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ARCH ERECTED IN GRACECHURCH STREET, FOR THE CORONATION PROCESSION OF JAMES I.

FROM THE TOWER TO WESTMINSTER, 1603-4.

In a handsome three and sixpenny Entertainments in the City of London." tract, entitled “ London Pageants," Mr. It is printed in octavo, and embellished John Gough Nichols has compiled “ Ac- with a folding quarto plate (from which counts of fifty-five Royal Processions and the preceding engraving is copied), after Vol. 1.-34.

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one of seven very rare folio prints repre- that he bowed down when the king came, senting “ The Arches of Triumph erected and offered him the crown. There were in honor of the High and Mighty Prince other pageants, or shows, at other places James, the first of the name king of in the line of route, but this was the most England, and the sixth of Scotland, at striking. his Majesty's entrance and passage through The return of Henry V. from his vichis honorable Citty and Chamber of Lon- tory at Agincourt was welcomed with don, upon the 15th day of March, 1603. great rejoicing. The king was met at Invented and published by Stephen Har- Blackheath by the mayor and aldermen rison, Joyner and architect; and graven of London, arrayed in orient grained by William Kip." In 1803 a set of scarlet, and 400 commoners in beautiful these prints, at Mr. Woodhouse's sale, murrey, all with rich collars and chains, produced twenty-six guineas, and there- and on horseback. At St. Thomas a fore Mr. Nichols's view of one of these Watering he was received by the London coronation arches enhances the interest of clergy in solemn procession, with sumphis work. It abounds in curious know- tuous copes, rich crosses, and censers. ledge, familiarly communicated upon At London bridge, on the top of the competent authority,and is consequently tower, stood a gigantic figure with an a desirable publication to all who wish to axe in his right hand, and in his left the be acquainted, at a small expense, with keys of the city hanging to a statt, in the old royal processions in the metropolis. manner of a porter; by his side was a

On reference to Mr. Nichols's “ Lon- female figure, of scarcely less stature, don Pageants,” we find, that, from very intended for his wife : around them early times, the kings of England made was a band of trumpets and other processions through London to their coro wind instruments : and on the towers nation.

were banners of the royal arms. On In 1236, Henry III. having solemnized each side of the drawbridge was a his marriage with Eleanor of Provence, at lofty tower; one was painted to represent Canterbury, they were met, on their way white marble, and the other green jasper; to London, by the mayor, aldermen, and they were surmounted by figures of the principal citizens, on horseback, richly king's beasts, an antelope, with a shield of arrayed in silk embroidered robes, each the royal arms from his neck, holding carrying a gold or silver cup, in token of a sceptre with his right foot; and a lion the privilege claimed by the city, of being bearing in his right paw the royal standard. chief butler of the kingdom, at the king's At the foot of the bridge, next the city, coronation ; and so they rode with the was raised a tower, having in the middle king and queen to their coronation at a splendid pavilion, under which stood a Westminster : there were set out in the beautiful image of St. George, armed, streets pompous shows, and at night the except his head, which was crowned with city was splendidly illuminated with laurel, studded with precious gems; becressets and other lights. This seems to hind him was crimson tapestry, bearing be the first coronation procession through a multitude of glittering shields, and on the city upon record.

one side of him was his triumphal helmet, The procession of Richard II. on St. and on the other his arms, a red cross ; Swithin's day, 1377, is remarkable. The he held in his right hand the hilt of his king, then a youth, clad in white garments, sword, girted, and in his left a scroll, ex. with a multitude of attendants, rode from tending along the turrets, and inscribed, the tower after dinner, through the city. Soli Deo Honor et Gloria. In an adjoin. The conduits ran with wine. In the ing edifice innumerable boys, representing Cheap was erected a castle spouting wine the angelic host, in white, with glittering with four towers, and in each tower a wings, and sprigs of laurel in their bair, beautiful virgin in white, of like stature on the king's approach sang an anthem; and age with the king; on his approach accompanied by organs. The tower of each virgin blew in his face leaves of the Conduit on Cornhill was decked with gold, and threw on him and his horse a tent of crimson cloth, and ornamented counterfeit gold florins, and, filling wine with the king's arms, and those of St. from the castle spouts into gold cups, George, St. Edward, and St. Edmund, presented wine to the king and his nobles; Under the pavilion was a company of and on the top of the castle was a golden hoary prophets, in golden coats and man angel, holding a crown, and so contrived, tles, and their heads covered with golo

