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tame of Stair was mentioned ; and “ the test,” said the King; and asking Sir Laurence Dundas, through the Lord Stair to take an airing with him, whole of his life, marked his gratitude as soon as the door of the coach was by an affectionate kindness to every opened, he bade him pass and go in ; branch of his Lord'hip's family. The other bowed and obeyed. The

John Duke of Argyle, who knew King said, “ the world is in the righe well that the artifices of Lord Carteret“ in the character it gives : another would find opportunities to create dif- “ person would have troubled me with ferences between persons of such high" ceremony.” . fpirits as the King and his General, During the rebellion in the year faid, that Lord Stair's vanity had 1745, the clan of Glenco were quarmade him take the command of the tered near the house of Lord Stair, army, and his pride would make him The Pretender being afraid they would throw it up.

remember, that the warrant for the As the following anecdote marks massacre of their clan had been signed the manners of the age, during the by the Earl's farther, fent a guard to Duke of Marlborough's wars, and the protect the house. The clan quitted character of another fingular man, I the rebel army, and were returning thall hazard it. Lord Mark Ker and home: the Pretender sent to know Lord Stair were at play in a coffee- their reason. Their answer was, that house, when a stranger overlooked they had been affronted ; and when the game, and disturbed them with ob- asked what the affront was, they said, fervations. Lord Mark faid, “ Let“ the greatest of any; for they had • us throw the dice which of us Thall“ been suspected of being capable of

pink (a cant word of the time for “ visiting the injuries of the father upde fighting) this impudent fellow.” “ on the innocent and brave son.'? They threw. Lord Stair won. Lord He was brave indeed: a sure proof of Mark Ker cried out, “ Ah, Stair, which was, that he used all the influ. “ Seair, you have been always more ence and power he possessed, to obtain « fortunate in life than me."

mercy for those rebels against whom When Lord Stair was ambassador he had commanded one of the armies at Paris during the regency, he gave which guarded England. . orders to his coachman to give way to no body except the King ; meaning, . . . . . . . that an English ambasador should take the pass, even of the regent, but with Treuchery of Godolphin, Marlborough, . out naming him. The host was feen

and Sunderland. coming down a street through which the coach paired. The late Colonel THE difficulty of forcing the Young, from whom I had the itory, French to general actions in the open who was master of horse, rode to the sea, the impoffibilirg of blocking up window of the coach, and asked Lord their feets for any confiderable time Stair, if he would be pleafed to give at Brest in the stormy sea of the Bay kay to God Almighty. He answered, of Biscay, or at Toulon in the swelling

by all means, but to aone else;" and fea of the Gulph of Lyons, had fatis then ftepping out of the coach, paid tied the King, that the only way to refped to the religion of the country conquer the fleets of France was in in which he was, and kneeled in a their own barbours; and the sufferings very dirty free.

of the trade of England, which not only Lewis XIV. was told, that Lord weakened the nation, but impaired the Stair was one of the best bred men in revenue, and which had arifen greatly Europe . i thall fova put da u from the vicinity of Brest to the Eng

lith coasts, made him resolve to attack “gence, which you may depend upon that place, by making a lodgement on “ being exactly true." But the leto. the neck of land which separates the ter from General Sackfield to Lord road of Brest from the road of Cameret, Mellfort, which inclosed that from and commands the bay, the harbour, Lord Marlborough, spoke out more and the river ; but his intention was plainly the advantage which the intel.: betrayed to the late King, by intelli- ligence given to James would prove gence in the spring from Lord Godol. to France. The words are : “ I send phin, first Lord of the Treasury, and the letter by an express, judging it afterwards by a letter from Lord “to be of the utmoft consequence for Marlborough, eldest Lieutenant-ge- “ the service of the King my master, peral in the service, of date 4th May “and consequently for the service of 1694, in the same way as a project “ bis Most Christian Majesty." The against Toulon was betrayed ewo years evidence of Lord Sunderland's treachafterwards by Lord Sunderland. Marl. ery (for the evidence of such extraorborough's letter, with a strange endea- dinary facts should be referred to) is Four, yet natural desire, even in the to be found in a letter from the most wicked, to reconcile their pro- Earl of Arran, his son-in-law, to figucy with their duty, in their own King James ; the treachery of Cotyes, and those of others, contained dolphin, in Captain Lloyd's report of the following words : “ This will be his negotiations in England to King « a great advantage to England. But James ; and of Lord Marlborough, in " no advantage can prevent, or ever his letter to King James, and Gene& shall prevent me, from informing sal Sackfield's letter inclosing it to “ you of all that I believe to be for Lord Mellfort ; all lately published by k your service. Therefore you may Mr M-Pherson *. The originals of the * make your own use of this intelli- two last letters are not in existence in R 2

the Lloyd's report to King James, in M-Pherson's State Papers, vol. 1. p. 480. Translation of a letter in cyphers from Mr Sackfield, Major.general of his Britannic Majesty's forces, to the Earl of Mellfort.

