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Remarkable Letter from David Hume to Sir John Pringit. 393 though my Lord refused to name her. “pect to see here." “ It was curiosity The Pretender came to her house in the “ihat led me,” said the other; “ but evening, without giving her any prepa “ I assure you," added he, “ that the perstory information, and entered the room “ fon who is the object of all this pomp when he had a pretty large company

“ and magnificence, is the man I envy with her, and was herself playing at " the least." You see this story is lo cards. He was announced by the fer near traced from the fountain-head, as to tant under another name : The thought wear a great face of probability. Query, the cards would have dropped from her what if the Pretender had taken up Dy- hands on feeing him; but she had pre- mock's gauntlet! fence e ough of mind to call him by she I find that the Pretender's visit in Engname he assumed, to ask him when he land in the year 1753, was known to all came to England, and how long he in- the Jacobites; and ome of them have tended to stay there. Afrer he and all allured me, that he took the opportunity the company web: away, the fervants of formally renouncing the Roman Caremarked how wonderfully like the tholic religion, under his own name of ftrange gentieinan was to the Prince's Charles Stuart, in the New Church in picture which hung on the chimney. the Strand! and that this is the reason of piece in the very room in which he en the bad treatment he met with at the tered. - My Lord added (I think from court of Rome. I own that I am a the authority of the fame Lads), that he sceptic with regard to the all particulars. uled so little precaution, that he went a Lord Marechal had a very bad opinion hroad openly in dav-light in his own of this unfortunate Prince, and thought dress, oniy laying aside his blue ribband there was no vice Po myan or atrocious and ftar; walked once through Sc. of which he wa' u it capable; of which James's, and took a turn in the Mall. che gave ine several instances.-My Lord,

About five years ago, I told this flory shough a man of great honour, may be to Lord Holderness, who was Secretary thought a discontented courtier ; but of State in the year 1753 ; and I added, what quite confirmed me in that idea of that I sui pored this picce of int ligence that Prince, was a conversation I had had at that time cicaped his Lordhip. with Helvetius af Paris, which I believe By no means, said he; and who do you I have told you. In case I ha e not, I think firn told it me? It was the King íhal mention a few particulars. That himself, who suhjoined, “ And what do gentleinan told me that he had no acyou think, mi Lord, I should do with quaintance with the Pretender; but lome him?" Lord Holderness owned that he time after that Prince was chaced out was puzzled how to reply, tur if he de France, a letter, saiu he, was brought me clared his real sentiments, they inight from him, in which he told m', ihat the favour of indifference to the royal fa- ncceflity of his affairs obliged him to be mily. The King perceived his embar at Paris, and as he kniw me by characraliment, and extricated him from it by ter to be a man of the greatett probity adding, “ My Lord, I shall just do no. and honour in France, he would trust thing at all, and when he is tired of himself to me, if I would promise to England, he will go abroail again." - conceal and protect him. I own, added thiok this story, for the honour of the Helvetius to me, although I knew the late King, ought to be more generaliy danger to be greater of harbouring him known.

at Paris than at London; and although But what will surprise you more, I thought the family of Hanover not only Lord Marechal, a few days after the co the lawtul sovereigns in England, but the ronation of the present King, told me only lawful sovereigns in Europe, as have that he believed the young Pretender was ing the free content of the people; yet at that time in London, or at least had was I such a dupe to his flattery, that I been so very lately, and had come over invited him to my house, concealed him to see the thew of the coronation, and there going and coming near two years, had actually been it. I asked my Lord had ali his correspondence pass through the reason for this strange fact. Why, my hands, met with his partizans upon says he, a gentleman toid me so that saw Pont Neuf, and found at last that I had him there, and that he even spoke to incurred all this danger and trouble for him, and whispered in his ears these the most unworthy of all mortals; info. words : “ Your Royal Highness is the much that I have been assured, when he " laft of all mortals whom I thould ex went down to Naniz to embark on his GENT. MAG. May, 1783.


expedition to Scotland, he took fright, and they recognise the species in the in. and refused to go on board; and his at dividual as our children do. “ All tendants, thinking the matter gone too which indicates," he says, “that there far, and that they would be affronted for is no natural difference betwixt our his cowardice, carried him in the night. minds and theirs; and that the superiotime into the ihip, pieds et mains liés. Irity we have over them is adventitious, asked him, if he meant literally. Yes, and from acquired habit.” His Lord. said he, literally: they tied him, and ship here seems to infinuate an equalicy carried him by main force. What think between them and us; and that our you now of this hero and conqueror ? present superiority over them is as much

