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ORIGINAL LETTER from Dr. RUSH of PHILADELPHIA.
Mr. URBAN, Philadelphia, April 10. A fimple democracy has been very apily

compared, by Mr. Ames of Maflachusetts BEFORE this reaches London, you will

to a volcano that contained within its bowels perhaps have heard of the ratification of the

the fiey materials of its own destructior. fæderal government by fix of the United States.

A citizen of one of the Cantons of Swit. The objections wbich have been urged 2-rland, in the year 1776, refused to drink in again't the fæderal conftitution, from iis my presence “ine como 0:1Wcalin of Ameri: wanting a bill of rights, have been reasoned ca" as a toast, and give, as a reason for it, and isiculed out of credit in every state that chat a Gmple dem cracy was the Desil's has adopted it. There can be only rtvo le own government,'- The experience of the curities for liberty in any government, viz. American Itates under the prefect confederaréprejentation and check. By the tirit, the tion has in too many infances justified there righis of the people, and by the second, the two accounts of a simple popular government. rights of reprelentation, are effeétually re It would have been a truth, if Mr. Locke cured. Every part of a free conftitution had not said it, that where there is no last, hings upon these two points, and these form There can be no liberiy; and nothing dele: vcs the two capital features of the proposed con the name of law but that which is cériain and Ritution of the United States. Without universal in iis operation upon all the members them, a volume of rights would avail no

of the community. thing; and with them, a declaration of righis To look up to a government that eftab. is ablurd and unnecellary; for the PEOPLE,

lihes justice, infures order, cher.thes virtue; when their libertirs are committed to an secures property, and procals from every equal reprefentatioil, and to 'a compound fpecies of violence, affords a pleasure that lcgillaiure (uch as we observe in the new can only be exceeded by looking up in all goverineni), will always be the sovereigns circumstances to an over-rulog Provideoce. of their rulers, and hold oll their righis in Such a pleafure, I hope, is terore us and our their own hands. To hold them at the poidity, under the influence of the new gomercy of their servants, is disgraceful to the dignity of freemen. Men, who call The dimensions of the human mind are for a bill of rights, have cot recovered apt to be regulated by the cxtilt and objects from the habits they acquired under the of the government under which it is formed, monarchical government of Great-Britain. Think chen, my friend, of the expanGon and

I have the same opinion with the antio digniry the American mind will acquire, by federalifts of the danger of trusting arbitrary having its powers transferred from ine con power to any single body of men ; but no tracted ovjedts of a fiate, to the more unSuch power will be committed to our new bounded objects of a national governareat! rulers. Neither the house of representatives, A citizen and a legislator of the free and the fenate, nor the president, can perform a

UNITED STATES of America will be one Single legislative act by themielves.. An of the first charailers in the world. hundred principles in man will lead them to I would n10: have you foppose, alter what watch, to check, and to oppole each other, I have wri:fen, that I believe ine new goi Thould an attempt be made by either of them verement to be without faulis. I can lee upon the liberties of the people. If we mıý them, but not in any of the writings of judge of their conduct, by what we have to fpeeches of the persons who are opposed to often observed in all the faie governments,

it. '. But who ever saw any thing perfect the members of the federal legitiature will come from the hands of man? I realiles much oftener injure their condituents by notwithstanding in

a great degrce every ting agreeably to their inclinations, than

wish I erei entertained in every ftage of the against them.

revolution for the happiness of my coupiry, But are we to consider men entrelied with for my friends know that I have acquised no power as the receptacles of all the depravity new opinions or principles upon the subject of human nature ? By no means. The peo

of republics, by the surrowsul events we have ple do not part with their full proportions of lately witnelied in America.-In the year it. Reason and revelation both deceive us, if 1776, 1 lost the confidence of the people of they are all wise and virtuous. Is not hiliory Pennfylvania, by openly exposing the dans as full of the vices of the people, as is is of gers of a simple democracy, and declaring the crimes of the kings? what is the present myself an advocate for a government com moral character of the citizens of the United posed of three legislative branches. States? I need not describe it. It proves

Yours, &c. Benj. Rush too plainly, that the people are as much disposed io vice as their rulers, and that There pöver was a time when the Ameri. nothing but a vigorous and efficient govern can States had so much need of a firm fcederal ment can prevent their degenerating into union among themselves as at present, when savages, or devouring each other like beals the Savages are in combination againft ibiem.