- May 3. 1694. " " I have just now received the inclosed for the King. It is from Lord Churchill; ., but no person but the Queen and you must know from whom it comes. There* fore, for the love of God, let it be kept a secret, even from Lord Middleton. I " send it by express, judging it to be of the utmost consequence for the service of "the King my master; and confequently for the service of his Moft Chriftian Mac “jesty. You sec, by the contents of this letter, that I am not deceived, in the judg"ment I formed of Admiral Ruffel ; for that man has not acted sincerely, and I “ fear he never will act otherwise." ... A Translation of Lord Churchill's letter to the King of England.

“ It is only to-day I have learned the news I now write you, which is, that the « bomb-ketches and the twelve regiments encamped at Portsmouth, with the two " regiments of marines, all commanded by Talmash, are destined for burning the " harbour of Brest, and destroying all the men of war which are there. This will “be a great advantage to England. But no confideration can prevent, or ever " shall prevent me, from informing you of all that I believe to be for your service. * Therefore you may make your own use of this intelligence, which you may de “pend upon being exactly true, But I must conjure you for your own intereft, to « let no one know but the Queen, and the bearer of this letter." ** Ruffel fails to-marrow with forty ships, the rest being not yet paid; but it is " said, that in ten days the rest of the feet will follow, and at the same time the # land forces. I have endeavoured to learn this some time ago from Admiral Rurk fel. But he always denied it to me, though I am very sure that he knew the deOgn for more than fix wecks. This gives me a bad figo of this man's intentions.

“I shall

she Scots College at Paris, where the order for the original; and that his other two papers are. But the copies making the Duke know that his life were found among the other official was in his hands, was the cause of papers of Nairne, Under-secretary of the Duke's going into a voluntary State to Lord Mellfort, and one of exile to Bruffels in the year 1712 : them has an interlineation in Lord And indeed, so extraordinary a Atep Mellfort's hand-writing. And, in as that exile must have had an extra. King James's Memoirs, I have feena ordinary cause. It is known too from memorandum in his own hand-writ- the history of the times, that there was ing, that Lord Churchill had, on the a private meeting between the Duke 4th of May, given him information and Lord Oxford, at Mr Thomas of the design upon Breit. I was told Harley's house, to which the Duke by the late Principal Gordon, of the came by a back door, immediately afe Scots College at Paris, that, during ter which he left Eogland. I have the hostilities between the Duke of also heard from the late Archbishop Marlborough and Lord Oxford, near of York, grandson to the Earl of Ox the end of the Queen's reign, Lord ford, that he had been informed that Oxford, who had got intelligence of the Duchefs of Marlborough, after the Duke's letter, and pretended, at the death of those two perfonis, had

at time, to be in the interests of the contrived to get the letter from Lord exiled family, applied for, and got an Oxford's papers, and destroyed it,

To the PUBLISHER. SIR, THE Public is highly obliged to morandum the name of Lord Churchill

1 Sir John Dalrymple for his cu- ar full length, his imprudence, in comrious and valuable communications. mitting such a fecret to a pocket-book,

In his late Historical work, p. 45, seems alınost ugesampled, especially he says, « In King James's Memoirs, when he knew that the two parties “I have seen a memorandum in his of Middleton and Mellfort divided « own band-writing, that Lord Church. his court, and that neither of them bill had, on the 4th of May, given would have scrupled at employing any ft him information of the delign upon political means in order to come at

Brest.” This requires fome explana- Secrets. tion-Does the King's memorandum There is another circumstance, p. 9, bear Lord Churchill at full length, or which will become of moment when only L. C, or C..?

particularly explained. Sir John ine I presume that Sir John is a reader forms us, that, when he was last at of your Magazine, and therefore I use Paris, he saw, in the Scots College this method of intreating him to in- there, “ a letter from Lord Rochesform the public what is the precise « ter to King James written on filk, fact. "

" which, from the form of the piece, If King James set down in his me: “ had been the infide of a woman's

" ftomacher." " I shall be very well pleased to learn, that this letter comes fafe to your hands." M'Pixerai's State-Papers, vol. 1. p. 487.

Lord Arran's letter to King James, of date 13th March 1695, contains these words: * With regard to news, it is certain, that the preparations that are made here for " the Mediterranean, are defigned for attacking Toulon, if it is poffible. It is Lord ** Sunderland who has given me in charge to affure your plajefty of this."

stomacher.” One should wish to larity must be striking at first" fights know, 1. Whether it is figned Rom. 3. Does the letter relate to public thuyter. 2. Whether it is in the hand matters, or only to such civilities as of Id. R.; his hand is so singular and are wont to pass between brothers-info odlike any writing of his contem- law? poraries, that the fimilarity or disfimi . I am, &c.

of the Canks which produce the Phenomena of Nature. By Thomas Reid,

D. D. F. R. S. Edinburgh, Profesor of Moral Philosophy in the University of Glasgow *. TN all languages, action is attribu- but the Greek word, which we tranIted to many things which all men Slate cause, had these four different of common understanding believe to meanings in Aristotle's days, and we be merely paslive; thus we say, the have added other meanings. We do wind blows, the rirers fow, the sca not indeed call the matter or the form rages, the fire burns, bodies move, af a thing its cause; but we have fie and impel other bodies. ....... nal causes, instrumental causes, occa