Both Lord Marechal and Helvetius the effect of chance as any thing else. agree, that with all this strange charac. If this be his meaning, I must widely ter, he was no bigot, but rather had differ from him. I cannot fuppose that learned from the philosophers at Paris to the capacity of any animal is equal to affect a contempt of all religion. You our own. Much greater changes and must know that both these persons improvements must have taken place to thought they were ascribing to him an warrant the truth of such an allertion. excellent quality. Indeed both of them Every animal under our notice seems to used to laugh at me for my narrow way have arrived at the summit of that per. of thinking in those particulars. How; fection which was the original design of ever, my dear Sir John, I hope you will Nature; but man, if in a totally uncul. do me the justice to acquit me.

tivated Itate, is extremely imperfect, I doubt not but ihese circumstances and seems to rise in the scale of excelwill appear curious to Lord Hardwicke, lence proportionably with the degree of to whom you will please to present my instruction belowed upon him. Witrespects. 'I furpose his Lordhip will neis the disparity bersveen any two men think this unaccountable mixture of te of equal capacities; one of whon en. merity and timidity in thc fanc charac. joys all the advantages of a liberal eduter not a little fingular.

cation, the other has few opportunities I am yours very sincerely,

of enlarging and improving his ideas. DAVID HUME. Then let us observe the state of a clown,

who, from his infancy, has been totally Mr. URBAN, Norwich, May 1. confined to labour: from such an one IN

who are fond of philosophical disqui. Cual deficiency, to those beings of our Sitions, it was debated, Whether man, own species (leveral of whom Hiftory unatlisted and uninformed by the society mentions) who have been deprived of his own species, would arrive at a from their infancy of all intercourse higher degree of understanding than the with human kind. They are always brutes? The Works of Lord Mon- fpoken of as incapable of Áying to those boddo (whose inveftigations of this fub- refources which Nature, more kind to ject are very ingenious, although not other animals, has instinctively pointed always confitent,) were quoted, in or out to them for their immediate good der to decide the question in the nega- and preservation. The various characrive. This gave rise to a more close ters and appearances which men affume examination of his fentiments upon the from the different examples set before lubject, and likewise led to a coinpari- them, afford the strongest proof what fon between what he advances upon it, mere children of education we are ;in his “ Origin of Language" and “ An- how difficult, sometimes, it is for us, cient Metaphysics." in his "Origin of from the imitative quality fo peculiar to Language, vol. I. p. 147, he appeals our nature, to be divested of the most to the judgement of his readers, whe- absurd prejudices; and, without the ther, io immersed as the mind is in guidance of Example and Precept, matter, without the affiftance of lan. to discover the exercise of the mental fa. guage, or those reciprocal aids which, culties. Not to mention the difficulty of in refined society, we borrow from cach bringing to maturity the latent seeds of olliti, there be any difference between Genius in individuals, there is frequently us and o-her animals. He maintains, the greatest application and a fortunate that, from the force of their memory train of fingular events necessary, in ore and perceptions, they have, like ouro der to produce a complete display of felves, a notion of lameness, likeness, them.

Hence our fuperiority to other and diverfity, in the objects of lente ;


appears to risc in proportion to



Marcb 31.

A Doube proposed to Lord Monboddo.--Anecdotes of Chefs. 395 the degree of care and pains taken to amples, are sufficient to demonstrate obtain it. How then is this fuperiority, that man, in a totally rude and favage that appears to have arisen from exte• state, is inferior to the brutes; and that · rior helps and succours, confiftent with all our present improvements and ideas his Lordship's very itigh ideas of Scrip- have arisen from that most astonishing ture? In the one case he considers man and comprehensive faculty, Capability. as having had immediate communica. As these observations may be no tion with the Deity, who conversed where fo likely to catch the eye of Ld. with him by word of mouth, and gave Monboddo as in your entertaining Mifto every animal and every plant its par. cellany, I requeft the favour of you to ticular name. in the other cafe he insert them in it.

K. H. views man as a savage, living for ages like other animals ; acquiring improveo Mr. URBAN, ments by the slowest steps; first having