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[ 547 ) Ibe EPISTLE from the YEARLY-MEETING beld in LONDON, by adjournments,

from the 1210 of the fifth montb, 1788, po tbe 19eb day of tbe fame inciusivé. To the Quartely and Monthly meetings of Deplorable hath been the consequence of

friends in Great-BRITAIN, IRELAND, living above the limple discoveries of the and elsewhere.

pure world of life in the heari, even darke Dear Friends and Brerbren,

ncf, errar, and unbelief. N that love which is not subject to And, dear friends, as we așe convinced.

change, we affectionately falute you. that pure and firitual worlhip only is acWe have abundant' cause to acknowledge ceptable to Cud; so we are allo firmly pero the renewal of divine help and counsel in fuaded, that the wholesome discipline eitab. us in this our large annual ailembly, lithieu amongit us can only be rightly ard through the virtue and influence whereof effectually exercised in the wildon and we have been enabled to attend to the power of the spirit. Wait theretore in all weighty concerns which have come before your meetings of wiscipline for the renewing us, in much brotherly love ani concord. of disine lf, and to be clothed wish the

The amount of friends fufferings brought fpirit of Christ; the fruies of which are, in this year, for tishes, those called church meekness, long-suffering, and love wila righis, and other demands with which feigned. we. conscientiously fcruple to comply, 2 The religious concern of this meeting hach mount, in Great-Britain, so upwards of five been abundantly man feited in our epistulary thousand one hundred pounds; and in Ire communications from vear to venit in ordur land, to one thousand five hundred pounds. to ercile our brebren jo profesion to ricks

By che accounts received from our several after durable riches in righteousness. We quarterly-meetings, and by epiflcs from therelore earneilly entreat that this conf. Ireland, New-Eailand, New York, Penn deration may !ake piace in every mind: sylvania and New Jerley, Maryland, Vir 15 bre fpirituel adranlage bave I experienced ginia, and North and South Carolina, and from ibef: dsbeurs of the churb for ibe promoGeorgia, we have the comfortable intelli tion of arve piery and self-denied! It lucha gence of fresh additions to our religious so confideration be atrended 10, it will not be ciety, by convinced persons, and in these necefiary to communica'e much; nor do kingdoms more than at fome for mer periods, we teel our minds under an engagement at For the religibus progress of these we are this time to enlarge; but we refer to the warmly solicitous, thai, by abiving closely many profiable and weighty advices in forunder the forming liand, they may effec mer epifiles. Nevertheless, dear friends, the tuallý experience an advancement in the continuance of covetouinels and of earthlyweighty work of conversion; which gra mindedueis in many, calls upon us to en dually leads the believing and obedient loul deavour to awaken fuch as are infected with jato that childlike state, which is meer for it to a sense of what they are pursuing, and the kingdom. May those who have had the at what price. The great Mafler bath privilege of birth-right amongit us be shewn the unprofitablenels of the whole watchful, left, by swerving from the fimplie worid, compared with one immorta! soul; city in which truth leads its faithful tol and yet many are pursuing a delusive lowers, they become cause of offence to fuchi portion of ir, at ihe expence of their souls as are thus brought into our religious com interests. But, were all hus awakened, what munity! O friends' rett not content with place would be found for extensive schemes having been educated in a profetlion even of in trade, and fictitious credit to support the truth iclelf, but wait to know the power, them? To mix with the spirit of the world which regenerates and quickeos the snul, in the pursuit of gain, would then be a luband qualities to see the things which periain jeet of dread; and contentmeot, under the to the kingdom of God; that power which allotment of Providence, the sure means of awakened the spiritual seoses of our fore- preservation. fathers, which disturbed their rest in out The increasing folicitude for the suppres. ward forms, and which caused them to be fion of the ilave trade, which appears among dillaisfied with everything short of the sub all ranks of people, is cause of thankfulness tance of chridianiiy. Let not us, their fuc to the common Father of mankind; and onceffors in the profesion of the same living courages us to hope, that the time is apifaith, degenerate into formality, taking proaching, when this nation will be cleanted up. Qür refidence as in the outward court; from tar defilement. Ler us, in the mean bui let us seek aflet an entrance into that time, continue, withi unabaving ardour, Spiritual temple, where true prayer is wont to be intercellurs for the greatly injured to be made; and humbly and deeply wait Africans. for ability to worship the Father of spirits, io We conclude with expressing our comfort, {pirit and in truth. 'Cherish, we befeech you thar, notwithstanding the many weakneffes the inward manifestacions, and the icnderim. which prevail, numbers of our beloved pressions of divine grace, an: walk therein : youth are preserved in faithfulness, to whoru In thall you experience preservation from the The gracious Lord baih extended, and is senismenis aud corruptions of che world, continuing to extend, the viútations of h:

light and love; whereby there is reason to to increase the revenue of the country la hope, that they will grow up in usefulness, bours under; but, while they are coulcus and become a succession of teftimo'y-bearers of rectitude of intention and a jutt coole, it to the truth. That they may in all humility becomes them not to despair. A period may receive the saving help, and, by obedience arrive, when the ivinister of Finance thalt to the pointing of the divine mand, continue think it more for the true interett and hon. fedfait to the end, where the price in. our of Great Britain to derive its resources çit moble is to be obtained, is the ferveat from the great articles of consumption, and travail of our fpirits.

from taxes upon properly, than from ope Signed in and on behalf of the Yearly presive imports on the precarious profis Meeting by WILLIAM JEPSOŃ, aribog from trade, or Hill more laered iruits

of laborious industry, Clerk to the Meeting this year.

The Lord Mayor, Aldermen, and ComTHE following Letter has been sent by the mori-Council, of the city of London, having, Committee of Retail Shop-keepers to their cided resolutions on the nature and tendency

in their corporate capaciiy, come to fume deCountry Correspondents, with the annexed of the thup-lax, the Commitiee have the Resolutiuns; which compleats the Detail

honour to craniinit you a copy of them, of their public Business, since the Discuss

and will citeem themselves much indebied fon of the Question in the House of Com

for your communications during ibe prestat mons, on the 13th of March,

celiasion of their parliamentary buhucis. SIR,

We have the honour to be, THE Committee, appointed by the Re

Wien great respect, tail Shopkeepers of the cities of London

SI P., and Westmintter, the Borough of South.

Your moft obedient Servaa!s, work, and Paris adjacent, having, in the

Thomas Skinner. course of their applications to Parliament, Guildhall Caffee- David Jennings. received material ailistance from the cities, Horje, 31 Moy, Fumes Palmır. boroughs, and towns, with whom they have

1788.

William S19:k, &c. &c. es. corresponded, think it incumbent on them, at this period, to forward you a copy of

AT a MEETING of the COMMITTET, ape their resolutions of the zift of April laft,

pointed by the RETAIL SHOP KEEPERS when they took into consideration the deci.

of the Cities of LONDON and WESTMIN. foon of the Hon. House of Commons on the

STER, the Borough of SOU I H W ARK, and motion made for the repeal of the Shop

Paris adjacent, held, at the Guildhall Cife Tax. However laborious the dury of the

fec-Houte, on the 211 of April, 1988, Committee may be, they with not io fhrink from it till they are discharged from their Mr. ALDERMAN SKINNER in the office by the body who conitituted them,

Chair; or till the justice of the Logillarure is THE Committee having, at several ade awakened to the claims of the Shop-keepers. journed meetings, taken into consideration