and crimson ; who, when the king passed, In order to make due mention of the sent forth a great quantity of small birds, subject of the present engraving, all as a sacrifice agreeable to God, some of notice of other processions, and scenes which alighted on the king's breast and of uncommon splendor, must be omitted. shoulders, and others Auttered around Arriving then at the coronation progress him : the prophets then sang the psalm, of James I., Mr. Nichols says, “The Cantate Domino canticum novum, &c. king left the tower between the hours of The tower of the Conduit at the entrance eleven and twelve, mounted on a white of Cheap was hung with green, and jennet, under a rich canopy, sustained by ornamented with escutcheons. Here sat eight gentlemen of the Privy Chamber, twelve old men, having the names of the instead of the Barons of the Cinque apostles written on their foreheads, to- Ports. His notice was first directed to gether with the twelve kings, martyrs, three hundred children of Christ's Hosand confessors of England; these also pital, placed on a scaffold at the Church chaunted at the king's approach, and sent of Allhallows, Barking." He next came forth upon him round leaves of silver to the first arch, which was at Fenchurch, mixed with wafers, and offered wine from and is decribed in Mr. Nichols's work. the pipes of the conduit, imitating Mel- Proceeding onwards towards Cornhill the chisedek's reception of Abraham, when cavalcade reached the edifice represented be returned from his victory over the four by the engraving at the head of this article, kings. The Cross of Cheap was con- and which occurs to be spoken of in Mr. cealed by a noble castle, constructed of Nichols's words : “ The second Pageant timber, and covered with linen, painted was erected in Gracechurch-street, by the to resemble squared blocks of white Italian merchants.* Its ground plan was marble, and green and crimson jasper; a square ornamented with four great the arms of St. George adorned the sum- columns; in the midst of which was cut mit, those of the king and the emperor one arch, twenty-seven feet in height. were raised on halberds, and the lower Above the arch was represented king turrets had the arms of the royal family Henry the Seventh, seated, approached and great peers of the realm. From a by king James, on horseback (as he was stage in front came forth a chorus of usually seen), to receive the sceptre from virgins with timbrel and dance, as to an- his ancestor. Between the columns were other David coming from the slaughter of also four allegorical paintings. On the Goliah; their song of congratulation was, roof, on a pedestal, stood a female figure, “Welcome, Henry the Fifte, King of holding a crown, which she seemed to Englond and of Fraunce :" throughout stoop to bestow upon the king. At the the building there was dispersed a mul- four corners, were erected figures with titude of boys, representing the heavenly trumpets; and over the gateway, on one host, who showered on the king small side, were palm trees, and on the other a coins resembling gold, and thiew boughs vine, with angels.” This is the arch deof laurel, and sang, accompanied by picted in the pript. organs, Te Deum laudamus. The tower But, upon the same spot, in Graceof the conduit at the west end of Cheap church-street, a Pageant of far greater was surrounded with pavilions, and in splendor had been erected a century each pavilion was a virgin, and each vir before, in 1501, to welcome the entry of gin held a cup, and these virgins blew forth the princess Katherine of Spain, on ocfrom their cups golden leaves on the king: casion of her approaching marriage with the tower was covered with a canopy Arthur prince of Wales. In the middle resembling the sky and clouds; and the four corners of the celestial canopy were supported by angels, and on the summit

* This custom, that Arches of Triumph was an archangel of brilliant gold.

should be erected by foreign merchants, preUnder the canopy, on a throne, was a re

vailed also on the Continent. At a public splendent image representing the sun,

entry into Lisbon, in 1729, on the marriage

of the prince of Brazil, when there were shining above all things, and around it

twenty-four Triumphal Arches in the several were angels singing, and playing all kinds

streets, each of the nations of strangers was of musical instruments. On the king leav obliged to erect one. “ The English arch ing this pageant he passed on to his devo will be the finest, and will cost at least 20,000 tions at St. Paul's, and thence he departed crusadoes; the Hamburghers about 15,000." to his palace at Westminster.

