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et placidam soleo spargere lacte Palem. adsitis, divi, nec vos e paupere mensa

dona nec e puris spernite fictilibus.
fictilia antiquus primum sibi fecit agrestis

pocula, de facili conposuitque luto.
non ego divitias patrum fructusque requiro

quos tulit antiquo condita messis avo:
parva seges satis est, satis est, requiescere lecto

si licet et solito membra levare toro. quam iuvat inmites ventos audire cubantem


et dominam tenero continuisse sinu

46. continuisse 0 detinuisse Y tum tenuisse Baehrens.

36. placidam : used prolepti Juv. 6, 342-345. With the general cally.

idea of vv. 38–39 cf. 1, 10, 17-18.' 37. paupere mensa : in con 40. facili: in the passive sense, trast to the expensive tables of “plastic.' — For the position of ego the rich, a kind of extravagance

cf. BPW., Vol. 18 (1898), Sp. 213; which was a special fad at Rome ; -for-que before a dissyllable ending cf. B. G., pp. 294–296.

a pentameter cf. v. 78; Intr. § 28. 38. fictilibus : although Tibul 42. condita : “ingathered.' lus appears to be pleading his 43. satis est: for similar repetipoverty as an excuse for using tions, which are quite in the manearthenware dishes instead of ves ner of Tibullus, cf. 1, 3, 4-5; 1, 2, sels of silver and gold in sacrific 29-30 ; I, 5, 61-65 ; 2, 5, 100; ing to the gods, as a matter of Prop. 2, 13, 25. fact it was the well-known con 44. solito : cf. Ovid, Trist. 3, 3, servatism always attaching to re 39. — toro: properly the bedding ligious rites which required that or covering, the part upon which the old-fashioned sacrificial vessels the body lies, as distinguished of pottery should be retained even from lectus as a whole. long after this time. Cf. Lanciani, 45. iuvat : with the thought Anc. Rome in the Light of Mod. cf. Lucr. 2, 1-2 :

suave, mari Disc., p. 43; Pliny, N. H. 35, 46 : magno turbantibus aequora ventis, in sacris quidem etiam inter has e terra magnum alterius spectare opes hodie non murrinis crystal

laborem. cubantem :

alilinisve, sed fictilibus prolibatur; quem.



aut, gelidas hibernus aquas cum fuderit auster,

securum somnos imbre iuvante sequi ! hoc mihi contingat: sit dives iure, furorem

qui maris et tristes ferre potest pluvias. o quantum est auri pereat potiusque smaragdi,

quam fleat ob nostras ulla puella vias. te bellare decet terra, Messalla, marique,

ut domus hostiles praeferat exuvias: me retinent vinctum formosae vincla puellae,


53. terra

47. For the rime cf. Intr. the Aquitanian expedition, proba§ 42, I (5) (6).

bly in 31 B.C., and the ordering of 48. imbre iuvante : cf. Hor. affairs in various eastern provinces Epod. 2, 28.

immediately thereafter (see Intr. 51. potius : belongs to both to 1, 3). He was the first to hold clauses. On the arrangement of the office of Praefectus Urbi, which words (synchysis) cf. 1, 3, 56 ; he soon resigned as inconsistent Hansen, p. 36.--smaragdi: 'gems'; with his political opinions. As an for the collective use cf. Prop. I, orator he achieved much fame and 14, 12; Ovid, Am. 3, 13, 25: vir earned the praise of Cicero. He ginei crines auro gemmaque pre wrote also poetry and historical muntur.

works. The literary coterie of 52. Cf. Prop. 3, 20, 4: tantine, which he was the center included ut lacrimes, Africa tota fuit ? particularly Tibullus, Lygdamus,

marique : cf. 1, Sulpicia, and other minor poets; 3, 56. Messalla is still away at war. and he was also the friend of

Messalla : Marcus Valerius Mes Horace, Asinius Pollio, and Ovid; salla Corvinus, b. 64 B.C., d. c. cf. 1, 3, 1 ; 5, 31 ; 7, 7, et passim ; 8 A.D., the patron of Tibullus, 2, 1, 31-34 ; 5, 119. distinguished in public life and 54. praeferat: it was the cusliterary circles at Rome. In the tom to hang at the entrance of civil wars he was successively houses and temples the trophies allied with the fortunes of Brutus, won from vanquished enemies. Antony, and Octavian, and ren Cf. Verg. Aen. 7, 183 sqq. : muldered the latter excellent service taque praeterea sacris in postibus in the final struggle at Actium for arma, captivi pendent currus curthe mastery of the Roman world.

vaeque secures et cristae capitum After this he was intrusted with et portarum ingentia claustra speseveral important military commis culaque clipeique ereptaque rostra sions by Augustus, among them carinis ; Prop. 3, 9, 26.


et sedeo duras ianitor ante fores.
non ego laudari curo, mea Delia : tecum

dum modo sim, quaeso segnis inersque vocer. te spectem, suprema mihi cum venerit hora,

te teneam moriens deficiente manu. flebis et arsuro positum me, Delia, lecto,

tristibus et lacrimis oscula mixta dabis. flebis : non tua sunt duro praecordia ferro

vincta, neque in tenero stat tibi corde silex. illo non iuvenis poterit de funere quisquam

lumina, non virgo, sicca referre domum. tu manes ne laede meos, sed parce solutis

crinibus et teneris, Delia, parce genis. interea, dum fata sinunt, iungamus amores:

iam veniet tenebris Mors adoperta caput,



56. duras : as if the doors were lecto : 'my bier,' which would be to blame for shutting him out. placed upon the funeral pyre and ianitor: doorkeepers were often consumed with it. Cf. Prop. 4, kept chained to their positions at II, 1o. the entrance (cf. vinctum).