They again folicit your attention to the the event of the motion, made in the House fubject of the Snop Tax as a public caule; of Coomons on the 13th of March laut, for, though the Retail Shop-keeper alone for the REPEAL of the Shop-Tax; has been selected for the experiment of this RESOLVED, That the thanks of this new mode of taxation, under the pretext Commitee are eminently due to those Hoo. of his being able to make a circuitous Members of the House of Commons who reimbursement, ic is impoflible to say who have stood forward in support of the cause of may be the next objeals of this Species of thi shop-keepers, and who have endeavoured, oppre Mion, or to what lengths it may be by arguineois the most fold and the mot extended.

convincing, to induce the Chancellor of Ation refts solely on the unqua. the Exchrquer to abandon a system of taxa. lified affertion of the Chancellor of the Ex cion, wowile, oppreslive, and uncondita. chequer, who, without producing any evi tional. dence (which, did ic exif, his high station RESOLVED, That it appears to this Como and authority would give him full poffeffion millee, the opinion of the House of Com. of), states it merely as his opinion, that the mons is not more unír endly to the repeal Retail Trader is not ii jured by this mode of of the Shop Tox than in the last Aplica. aflement on his property, notwithstanding tion of the Snop.keepers, the number on the united teftimony of all the Torders, or lo buin rivivons bearing nearly in the tv9.0 respectable a part of the legislatur“, and of proportion to each other, the majority of the nation ac large. The RISOLVED, Tbattbor frequent discullion if Committee are fenfiole how much the cause this question has more firmly established the of the Shop-keepers suffers in a contest of his arguments uled in opposition to the Shope kind, from the propensity of the publick to Tox. The evidence and cales which were take the side of power, and from the udium exhibited in the House of Commons, un po dinar any opposition to a meature which is posed and uncontradicted by any culller

evideace

The que

Proceedings of the London Committee on the Shop-Tax.

549 evidence whatever, fully demonstrated it to Lord Hood, the other representative of the bove a tax on the profits and returns of the Ciry of Weltminster; William Mainwaring, Shop-keepers.

E!9. representative of the County of MiddleRESOLVED, That the plea of State-ne. sex ; John Sawbridge, Esq. Sir Watkia ceffity, which is the avowed motive for Lewes, Knt, Nathaniel Newoham, Esq. and the continuance of this exaction, appears Brook Watson, Esq. aldermen and represesto this Committee a Principle thus will solives of this City in Parliament ; Sir julisy any instance of partial and opprefave Thomas Halifax, Knt. Paul Le Melurier, taxation, and does bus in accord with Elop and Sir Benjamin Hammet, Kot, althe boasted state of the finances of ths dermeo, and Henry Thornton, Esq. the country, which bas been held up to the oilor representative of Southwark; together publick by the Chancellor of the Exchequer. with all those orher members of the Hon.

RESOLVED, That, as the forms of the ourable House of Commons, who, in lupa House of Commons do not admit of any port of a just cause, joined their very able farther iteps being taken in the present Sel and zealoos exertions to obtain the desired Son, this Committee deser calling a General relief ;-Endeavours rendered inettectual by Meeting of the Shop-keepers, by who the perseverance of the Chancellor of his they were originally conftituied, sith the en Majefty's Exchequer, in a lystem of taxta fuing suffion; whea, with the advice and con fallacious, unconstique iun al, and unjufts otīitance of their representatives in Parlia, “a return very ungrateful for unbounded ment, the Shop keepers muy resoive on confidence. fuch measures as the circumstances of that RESOLVED unanimoufly, That, the evil Time thall render molt expedicat.

tendency and effects of the laid law having RESOLVED, Thai, during the interval been pointed out, in the most forcible mane of Parliamentary bufiness, a constant cor ner, by fo many bonourable members in rcipondence be maintained with the cities, Parliament, it becomes the dory of every boroughs, and towns, throughout the king good citizen to perfevere in all legal means dom, who have his herto generously fupe 1o obrain the repeal of a tax ro partial and ported ihe applications of the Shop-keepers, so oppressive, left a filent funmiffion tijouie sot un the ground of party.conicit or local be construed an acquieicence with a principle inierelt, but as a cause in which the right inorious to the righıs of freemen, and of individuals, the dignity of the L-gitla- which, if once quietly chablished, may be ture, and the national honour, are involved. extended to the most deftruétive purposes.

