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The squares are called houses; the lines running from left to right are called ranks ; and those perpendicular to them, or from top to bottom, files. In playing, the white corner square must be at the right hand of each player : and, it is said, the Greeks adopted this disposition, as considering that colour on the right to be an omen

of victory

The best size for a chess-board is about 18 inches, giving two inches to each square.


THE PIECES—are sixteen on each side, eight pawns and eight dignified pieces ; so that they occupy half the board. These are distinguished by the colours black and white, red and white, green and white, &c. &c. The pieces are the king and queen, and two bishops, two knights, and two rooks: these are called the king's, or queen's bishops, &c. according as they stand on the one side or the other. Their positions are as follow, according to the plan page 96.

The white king is placed on the middle black

square, being the fourth from the right hand corner ; his queen on the white square to the left of him ; a bishop next to each, then a knight, and lastly a rook. The black pieces are placed directly opposite ; the king opposite the king, the queen the same; so that the queens will each stand on her own proper colour. This distribution will cause the black queen to be at the right of her king, though the white one is at the left of hers; and, on this account, every player should accustom himself early to play with either colour. The pawns stand on the second row, one before each piece from which they respectively take their names. Each description of piece has its own peculiar move.

THE PAWNS-move only one square at a time, from their own end towards that of the adversary; except at first, when each has the liberty of moving two squares, unless the square over which he leaps is commanded by a hostile pawn, so that if he were to rest on that square, instead of leaping over it, he might be captured : in such case, the adverse

pawn has the option of taking him, and placing himself on the square leaped

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over, (see Law X.) This liability to be so taken does not prevail in Italy, and some other places, and seems to cause a little dissatisfaction even with us. The pawn cannot recede, as all the other pieces may, but must go forwards, till, like the men at draughts, he attains the adversary's last row, when he is exchanged for a queen, or other piece, at his option. Though his regular march is straight forwards, yet he cannot take a pawn or piece standing directly before him, but those that stand in the squares diagonally before him. In this he differs from all the other pieces, who take in the direction in which they move.


every .capture, he continues to go forward as before. The king's bishop's pawn is considerd the most valuable.

THE KNIGHT-moves the eighth part of a circle; that is, from the square he stands on to the one of a different colour two squares distant, or next but one to him, passing over one side of a square and one corner; as from his own to the adjoining bishop's, or rook's third square. He is

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the only piece which, as his figure on our boards exclusively indicates, can leap over the others in his way; so that he might be brought out, if expedient, before a pawn is played, and no interposition of another piece will avail against him: this renders him particularly formidable in the beginning of the game, as he can enter into the adversary's game, and retire, notwithstanding almost

any blockade ; and if he can check the king, without being himself liable to be taken, the king must remove, and cannot afterwards castle. There is still, however, one corrective to this great power, he can neither stop short of, nor pass a limited extent, like the other pieces.

The following may be worthy the learner's attention :-A knight can check a piece on the next square to him, of the same colour, at one move; but of a different colour at two moves : also one two squares in a line from him (one square between), if the square between be a different colour, at one move-if the same colour, then at not less than three moves : also three squares from him if they both stand on the same colours at one move; if they stand on different colours, then at two moves. He can check across the board, laterally, in four moves-diagonally, in five ; though he can go across the board to check on an adjoining line in three moves. He cannot check a piece standing on a different colour (not already in check) in less than two moves.

If he has a piece in check he cannot again check it at the following move. If he checks a knight, he himself is in check to that knight.

When in the middle of the board, he commands a circle of eight squares, of a different colour to that on which he himself stands ; so that he has always, if the limits of the board will permit, and they are not occupied by one of his own party, eight squares to go to.

The above will be easily conceivable by the learner, on his considering, that the knight's move is always from one colour to another; so that what he checks at any even number of moves he cannot at an odd, and so vice versa.

THE BISHOP-moves diagonally over

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