A like irregularity may be observed sional causes, and I know not how in the use of the word signifying cause, many others. in all languages, and of the words re- Thus the word cause has been so lated to it.

hackneyed, and made to have so maOur knowledge of causes is very ny different meanings in the writings scanty in the most advanced state of of philosophers, and in the discourse fociety, much more is it so in that ear, of the vulgar, that its original and proly period in which language is formed. per meaning is lost in the crowd. A strong desire to know the causes of With regard to the phenomena of things, is common to all men in eve- nature, the important end of knowing Ty state; but the experience of all ages their causes, besides gratifying our cuthews, that this keen appetite, rather riosity, is, that we may know when to than go, empty, will feed upon the expect them, or how to bring them husks of real knowledge where the about. This is very often of real imfruit cannot be found. ....... portance in life ; and this purpose is

In common language, we give the served, by knowing what, by the name of a cause to a reason, a motive, course of nature, goes before them an end, to any circumstance which is and is connected with them; and this, connected with the effect, and goes therefore, we call the cause of fuch a before it.

· phenomenon.. Aristotle, and the schoolmen after. If a magnet be brought near to a. him, distinguished four kinds of cau- mariner's compass, the needle, which , fes, the efficient, the material, the was before at reft, immediately begins : formal, and the final. This, like ma- to move, and bends its cqurfe towards Ay of Aristotle's distinctions, is only the magnet, or perhaps the contrary a distinction of the various meanings way. If an unlearned failor is asked of an ambiguous word; for the effi- the cause of this motion of the needle, cient, the matter, the form and the he is at no loss for an answer. He tells end, have nothing common in their you it is the magnet ; and the proof Dature, by which they may be ac- is clear; for, remove the magnet, and couared fpecies of the same genus, the effe&t ceases; bring it near, and

* Ellays on the Active Powers of Man, 460:

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che effect is again produced. It is, looks like something divine. But therefore, evident to senfe, that the the author of this discovery was per magnet is the cause of this effect. 1. fedtly aware, that he discovered no SA Cartefian Philofopher enters deep.' real cause, but only the law or rule, er into the cause of this phenomenon.. according to which the unknown cause He observes, that the magnet does operates. not touch the needle, and therefore Natural Philosophers, who think can give it no impulfe. He pities the accurately, have a precise meaning to ignorance of the sailor. The effect is the terms they use in the science, and

produced, says he, by magnetic efflu- when they pretend to shew the cause · via, or subtile matter, which pasies of any phenomenon of nature, they from the magnet to the needle, and mean by the cause, a law of nature of forces it from its place. He can even which that phenomenon is a necessary thew you, in a figure, where these consequence. . . . magnetic effluvia ifiue from the mag. The whole object of natural philosoDet, what round they take, and what phy, as Newton expressly teaches, is way they return home again. And reducible to these cwo heads : first, thus he thinks he comprehends pero by jaft induction from experiment and fecily how, and by what cause, the observation, to discover the laws of motion of the needle is produced. nature, and then to apply those laws · A Newtonian Philofopher inquires to the solution of the phenomena of what proof can be offered for the ex- nature. This was all that this great iteace of magnetic effluvia, and can Philosopher attempted, and all that he find none. He therefore holds it as a thought attainable. And this indeed fiction, a hypotheses; and he has learn- he attained in a great measure, with ed that hypotheses ought to have no regard to the motions of our planetary place in the philosophy of nature. He fyftem, and with regard to the rays of confektes his ignorance of the real light. cause of this motion, and thinks, that But fupposing that all the phenohis bufaels, as a philofopher, is only mena that fall within the reach of our to find from experiment the laws by lenses, were accounted for from gene. which it is regulated in all cases. ral laws of nature, justly deduced from

Thefe three pertons differ much in experience; that is, sappofing natural their sentiments with regard to the real philofophy brought to its utmost per: cause of this phænomenon; and the fection, it does not discover the effi. man who knows most is he who is fen- cient cause of any one phenoidenon in fible that he knows nothing of the mats nature. ter. Yet all the three speak the fame The laws of nature are the rules language, and acknowledge, that the according to which the effe&s are procause of this motion is the attracure duced; but there muft be a caufe or repullire power of the magnet. Erhich operates according to these

What has been laid of this, may rules. The rules of narigation never be applied to every phenomenon that navigated a thip. The rules of archifalls within the compafs of natural tecture never built a house. philofophy. We deceire ourselves, if Natural philosophers, by great ato We conceire, that we can point out the tention to the course of nature, have real endent caule of any one of them. discovered many of her laws, and have

Tae graadat difcorery ever made very happily applied them to account in natural pula opay, was that of the for any phenomena ; but they have be of gravitation, which opens fuch never di.corered the efficient cause of View of our pianctary system, that it any one phenomepon; por do thole


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