63–64. Cf. 1, 10, 59; Ovid, Am. 57. laudari: of military hon 3, 6, 59: ille habet et silices et ors; cf. Prop. 1, 6, 29. “Here is vivum in pectore ferrum. the same "linked sweetness long 67. tu: cf. 1, 4, 39; Prop. 1, 7, drawn out, which gives such a 25. — manes ne laede: the spirit charm to Gray's Elegy” (Crutt of the departed is represented as well, Hist. Rom. Lit., p. 301). being pained by too great grief curo : “take pains:'

on the part of loved ones left be60. Ovid in his beautiful elegy hind; cf. Prop. 4, II, I. on the death of Tibullus (Am. 3, 69. dum . . . sinunt: cf. Prop. 9, 58) expresses historically the 1, 19, 25; 2, 15, 23: dum nos fata same idea that Tibullus here utters sinunt, oculos satiemus amore. as prophetic longing. Cf. Shake iungamus amores : cf. Cat. 64, 372: speare, Son. 92 : “O what a happy quare agite optatos animi contitle do I find, Happy to have thy iungite amores. love, happy to die!”

70. iam: for this use of the 61. flebis et ... et ... dabis : word cf. Lex. s.v. C. 3; cf. 2, 5, the fut. of confident expectation. - 56. — Mors: the abstract idea is

ROM. EL. POETS —9 129

iam subrepet iners aetas, neque amare decebit,

dicere nec cano blanditias capite. nunc levis est tractanda Venus, dum frangere postes

non pudet et rixas inseruisse iuvat.
hic ego dux milesque bonus : vos, signa tubaeque,

ite procul, cupidis vulnera ferte viris.
ferte et opes: ey conposito securus acervo

despiciam dites despiciamque famem.


3 V

Ibitis Aegaeas sine me, Messalla, per undas,
o utinam memores ipse cohorsque mei :

72. capite OP capiti w. here personified according to Ro

72. cano

capite : abl. man habit; but the picture of the abs. ; cf. for the construction 2, 6, goddess thus formed inthe imagina 18; and for a similar idea, 1, 2, tion of the poet does not corre 90-92. blanditias : "soft nothspond at all to the Greek god ings.' Thanatos, commonly represented 74. rixas: quarrels of rival as a youth sinking down in sleep, lovers. inseruisse : “engage in.' with a reversed torch. The idea 75. hic: “in this field’; cf. the of such a being was too indistinct opening verses of the elegy with at Rome to be represented in any these closing ones.

On the ellipregular Roman type. Horace sis of sum cf. Deutsch, pp. 180– (Sat. 2, 1, 58) may be intending to 181. liken Mors to an evil bird of prey : 76. cupidis : i.e. for the opes of Mors atris circumvolat alis. Per V. 77, viz. the same as described haps the picture here painted by in vv. 1-2. Tibullus takes its main character 78. Cf. Hor. Car. 2, 10, 5-8. istic of a veiled countenance from the Roman custom of concealing

I, 3 the face when applying the torch After the Aquitanian expedition to a funeral pyre, or from the dim (probably of 31 B.C.) Messalla uncertainty shrouding the real was sent by Augustus to the East nature of death and the future life. to settle affairs in Cilicia, Syria, Cf. I, 10, 34.

and other districts. Tibullus, who 71. aetas = senectus.

had been in his retinue in Aqui

me tenet ignotis aegrum Phaeacia terris :

abstineas avidas, Mors precor atra, manus. 3. 4. Mors precor atra Yw Mors modo nigra 0 Mors violenta Codex Wittianus. tania, decided to accompany him rule, war, the messenger of death, thither also. But before he had had been invented ! But thou, proceeded far on his journey, the Juppiter, shouldst save me, a repoet fell sick and Messalla was ligious man. 53-94: But if I must obliged to leave him behind on die, let me be duly honored, and the island of Corcyra. This elegy let my spirit fly to Elysium. If must have been written there some any have taken advantage of my time during the year 30 B.C., per absence from my love, let his haps in the late summer or the abode be, amidst the horrors of fall, and is the earliest of the col Tartarus. But do thou, Delia, lection to which a definite date remain true to me: and oh ! after can be assigned.

all, may I live to return unexpectSick and lonesome, Tibullus edly and find you waiting for me in characteristic fashion at one in your chaste home.' moment fears imminent death, 1. Ibitis : although Messalla, and the next hopes for a joyful his patron, stands alone for emreturn to his home and his Delia. phasis at the beginning of the Three times do gloomy forebod elegy, the verb is in the plural reings give way to hope, in each case ferring to the idea of ipse cohorsque the ground of his pleasant antici in the next verse; cf. Hor. Epod. pations being a different one,

I, I. approached in a very skillful man

sc. sitis, or vi



vatis ; cf. 3, 5, 31. Such an omis1-34. • Alas! I am left alone, sion is unusual, but begins to be with none to perform the last more common in Tacitus. - cohors: offices at my grave; how much retinue,' composed of not only better it would have been, had I the necessary officials, but also heeded the omens and forebod usually, in such a case, of many ings which we both had before young men of rank, just getting my departure !

How faithful was thus their first taste of military Delia to thy service, O Isis! Surely life; cf. Intr. SS 21 and 23. thou wilt save me for her sake. 3. Phaeacia : this inythical isle 35-52: How much pleasanter it of Homer's Odyssey 'was identified would have been to live in the by later writers with Corcyra. It golden age, when I should not was a terra incognita to the poet's have tempted Providence by sail friends ; cf. Ovid, Am. 3, 9, 47. ing the sea, — before, under Jove's 4. Mors . . . atra : cf. 1, 10, 33.


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