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together in lis company! I inust soon follow him, being now in my seventy-seventh year; but you have yet a prospect of many years of usefulness still before you, which I hope you will fully enjoy; and I am persuaded you will ever kindly remember your truly affectionate friend,



Passy, June 24, 1782. “ I am not at all displeased that the thesis and dedi*cation with which we were threatened are blown over, for I dislike much all sorts of mummery. The republic of letters has gained no reputation, whatever else it may have gained, by the commerce of dedications : I never made one, and I never desired that one should be made to me. When I submitted to receive this, it was from the bad habit I have long had of doing every thing that ladies desire me to do : there is no 'refusing any thing to Madame la Marck, nor to you. I have been to pay my respects to that amiable lady, not merely because it was a compliment due to her, but because I love her, which induces me to excuse her not letting me in; the sanie reason I should have for excusing your faults, if you had any. I have not seen your papa since the receipt of your pleasing letter, so could arrange nothing with him réspecting the carriage. During seven or eight days I shall be very busy: after that you shall hear from me, and the carriage shall be at your service. How could you think of writing to me about chimneys and fires, in such weather as this! Now is the time for the frugal lady you mention to save her wood, obtain plus de chaleur, and lay it up against winter, as people do ice against summer. Frugality is an enriching virtue ; a virtue I never could acquire in myself : but I rvas once lucky enough to find it in a wife, who thereby became a fortune to

me. Do you possess it?

you possess it? If you do, and I were twenty years younger; I would give your father one thousand guineas for you. I know you would be worth more to me as a ménagère; but I am covetous and love good bargains. Adieu, my dear friend, and believe me ever yours most affectionately, ,


To Mr. Hutton.' Relative to the murder of some Moravian Indians. MY OLD AND DEAR FRIEND, Passy, July 7, 1782.

A letter written by you to M. Bertin, ministre d'Etat, containing an account of the abominable murders committed by some of the frontier people on the poor Moravian Indians, has given me infinite pain and vexation. The dispensations of Providence in this world puzzle my weak reason: I cannot comprehend why cruel men should have been permitted thus

" James HUTTON, son of Doctor Hutton, (who in the early part of his life had been a bookseller) was for many years secretary to the society of Moravians. He died April 25, 1795, in bis 80th year, at Oxstead Cottage, Surry; and was buried in the Moravian cemetery at Chelsea. He was a well-known character, and very generally esteemed. He was a faithful brother of the Moravian' fraternity fifty-five years; the latter part of his life was spent literally in going about doing good, and his charities were confined to no sect. He married a lady of the Moravian nation and religion, but had no children, and was a widower some years before his death. Mr. Hutton possessed strong sense, with quick feelings and apprehensions, which the illumination of his countenance evinced even at seventy, though his difficulty of hearing was such, that he could only converse by the cassistance of an ear-trumpet. He was highly esteemed by their present majesties, and well known to many of the nobility and men of letters : nor was he refused admittance to the highest ranks, (even at Buckingham House) though his ardent benevolence inclined him greatly to neglect his own dress, that he might the better feed the hungry and cover the naked." VOL. I.


to destroy their fellow-creatures. Some of the Indians may be supposed to have cominitted sins, but one cannot think the little children had committed any worthy of death. Why has a single man in England, who happens to love blood, and to hate Americans, been permitted to gratify that bad temper by hiring German murderers, and joining them with his own, to destroy in a continued course of bloody years, near 100,000 human creatures, many of them possessed of useful talents, virtues, and abilities, to which he has no pretension? It is he who has furnished the savages with hatchets and sealping knives, and engages them to fall upon our defenceless farmers, and murder them with their wives and children, paying for their scalps, of which the account kept in America already amounts, as I have heard, to near two thousand! Perhaps the people of the frontiers, exasperated by the cruelties of the Indians, have been induced to kill all Indians that fall into their hands without distinction ; so that even these horrid murders of our poor Moravians may be laid to his charge. And yet this man lives, enjoys all the good things this world can afford, and is surrounded by flatterers who keep even his conscience quiet by telling him he is the best of prinçes! I wonder at this, but I cannot therefore part with the comfortable belief of a divine Providence; and the more I see the impossibility, from the number and extent of his crimes, of giving equivalent punishment to a wicked man in this life, the more I am convinced of a future state, in which all that here appears to be wrong shall be set right, all that is crooked made straight. In this faith let you and I, my dear friend, comfort ourselves; it is the only comfort in the present dark scene of things that is allowed us.

I shall not fail to write to the government of America, urging that effectual care may be taken to protect and save the remainder of those unhappy people.


Since writing the above, I have received a Philadelphia paper, containing some account of the same horrid transaction, a little different, and some circumstances alleged as excuses or palliations, but extremely weak and insufficient. I send it to you enclosed. With great and sincere esteem, I am ever, my dear friend, yours most affectionately,




UNITED STATES. The birth of the DauphinCapt. Asgill-M. Tousard,

Allowances to Mr. Temple Franklin-Contingent erpenses— Enclosures.

Passy, Sept. 3, 1782. I have just received your No. 13, dated the 23d of June. The accounts of the general sentiments of our people . respecting propositions from England, and the rejoicings on the birth of the Dauphin, give pleasure here; and it affords me much satisfaction to find the conduct of congress approved by all that hear or speak of it, and to see all the marks of a constantly growing regard for us, and confidence in us, among those in whom such sentiments are most to be desired.

I hope the affair of Captain Asgill was settled as it ought to be, by the punishment of Lippincut. Applications have been made here to obtain letters in favor of the young gentleman. Enclosed I send you a copy of the answer I gave to that made to me.

I had before acquainted M. Tousard, that his pension would be paid in America, and there only, it being unreasonable to expect that the congress should open a pay-office in every part of the world where pensioners should choose to reside. I shall communicate to him that part of your letter..


You wish to know what allowance I make to my private secretary. My grandson, W. Temple Franklin, came over with me, served me as private secretary during the time of the commissioners, and no secretary to the commission arriving, though we had been made to expect one, he did business for us all, and this without any allowance for his services, though both Mr. Lee and Mr. Deane at times mentioned to me as a thing proper to be done, and a justice due to him. When I became appointed sole minister here, and the whole business which the commissioners had before divided with me came into my hands, I was obliged to exact more service from him, and he was indeed, by being so long in the business, become capable of doing more. At length, in the beginning of the year 1781, considering his constant close attention to the duties required of him, and his having thereby missed the opportunity of studying the law, for which he had been intended, I determined to make him some compensation for the time past, and fix some appointment for the time to come, till the pleasure of congress respecting him should be taken. I accordingly settled an account with him ; allowing him from the beginning of December 1776, to the end of 1777, the sum of 3400 livres ; and for the year 1778, the sum of 4000 livres ; for 1779, 4300 livres ; and for 1780, 6000 livres : since that time, I have allowed him at the rate of Soo louis per annum, being what I saw had been allowed by congress to the secretary of Mr. William Lee, who could not have had, I imagine, a fourth part of the business to go through ; since my secretary, besides the writing and copying the papers relative to my common ministerial transactions, has had all those occasioned by my acting in the various employments of judge of admiralty, consul, purchaser of goods for the public, &c. besides that of the acceptor of the congress bills, a business that requires being always at home; bills coming

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