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The Manner in which Slaves were used at Rome. 497 Masters, at Rome, were pofseffed relates, to place in the triumphal car, of an unlimited power of inflicting char behind the triumpher, a man with a tisements upon their slaves, over whose whip in his hand; and the meaning of life and death they had, moreover, an this practice was, to fhew, thar it was no absolute authority' A great number of impollible thing for a person to fall from different instruments were accordingly the highest pitch of glory into the most contrived for punishing Naves. Some abject condition, even into that of a consisted of a flat strap of leather, and flave. were called fe ulæ; and to be lathed “ Suetonius also relates a fact, which with the ferula was considered as the affords another remarkable instance of mildest degree of punishment. Others this notion of the Romans, of looking were made of a number of cords of upon a whip as a characteristic mark of twisted parchment, and were called dominion on the one hand, and of na frutice. These frutice were considered very on the other. • Cicero (say: Sue. as being one degree higher in point of conius, in the life of Auguftus). having feverity than the ferule, but were much accompanied Cælar to the capitol, res inferior to that kind of scourge which lated to a few friends, whom he met was called flagellum, and founetimes the there, a dream which he had had the terrible flagelium which was made of night before. It seemed to him (he said) thongs of ox-leather, the same as those that a graceful boy came down from which carmen used for their horses, Heaven, suspended by a golden chain ; We find, in the third Satire of How that he stopped before the gate of the race, an account of the above inftru- capitol, and that Jupiter gave him a ments, and of the gradation in point of whip (flagellum). Having afterwards severity that obtained between them : suddenly leen Augustus, whom (as he Afit

was ftill personally unknown to several Reguia peccatis quæ penas irroget æquas,

of his near relations) Cæsar had sent for Nec fculica dignum horribili iectere flagello: and brought along with him to be pre. Nam ut ferusă cædas meritum majora fubire sent at the ceremony, he assured his Verbera non vercor.

friends that he was the very person The following is the literal transla- whose figure he had seen during his tion of these lines: Make such a rule sleep.' Juvenal likewise, in one of his of conduct to yourself, that you may Satyrs, lpeaks of Auguftus conformably always proportion the chafitement you to the above notion of the Romansa inflict to the magnitude of the offence; • The same (lays he) who, after conand when the offender only deserves to quering the Romans, has subjected be chaitised with the whip of swifted them to his whip.' parchment, do not expose him to the lash Ad sua qui domitos deduxit fagra Quirites. of the horrid leather scourge; for, that

Juv. Sal. X. 99. you Thould only infliet the punishment So frequenıly were flagellations the of the Hat strap on him who deferves a lot of flaves, that appellations and remore severe lashing, is what I am by proachful exprellions alluding to that no means afraid of.

kind of punishment were commonly “ A certain particular kind of cords, used to denominate them. Plautus, manufactured in Spain, were also used who had been servant to a baker, and for Jafhing Naves, as we are also in- who was much acquainted with every formed by Horace, who, in one of his thing that related to haves, has made a Odes, addrelles one Menas, who had most frequent use of such nicknamee formerly been a llave, by the following and expressions. Slaves are called in words : “ Thou, whose fides are still his scenes, refliones, on account of their discoloured (or burnt) with the ftripes being beaten with cords, and bucada, of Spanish cords. (Ibericis peruste juo on account of the ox-leather thongs nibus lalus).

used for the same purpose. The same So generally were whipping and author usually denominates flaves with lashing considered among the Romans the words flugriıribe (à fagris terere) as being the lot of Naves, that a whip, ulmitriba, plagipalidæ, &c. Terence, or a scourge, was positively become ae though an author remarkable for this mong them the emblem of their condio observance of decorum, frequently uses tiop. Of this we have an instance in the exprellions of verberones, and plzthe singular custom mentioned by Ca- griones, in speaking of Naves. The merarius. It was usual, that auther expressions, verber ones and fubverbumi

GENT. MAG. June, 1788.