RESOLVED, That conferences be held RESOLVED unanimoufly, That it is ease with ihe Committee appointed by the rently recommended to the Committee of City of London on such buliness as may this Courr, and to ihe Committee appointed teve a tendency to promote the object of by the Retail Shop-keepers in the Metrowhich che committees are jointly in purluit. polis, to continue in concert, exerting the

RESOLVED, That this Commities will utmost vigour, afliduity, and firmness, whicla meet, on the first Thursday evening in every which may finally prevent such a law froin month, at the Guildhall Coffee-house, to disgracing the Statute-Book of a free and receive such information as thall be offered commercial nation. to them, and peculiarly to direct their RESOLVED vnanimously, That the said attention to the late extraordinary sura resolutions be fairly transcribed, fimed by charges wisich have been made in the the Town-Clerk, and by him tranimited metropolis, apparently with a defign to in to the Right Honourable Charles J-mes crease the gross amount of the tax, and per Fox, the Right Houourable Lord Hiod, manently to fix it on the ground of a large William Mainwaring, Elg. Henry Thornsource of revenue.

ton, Esq. and Mr. Aiderman Skinner, THOMAS SKINNER, Chairman, Chairman of the Commit ce

keepers; and also thar a copy thereof be BURNELL, MAYOR.

publithicd in ail the daily and evening A COMMON COUNCIL, bolden in the Cb.2018

papers.

RIX ber of the Guildbals of the City of London, on THURSDAY, obe 28th of April, 1788.

The REPORT from the Committe apRESOLVED unanimoully, Thac poinued to iniye å the curralitours dod the thanks of this court be given to the other Bu idings immedia ely adj ining to Right Hon. CHARLES James Fox, for his Weltminder Hall and the Two Huulis meritorious endeavours to serve the Publick, of Parliament, and the Offics the ela by his judicious and animated exertions ro belonging, and to report to the House obraio a repeal of the law impofing a tax their Opini n how far ibe said Hall, and upon Reail Shop-keepers ; tax, repro orber public Oifices, may be secureu froin bated, for its partial cy and injustice, equally the Danger of Fire, arising from the by those wbo do not contribute to it, as by Contiguity of such Houses and private the immediate objects of its opprethon,

Buildings ; RESOLVED unanimously, That this Court THE Commiciee having proceeded, in doth return thanks to the Right Honourable pari, to fuifill the objc&s ofibeir ini curior,

and

of Siopo

arms.

ner.

Bavigation of the Blake Sca and a Palace to his Majesty to that city, which he enteret La dia by Suez and the Read S:a."-From inis through a lane formed by citizens under Last article, it fhould feem, that the French

In che cvening the city was magci. bave with their usual fineffe found means to ficently illuminated. impose on the Ruffian (py; and fupplied the “ His Excellency Baron Heiniz, Mipister Otromans with warlike stores in hips under of State, War, and Finances, who acconEnglish colours, as it is the French that have panied the King on his route, arrived here procured the Firman for navigating iho Rid The 10th inftant." Sea. (See pp. 9. 166.7

6 M. Brron Tork de Roosendaal, P.

Van de Siegel, Pesters, and d’Aylva, apo An Account of the K. of Prussia's journey pointed by their High Mighvin iles to go to

from Berlio to Loo; oftenfibly to vibt his Werel, and compliment his Piumino Moly ofer, the Princess of Orange, who was to in their name, set off from the Hague on the meet his Majesty at that ciry, wirb the bih init, and arrived on the Sih at Velel; "a Suadibolder and his family; or, as it has the gih they had an audience of his MaUnce appeared, upon that and more im- jesty, who answered their High Mightie portant hulinefs.

