co-operate with them the business given me, as his intentions had been good would be easy: that he hoped I was above both towards me and the public: he was sorry retaining resentment against them, for what that at present there was no appearance of nobody now approved, and for which satisfac- things going into the train he had wished, but tion might be made me: that I was, as he that possibly they might yet take a more faunderstood, in high esteem among the Ame-vourable turn; and as he understood I was ricans; that if I would bring about a recon- going soon to America, if he should chance to ciliation on terms suitable to the dignity of be sent thither on that important business, he government, I might be as highly and gene- hoped he might still expect my assistance. I rally esteemed here, and be honoured and re-assured him of my readiness at all times of cowarded perhaps beyond my expectation. operating with him in so good a work : and

I replied, that I thought I had given a con- so taking my leave, and receiving his good vincing proof of iny sincere desire of promo wishes, ended the nogotiation with lord Howe. ting peace, when, on being informed that all And I heard no more of that with Messrs. wanted for the honour of government, was to Fothergill and Barclay: I could only gather obtain payment for the tea, I offered, without from some hints in their conversation, that any instruction to warrant my so doing, or as- neither of them were well pleased with the surance that I should be reimbursed, or my conduct of the ministers respecting these conduct approved, to engage for that payment, transactions: and a few days before I left if the Massachusetts acts were to be repealed; London, I met them by their desire, at the an engagement in which I must have risked doctor's house, when they desired me to asmy whole fortune; which I thought few be sure their friends from them, that it was now sides me would have done : that in truth, pri- their fixed opinion, that nothing could secure vate resentments had no weight with me in the privileges of America, but a firm, sober public business; that I was not the reserved adherence to the terms of the association made man imagined; having really no secret in- ' at the congress, and that the salvation of

English liberty depended now on the perse-| to that town, equal to what was suffered there verance and virtue of America.

by the India company; it follows that such During the whole, my time was otherwise exceeding damage is an injury done by this much taken up, by friends calling continually government, for which reparation ought to be to inquire news from America:

members of made. And whereas reparation of injuries both houses of parliament, to inform me what ought always (agreeably to the custom of all passed in the houses, and discourse with me nations savage as well as civilized) to be first on the debates, and on motions made or to be required before satisfaction is taken by a remade; merchants of London and of the manu- turn of damage to the aggressors;

which was facturing and port towns on their petitions, the not done by Great Britain in the instance Quakers upon theirs, &c. &c., so that I had abovementioned; I the underwritten, do thereno time to take notes of almost any thing. fore, as their agent, in the behalf of my counThis account is therefore chiefly from recol. try and the town of Boston, protest against lection, in which doubtless much must have the continuance of the said blockade: and I been omitted, from deficiency of memory; but do hereby solemnly demand satisfaction for what there is I believe to be pretty exact; ex- the accumulated injury done them, beyond cept that discoursing with so many different the value of the India company's tea destroypersons about the same time, on the same sub- ed. And whereas the conquest of the Gulph ject, I may possibly have put down some of St. Lawrence, the coast of Labrador and things as said by or to one person, which Nova Scotia, and the fisheries possessed by passed in conversation with another. A little the French there and on the banks of Newbefore I left London, being at the house of foundland, so far as they were more extended lords, when a debate in which lord Camden than at present, was made by the joint forces was to speak, and who indeed spoke admira- of Britain and the colonies, the latter having bly on American affairs, I was much disgusted, nearly an equal number of men in that service from the ministerial side, by many base re- with the former; it follows that the colonies flections on American courage, religion, un- have an equitable and just right to participate derstanding, &c. in which we were treated in the advantage of those fisheries: I do therewith the utmost contempt, as the lowest of fore, in the behalf of the colony of the Massamankind, and almost of a different species chusetts Bay, protest against the act now unfrom the English of Britain; but particularly der consideration in parliament, for depriving the American honesty was abused by some that province, with others, of that fishery (on of the lords, who asserted that we were all pretence of their refusing to purchase British knaves, and wanted only by this dispute to commodities) as an act highly unjust and avoid paying our debts; that if we had any injurious: and I give notice, that satisfacsense of equity or justice, we should offer pay- tion will probably one day be demanded for ment of the tea, &c. I went home somewhat all the injury that may be done and suffered irritated and heated; and partly to retort upon in the execution of such act: and that the inthis nation, on the article of equity, drew up justice of the proceeding is likely to give such a memorial to present to lord Dartmouth, be- umbrage to all the colonies, that in no future fore my departure; but consulting my friend, war, wherein other conquests may be mediMr. Thomas Walpole upon it, who is a mem- tated, either a man or a shilling will be ob ber of the house of commons, he looked at it tained from any of them to aid such conand at me several times alternately, as if quests, till full satisfaction be made as aforehe apprehended me a little out of my senses. said.