(ttoje

(those who are burnt with stripes), have that such an opportunity, when obtainialso been used by Tertullian as common ed, was feldom suffered to escape. A appellations of llaves.

Roman spark, caught in the above disa “ Sometimes the.dagellations indict. guise, and engaged in the laudable pur. ed upon Naves, or the fear they enter suit of feducing his neighbour's wife, tained of incurring them, served Plau. was, with a centupondium to his feet, tus as incidents for the conduct of his fadly rewarded for his fpirit and inge. plots. Thus, in his Epidicus, a llave, nuity. A misfortune of this kind acwho is the principal character in the tually befell Salluft the historian He play, concludes, upon a certain occa. was caught in a familiar intercourse rion, that his master has discovered his with Faustina, wife to Miio, and daughwhole scheme, because he has spied ter of the Dictator Sylla. The husband him, in the morning, purchasing a new caused him to be foundly lashed (ioris Icourge at the top in which thcy were bene cælum); nor did he releale him tili fold. The subject of Aagellations has he had made him pay a confiderable been an inexhauttible fund of pleasantry sum of money. The fat is related by for Plautus. In one place, a Nave, in Aulus Gellius, who has extracted it tending to laugh at a fellow.lave, alks from Varro. To this circumblance the him how much he thinks he weighs, violent part was very probabiy owing when he is suspended naked, by bis which Sallust afterwards cook againk hands, to the beam, with an hundred Milo, while the latter was under profeweight (cent upondium) tied to his feet; cution for saying the tribune Clodiusa which was a precaution taken, as com and the tumult he raised on that (cca. mentators inform us, in order to pre- lion, by which Cicero was prevented vent the flave who was flagellated from from delivering the speech he had prekicking the man (virgator) whole of. pared. face it was to perform the operation. “ An allusion is made to the above And, in another place, Plautus, alluding facts in one of Horace's Satyrs. He to the thongs of ox-leather with which supposes in it, that his Nave, availing whips were commonly made, introduces himself of the opportunity of the Satura a llave engaged in deep reflection on the nalia, to speak his mind freely to hiin, surprizing circumstance of dead bule gives him a lecture on the bad courses in locks, that make incursions upon living which he thinks him engaged, and uses,

among others, the following arguments :

" When you have stripped off the Vivos homines mortui incursant boves!

marks of your dignity, your cquelijan Nor was it upon their flaves only that ring, and your whole Roman dreis, and, masters, among the Romans, infiered from a man invelied with the office of the punishment of Hegellation : they judge, lhew yourself at once under the fometimes found means to serve in the appearance of the slave Dama; disgraced same manner the young men of free as you are, and hiding your perfumed condition, who insinuated themselves head under your cloak, you are not the into their houles, with a design to court man whom you feign to be : you are at their wives. Asthe most favourable dif- least introduced full of terror, and your guile on fuch occafions was to be dressed whole frame Thakes through the strugo in ilaves clothes, because a man thus gles of two opposite pallions. In fači, habited was enabled to get into the wliat advantage is it to you, whether houte, and go up and down without you are cut to pieces with rods, or being noticed, rakes, engaged in a- Naughtered with iron weapons?' morous pursuits, utually chose to make Tu cum projectis infignibus, annulo equestri use of ihis kind of dreis. When the Romanoque habitu, prodis ex judice Damia, hulband happened to discover them, he Turpis, odoratum caput obscurante lacerna usualty feigned to militake the man for Non os quod fimulas; metuens induceris, a run-away slave, or some sirange flave atque who had got into his house to commit Altercaixe libidinibus trenis offa pavore. theft, and treated him accordingly, Quid refert uri virgis, ferroque necari? Indeed, the opportunity was a moit fa