nelles compliment in the most affable mane is The King, who left Berlin to make His Majefiy's answer contained proa tour to fis eftates in Weftphalia, and restations of acknowledgments for their High firm thence to the cable of Lạo, arrived the Mightinesses attention and afurances; that geh inft. at Welel, about half after ten he would always frangiy protect the avgust o'clock in the morning, with the Prince House of Orange, any the present conflitoRoyal; and, after viewing the ramparts, tion of the Republic; and finished by de. wisiting the citade!, artenal, and the new claring, that he was greatly pleased, thar works adding to the fortifications, his Ma their High Mighunettes had chosen four jeliy admitted to a formal audience their members to fulfil that commilton, who were Noble Migh'ioefles the Deputies of the so well distinguished for their attachmatia States General of the United Provinces, who a good cause, and that be was very happy in came to that ciry to compliment him in the being made known to them. The four Dame of their High Mightineffes. He like. Depuiies were afterwards admitted to the wife gave a formal audience to his Excel. King's table, and his Majelty discoursed lency M. Pacca, the Pope's Nuncio, whom with thens during the repafi. he received in the most flattering and diftin. “On the 19h they ler off for Roosendal, guished manner. He also admitted to his au where they paffed the night at the Caftle; dience the Deputies of the Duchies of Cleves, on the irih they went to Loo, where they Guelderland, and ihe Principality of Meurs, dined and supped with his Sirene Highnels and all qualified persons who prelented the Prince Stadt holder and his Prushan Mathemselves. On the 10th, aíter reviewing jesty; on the 12th, 13th, and 14in, they the garrison of Wesel ar four o'clock in were ftill at the Castle of Loo, with his Exthe morning, bis Majefty set out for this crllency Sir James Harris, his Britannic cily, where he arrived about eleven o'clock, Majelty's Ambassador and Plenipoieniiary, Not far from the end of the garden balonging and Caron Alveslleben, Envoy Extraordite the Duwager Van Spaen, he met h s au nary from his P.uflisn Majesty. There were guft ister ihe Princess of Orange, the Here. each day grand conferences at the said Castle, diary Prince Stadihulder, and their illura between his Prullian Maj fty, their Sereve trious children, who came from Looto meet and Royal Higantflisthe Prince and Princess him on the preceding evening. The inter- of Orange, Sir James Harris, M. Van Al. view was very affecting both to the parties veosleben, and Van de Spiegei: poihing and the spect scors, and excited the liveliest concerning their conference has yet trani. acclamations of applause. Her Royal High- pired, but we have reason to think that they nels the Princess of Orange, taking hold of will produce a fresh allia.ce of friendship the arm of her august brother, went with between the three powers (Prussia, Holland, him and his luite to a pavillion, raised by the and Great Britainl, fix the established contiBaroness Van Spaen, fome paces from the tution firmer than ever, and accomplish garden, where a breakfast was prepared. the welfare of this country at home and The King diced at the Prince's cafile with

abroad. , the Siautholderian family and a cholen “ The four said Deruties and Sir James company; and, after asisting in the evening Harris returned to the Hague she isth in the ar the Dowager of Spren's circle, whilfi the evening." Prince Royal took a turn in the Park, his Majesty retired to his apartments, and set off The French Monarch in the further prose. early the next morning for the cattle of Loo, cution of his plans (ree p. 552) for rettore for which place the Stadtholderian family sec ing, as it is preiendid, the ancient corfiituoff the evening before.

tion of France, has caused an Ediet to be A company of young men, in uciforms iflued for eft ablishing a Cour PLINTEX2, and on horseback, went in the morojng 10 or supre'ne tribunal, of which the follow meet him, and had ibe honour to conduct ing are the Heads.

ORDINANCE

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