B. FRANKLIN. As I was in the hurry of packing up, I re- “ Given in London, this 16th day of quested him to take the trouble of showing it March, 1775." to his neighbour lord Camden, and ask his advice upon it, which he kindly undertook to

“To Dr. Franklin. do; and returned it me with a note, which

“ DEAR SIR,-) return you the memorial, here follows the proposed memorial.

which it is thought might be attended with " To the Right Honourable the Earl of dangerous consequences to your person, and Dartmouth, one of his Majesty's principal

contribute to exasperate the nation.

“I heartily wish you a prosperous voyage, Secretaries of State.

a long health, and am, with the sincerest re"A Memorial of Benjamin Franklin, Agent of the gard, your most faithful and obedient serProvince of Massachusetts Bay.



Lincoln's Inn Fields, “ Whereas an injury done, can only give

16th March, 1775." the party injured a right to full reparation; or, in case that be refused, a right to return Mr. Walpole called at my house the next an equal injury; and whereas the blockade day, and hearing I was gone to the house of of Boston, now continued nine months, hath lords, came there to me, and repeated more every week of its continuance done damage fully what was in his note; adding, that it


was thought my having no instructions direct-place-his philosophical works; but the foling me to deliver such a protest, would make lowing general reflections connected thereit appear still more unjustifiable, and be deem- with, by this friend of the human race, may, ed a national affront: I had no desire to make with propriety, be here introduced. matters worse, and, being grown cooler, took Navigation, when employed in supplying the advice so kindly given


necessary provisions to a country in want, The evening before I left London, I receiv- and thereby preventing famines, which were ed a note from Dr. Fothergill, with some let- more frequent and destructive before the inters to his friends in Philadelphia. In that vention of that art, is undoubtedly a blessing note he desires me to get those friends, “and to mankind. When employed merely in two or three more together, and inform them, transporting superfluities, it is a question that whatever specious pretences are offered, whether the advantage of the employment it they are all hollow; and that to get a larger affords, is equal to the mischief of hazarding field on which to fatten a herd of worthless so many lives on the ocean.

But when emparasites, is all that is regarded. Perhaps it ployed in pillaging merchants and transportmay be proper to acquaint them with David ing slaves, it is clearly the means of aug. Barclay's and our united endeavours, and the menting the mass of human misery. It is effects. They will stun at least, if not con- amazing to think of the ships and lives risked vince, the most worthy, that nothing very fa- in fetching tea from China, coffee from Aravourable is intended, if more unfavourable ar- bia, sugar and tobacco from America, all which ticles cannot be obtained.” The doctor in the our ancestors did well without. Sugar emcourse of his daily visits among the great, in ploys near one thousand ships, tobacco almost the practice of his profession, had full oppor- as many. For the utility of tobacco there is tunity of being acquainted with their senti- little to be said; and for that of sugar, how ments, the conversation every where turning much more commendable would it be, if we upon the subject of America.

could give up the few minutes gratification afforded once or twice a day, by the taste of

sugar in our tea, rather than encourage the Here Dr. Franklin's own narrative closes, cruelties exercised in producing it. An emiand the editor resumes the continuation of nent French moralist says, that when he conthe subject.

siders the wars we excite in Africa to obtain During the passage to America, Dr. Frank- slaves, the numbers necessarily slain in those lin not only occupied himself in writing the wars, the many prisoners who perish at sea preceding narrative of his noble efforts to pre- by sickness, bad provisions, foul air, &c. in vent a war, which the rapacity and infatua- the transportation, and how many afterwards tion of the British ministry utterly defeated, die from the hardships of slavery, he cannot but he likewise employed himself in making look on a piece of sugar without conceiving experiments and observations on the waters it stained with spots of human blood! had of the ocean, by means of the thermometer, in he added the consideration of the wars we order to ascertain the exact course of the make to take and retake the sugar islands gulph stream; by the knowledge of which, from one another, and the fleets and armies mariners might hereafter avoid or avail them that perish in those expeditions, he might selves of its current, according to their various have seen his sugar not merely spotted, but destinations. These experiments and ob- thoroughly dyed scarlet in grain! It is these servations will be found in their appropriate wars that made the maritime powers of Eu

rope, the inhabitants of London and Paris, pay * It is ascertained by Dr. Franklin's experiments, dearer for sugar than those of Vienna, a thougulph stream, by the warmth of the water, which is sand miles from the sea; because their sugar much greater than that of the water on either side of costs not only the price they pay for it by the cross the stream to get out of it as soon as possible ; the fleets and armies that fight for it." it. II, then, he is bound to the westward, he should pound, but all they pay in taxes to maintain and if to the eastward, endeavour to remain in it.


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