Lib. II. Sat. 7. vourable one for revenge; and if to this " The above uncontrouled power

of confideration we add that of the severe inflicting punishments on their llaves, temper of the Romans, and the jealous enjoyed by matiers in Rome, was at dilpolition that has always prevailed in lait abused by them to the greatest dethat country, we shall cafily conclude gree. The imallest faults committed in

men,

their

The Manner in which Slaves were used at Rome. 499 their families by flaves, luch as break- its authority to prevent the like excesses : ing glailes, seasoning dishes too much, in a canon which was framed in the or the like, exposed them to grievous council held at Elvira, the following pụnishments; and it even was no un provision was inseried, in order to utual thing for masters (as we may check the severity of mistresses in re. judge from the description of Trimal. gard to their female Naves. •If a milcion's entertainment in the Satire of tress, in a fit of anger and madness, Pusonius) to order such of their Naves, hall lash her female slave, or cause her as had been guilty of faults of the above to be lashed, in such a manner that she kind, to be stripped, and whipped in Thall expire before the third day, by the presence of their guests, when they reason of the torture the has undergone; happened to entertain any at their whereas it is doubtful whether it has houses.

designedly bappened, or by chance; if “ Besides all the abovemenrioned in- it has designedly happened, the mistress ftruments used for punishing Naves, and shall be excommunicated for seven years; as if the terrible Aage!lum had no: been if by chance, she badd be excommuniof itself fufficiently severe, new can. cated for five years only; though, if the trivances were used to render the fame falls into fickness, the may receive the a ftill more cruel weapon : the thongs communion.' with which that kind of scourge was “ But the abuses made by masters of made were frequently armed with nails, their power over their faves, were a or small hard bones, and aifo with small ditorder of such a nature as was not to leaden weights; thele weights were shap. be cured so long as the custom itself uf ed like chole which were sometimes worn pavery was allowed to sublift; and these hanging about the shoes, and were called a'rules have been at length remedied aflragala, as mentioned by Hefychius: only by the thorough abolition of a cushence the name of astragala commonly toin which was a continual infult on given to such scourges as were armed humanity : an advantage this, for which with these kinds of leaden weights or we are indebted to che cttablithment of knobs.

Christianity, whatever evils and cala. “ Thesę abuses which masters, in mitiis certain writers may reproach it Rome, made of the power they pose with having occafioned.” sefled over their Naves, either by mak The above facts and observations are ing them deliberately fufter death, or extracted from the fourch chapter of wantonly torturing them in nuinberle's Mr. De Lolme's Memoriais of Human different ways, were af length carried Superfition, in which they are introto fuch a pitch, that, in the beginning duced by way of a digreffion. of the reign of the Emperors, it was found necessary to restrain their licence. Letters to the People of Great Britain,

“ Under the reign »f Claudius (for it on tbe Cultivation of their National is not clear whether any provision to that effe&t was made under Auguftus)

V. it was ordained, that matters, who fora A

FTER having mentioned the pesook their Naves when fick, should lose riod of our hittory which has been all right over them in case they reco. least illustrated, let us proceed to consivered; and that those who deliberately der in what other parts the neglect put them to death, should be banilhed chiefly confifts. And, in the first place, from Rome,

as the British empire contains leveral “ Under the Emperor Adrian, the distinct kingdoms, it will be proper to cruelties exercised by Umbricia, a Ro. enquire if the history of any of these man lady, over her female Naves, cauled kingdoms be more negleeted than that newlans to be made on that subject, as ot another. In this point of view, it well as the former ones to be put in mult occur that England, a country luforce; and Umbricia was, by a refcript perior in wealth, population, and glory, of the Emperor, banished for five years to all the reli put together, mult natu(l. 2. in fire, Dig. L. I 1. 6.).

rally have attracted the chief attention “ New laus to the fame cnds were to her history, as in jultice the ought. likewite made under the following Ein- But, while even the history of England perors, among which civilians make has been so much neglected, it is not particular mention of conftitution of

matter of furprize tisat the history of 'Antoninus Pius (Diva .Pius). In fubWales, licland, Scotland, should meet fequent times, the church alio enployed with very kile alication,