-Whitehall Evening Post, Feb, 22, 1728-9.

of Gracechurch-street “where the water here of the other gorgeous Pageants set out runneth into the channel,” was fixed a by the corporation for the entertainment foundation of stone of three or four of the princess, and the royal and noble feet high, having a passage for the current personages accompanying her progress : of water as usual : on which foundation nor can even a glance be taken at any of was constructed a castle, formed of timber, the numerous splendid Processions and but covered with canvas painted to resem- Pageants described in Mr. Nichols's interble masonry. Within a man's height from esting publication. the stone work, were battlements ornament Enquirers concerning accounts of “ Lord ed with these badges; 1, a red rose with Mayors' Shows" may be gladdened by a white one within it, surmounted by a knowing that in Mr. Nichols's “ London crown of gold; 2, three blue garters, with Pageants" there is a thorough clue to the posey of the order, also crowned ; 3, a their pursuits. The work contains a golden fleur-de-lis; and 4, a portcullis with “ Bibliographical list of Lord Mayors' two chains, surmounted by a crown. In Pageants," 'from the mayoralty of sir some parts also were clouds, with beams Woolston Dixie in 1585; with particulars of gold, in a blue firmament; in other of some of earlier date, and notices of places white harts; and in others pea- others belonging to our own times; not cocks displayed. Above the first batile- omitting the mayoralty show of Mr. ment was a great gate, with folding leaves, Alderman Lucas in 1827, when the giants full of great bars of iron with nails, and walked. over the gate a large portcullis, having in every joint a red rose; over this gate, on the stone work, were the King's arms, sup

Old TRIUMPHAL Song. ported on the right side by a red dragon, dreadful, and on the left by a white grey My mind to me a kingdom is ; hound; and a yard from these arms on Such perfect joy therein I find, every side was a great red rose of half a

That it excels all other bliss yard in breadth. Above this gate was an

Which God or nature hath assign'd: other course of battlements and badges, like

Though much I want that most would have, the former. Beneath, in the opening, stood

Yet still my mind forbids to crave. a Knight, arnied cap-a-pié, named Policy.

No princely port, nor wealthy store, The building stretched on each side into No force to win a victory ; the adjoining windows and shops, with

No wily wit to salve a sore ; two other portcullises embattlemented, and

No shape to win a loving eye :

To none of these I yield as thrall ; ornamented with numberless repetitions of

For why? my mind despise them all. the badges and royal insignia already described ; and at each corner of this middle I see that plenty surfeits oft,

And hasty climbers soonest fall; story and great tower was a turret, decked

I see that such as are aloft with roses, greyhounds, portcullises, and

Mishap doth threaten most of all. St. George's crosses of white and red, each

Ich These get with toil, and keep with fear :

Th turret having at top seven sides, and on Such cares my

Such cares my mind can never bear. each side a pinnacle and a vane. Above

I press to bear no haughty sway ; all this great story was another somewhat

I wish no more than may suffice; smaller, leaded above, and painted on its

I do no more than well I may ; four sides like rag and flint stones, with Look, what I want my mind supplies : hollow crosses, windows, and gunholes, Lo, thus I triumph like a king, and on the top great vanes with the King's My mind content with any thing. arms, and at the summit of the whole a red dreadful dragon holding a staff of iron,

I laugh not at another's loss ;

Nor grudge not at another's gain ; and on it a great crown of gold. In this

No worldly waves my mind can toss ; upper story was another large door where

I brook what is another's bane; in stood a knight with a head-piece, called I fear no foe, nor fawn on friend; Nobleness; and on his right hand a bishop I loathe not life, nor dread my end. who was named Virtue. The Knights

My wealth is health, and perfect ease; and the Bishop all delivered long poetical And conscience clear my chief defence : addresses. The horseways and passages

I never seek by bribes to please ; were under the wings of this Pageant, Nor by desert to give offence : which was called the Castle of Portculleys. Thus do I live; thus will I die : The prescribed limits restrain all notice Would all did so, as well as I!