It is even fuincted

Hijerya e ITER. V

a

suspected, that the history of these coun who lived at this very time, knew po. tries has met with more difregard, both thing of Arthur ; and he is now pero among their respective natives, and in fe&tly understood to be a non-existence, England, than its disproportion dc mere phantom of those romances ferves; and it is certain that the history which began to appear in the north of of Bretagne, of Burgundy, and other France in the time of the crusades. ancient kingdoms now conjoined in the If in the libraries in Wales any his. French monarchy, has atiracted infi- toric document whatever can be reconitely more notice in France than that vered, written before she telfth ceng of the above kingdoms has found in

tury, it cannot be too highly valued England. The five volumes folio of As it is, the whole hiftory of Wales, original documents, concerning the hil from the beginning to the twelfth centory of Bretagne alone, l'ately published tury, refts upon Caradoc of Llancarvon, in France, may, among many other who wrote about the year 1160; a va. proofs, establish the truth of this affer. luable and judicious writer, but who tion. It is, therefore, propofed to con. cannot be grcaly crediied for events fider the Welch, Irish, Scotish history, that happened many centuries before each in a feparate letter; as being pro- him, and of which, to the belt of my vinces of British history much neglect knowledge, there is no other native reed. A native of the Britih empire, cerd. though he may laudably give more at But the fingularity is, that Caradac, tention to that country of it where he the only original historian of Wales, was born, muft yet be greatly interested remains yet to be published ! We have in the history of every kingdom of the only translations of his work, grossly empire; at least, far more so than in interpolated by a succession of absurd any foreign history. And a British An- editors, so that it is impossible to say tiquary ought to despise ancient enmi- whai parts are Caradoc's, what not. tics and prejådices, and to contribute The original ought to be publiged from with pleasure to serve any denomination the oldest MSS. extant, with a verbal of his fellow-subjects. It shall only be Latin translation. But those gentlemen further premised, that the plan of these who are skilled in the Welch language, Jetters inuít necessarily confine them to rather chuse to ficken the publick with a few hints, especially concerning the their dreams concerning the Welch Jeffer kingdoms : for the neglect of langnage and antiquities, than to acEnglish biflory is their most important quire great fame by publishing the ori. province; and, if that began to be re- ginal authors; a phrenzy also general modied, the other Britih kingdoms in Ireland, but no where else to bę would follow the example of course. found.

This latter shall offer a few remarks The Era Cambro-Britannice, pub. on the history of Wales. The ancient lished by Williams at the end of Lloyd's hitiorical documents concerning Wales Commentariolum, I cannot believe more are very few; and it is matter of great ancient than the thirteenth century. er reproach that even these few hare And I wish to be informed if, excepring been neglected. When Nennius and only the laws of Howel Dha in the Samuel wrote in conjunction, in the tenthi, there be any specimen of the year 858, it is palpable, from their pre Welch language preceding the cuvelfth ace, that not one historian had arilen

century. The list of Welch MSS. in Wales before ihem. The complaint given by Davis in his Welch Di&tion. of Gildas, who wroic in the year 560, ary, and Lluyd in his Archæologia, contains very fe:v historic hints. Gile jumps at once from the sixth to the das, Nennius, and Samuel, only go twelfth century. To the sixth century down to the arrival of the Saxons in are ascribed certain bards, Taliesin, the fifth century. From that period ull Merlin, Aneurim, &c. and after them 1130, when Geofrey of Monmouth we find no Welch writer ull the twelfth publihed his monfrons romance, rraní. century. Mr. Evans, who deferves Jared from a romance of Bretagne, the greatest praise for his labours, has which he instook for a history, not a published ipecimens of the poems aparricle of Welch hitiory can be found, lcribed to thele bards. Unhappily they ¢xsept in Beda, and the Saxon Chro: are all in thimc; while we know from nicle, and Iride Annals. Geofrey only Giraldus Cambrensis, who wrote about Loes down to the death of his pretended the year 1980, that thiine was totally Abur, about the year 54.2. Bui Gilaus, unknown to the Welcb poetry even of

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