September 9.

usages were formerly more general all September 9, 1759, died, at the age of being become by time, necessity, or avarice,

over England than they are at present, eighty-six, Thomas Bradbury, an eminent

complex, confined, and altered. They dissenting minister, whose meeting-house,

are commonly insisted upon by the reapin New-street, Shoe-lane, was lawlessly

ers as customary things, and a part of destroyed by Sacheverel's mob. He

their due for their toils of harvest, and preached many years in New-court,

complied with by their masters, perhaps Carey-street, Lincoln's Inn-fields, where

more through regard of interest than inhe was succeeded by Mr. Winter, whose

clination. For, should they refuse them brother married one of Mr. Bradbury's

the pleasures of this much-expected time, daughters. Mr. Bradbury was a man of

this festal night, the youth especially, of superior abilities, and real piety with

both sexes, would decline serving him for oui bigotry. Mr. Granger saw a friendly

the future, and employ their labors for letter from archbishop Wake to him, part

others, who would promise them the rustic of a correspondence between the metro

joys of the barvest supper, mirth, and politan and this patriarch of the dissenters,

music, dance, and song." He has other which was creditable to their respective

observations to the following effect. These views of each other. The principles of

feasts appear to be the relics of Pagan the revolution, which called the house of

or Jewish ceremonies, and carry in them Hanover to the throne, were warmly

more meaning, and are of higher antiquity espoused, and firmly maintained, by Mr.

than is generally apprehended. We hear in Bradbury, both privately and in public.

different counties, and often in the same He was of a merry disposition; a social,

county, of mel-supper, churn-supper, harvest pleasant companion, more famed for mirth

supper, harvest home, feast of ingathering. than harangues, and had a good ear for

8c. The antiquity of the custom appears music, with a fine strong voice. He was

from Exod. xxiii.16. “The feast of harvest, supposed to sing “ The Roast beel of old

the first fruits of thy labors, which thou England” better than any other man.

kast sown in the field.” The Jews cele“ Such," says the Rev. Mr, Noble, “ was

brated the feast of harvest, by precept; • brave old Tom Bradbury, a good

and, prior to this, Gen. vi. 3, " Cain preacher, and a facetious companion.'

brought of the fruit of the ground, and It is not the cheerful man that disturbs

offering to the Lord."

of the state, nor often the rich; but the sour,

Yet the offering of the first-fruits, it disappointed, needy man. Bradbury was

may well be supposed, was not peculiar happy in his temper, rich in the gifts of

to the Jews. Calimachus affirms that fortune, and possessed the esteem of a

these primitæ were sent by the people of wide circle of friends. A perfect tolera

every nation to the temple of Apollo, in tion would be an act of prudence as well

Delos, and by the Hyperboreans in paras humanity; and, while the establishment

ticular, the most distant that enjoy the is not invaded, it will always be advan

happiness of corn and harvest. Herotageous; for

dotus also mentions this annual custom of Conscience is a thing, we know,

the Hyperboreans, remarking, that those Like to a mastiff dog, Which, if tied up, so fierce will grow,

of Delos talk of “Holy things tied up in He'll bite his very clog."

a sheaf of wheat, conveyed from the Ily

perboreans." The Jews, by command of h. m.

their law, offered also a sheaf, Lev. xxiii. September 9.-Day breaks . . 3 27

10," And shall reap the harvest thereof, Sun rises . . . 5 29

then ye shall bring a sheaf, the first fruits - sets . . .. 6 31

of your harvest, unto the priest." This Twilight ends. 8 33

may be looked upon as equivalent to a The nights and mornings become sen

proof; for, as the offering and the feast sibly colder, and are often frosty.

appear to have been always and intimately connected, in countries affording records,

so it is more than probable they were September 10.

connected too in countries which had none, HARVEST-SUPPER- THE MEL-SUPPER- or none that survived to our times. KERN-SUPPER-SHOUTING THE Cuurn. There seems great reason to conclude,

The learned and ill-fated Eugene Aram that this feast, which was once sacred to says, " These rural entertainments and Apollo, was constantly maiolained, when

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