R. TWISS hath omitted, in his recourse to motions and founds, by way Farrago Libelli upon Chess, the of vehicles of thought; then proceed. following pallage in the Opus Arithmeti. ing to articulation and language. How cum of Dr. Wallis : “ One Setia, an then is this adventitious luperiority of Indian, having first found out the game ours, which he treats of in his “Origin at Chefie, and shewed it to his prince of Language," confiftent with his fentie Shehram; the king, who was highly ments in his “ Ancient Metaphysics,"! plealed with it, bid him ask what he in which he maintains, that if man had would for the reward of his invention ; been intended for no other purpose than whereupon he asked, that, for the first the brutes were, that degree of intellect, little square of the chefs-board he might which is peculiar to them, would have have one grain of wheat given him ; for been sufficient for him ? But he adds, the second, 2; and so on, doubling ** Man, by Nature, was destined for a continually according to the number of nobler purpose.” This apparent con• squares in the chefs- board, which was tradiction of cerms must arise from his 64. And when the king, who intended Lordship viewing the matter in a dif to give a noble reward, was much different light, when he wrote his “ An. pleased that he had asked so trilling a cient Mctaphysics," to what he did one, Sella declared that he would be when he wrote his “Origin of Lan- contented with this small one. So this guage;" for our superiority could not reward he had fixed upon was ordered have been adventitivus if there must be, to be given him : but the king was as he says, in his opinion (Anc. Mera: quickly aftonished, when he found that phyt. vol. I. p. 133), a difference spe- this would rise to fo valt a quantity, that cific, and not in degree only, berween the whole earth itfélf could not furnish our minds and those of other animals. out to much wheat.”. Our author's contradi&tory affertions Mr. T hath also omitted a curious appear to me to have arisen from his story of the consequences of a game at not having laid sufficient stress, during cheis between a Fitzwarin and King the course of his two treatises, on the John, at whitungton caitie, in Shropa meaning of the word Capability; a tern Thire, related in Leland's Collectanea; of such importance, and to expreflive of which, for the peculiar quaintness and the highest part of our nature, that it is naivelé with which it is told, well defar above the reach of Imagination to serves to be transcribed into your Maconceive the distance to which it may gazine; but I have not the book at hand. carry our future discoveries. Perhaps Paichius relates (which I do not find even at present, knowledge is in its in- in Mr. Twiss's compilation) that Louis fancy; and why thould we not infer, IX. of France, and our James 1. prohifrom a review of improvements that bited the use of this game because it fahave already taken place, an accumula- tigues the mind. De Nov-untiquis tion of them transcendently higher in p. 760. future? With respect, therefore, to the The same author gives us the follownature of man, our own experience, the ing verses, which dclcribe nearly enough State of whole tribes of men, for many the manner of placing the pieces, at this generations, compared with other ani. game, and are not to be ince with in the mals before civilization was introduced, publication alluded to : the actual progress we are now making in medio Rex eft, prope quem Regina loin arts and sciences, wherein our an

catur ; cestors, perhaps,' thought themselves His Jacıilator opem præstat utrinque fuum: "qually expert;-all, or any such ex



Of. I. 23:

396 Anecdotes of Chess.Licentiousness reprehended.--Stained Glass. Hinc auratus Eques fequitur, poft Turriger of those things which are done of them in fe. alas

cret.' But if so; if it be an evil thing to let Occupat, et Miles cuique stat ante pedes. corrupt conimunication proceed out of the Tac Atory of Al Amin, p. 24, may

mouth; what fall be faid to palliate the be paralleled by one told by' Seneca, de diffusing of it in characters that may latt long Tranquil. Animi, cap. 14, of one Canius

after the pablithers may be gone to reccive Julius, who, being summoned to exe

the recompense for dee's done in tbetody? And

be it remembered, if we are found transgrefe. cution, desired the centurion to bear witness that he had one man mure upon

fors at the bar of Disure Justice, it will be of

law's which have been fully known and exthe board than his adversary

I doubt,

plained to us here. And Mali the pairy however whether the ludus latruncuio

gains of these things be put in the balance rum was the same with our chess : for

with the solid comforts that will arise to such the author of the Carmen in Pifonem as at the close of life have this reflection, that, seems rather to speak of fomething like Not one immoral, one corrupted thoushit, drafis, as he does not take notice of any

One word, which dying they miglit with to yariation between the moves of the leve.

blot, ral pieces.

have they published, to stand forth as a bandThe following passage from Thucy- criting upon the will again them. dides, I. 28 may, with great propilety: “ Accept this memento (as it is offered) in be fubjoined to the excellent paper of good-will, from a heat interested in the Dr. Franklin's, re printed in vol. LVII. cause of virtue.

AMICUS." p. 590: Α:ι προς ευ βολευομενοις τες αντιες παρασκευαζεσθαι δει, και ουκ εξ


April 14. εκείνων ως αμαρτησομενων εχειν τας ελπιδας; ; which is not unlike that of Cicero de

P. Qyour candour bas given 100 Ingenii magni eft præci- ftained glass described vol

. LVII. 849.

much confequence to the emblematical pere cogitatione futura, et aliquanto This gentleman's difike does not pro: ante conttituere quid accidere poilit in utramque partem; et quid agendum lit ceed, I hope, from the application ; at

which no fincere friend to our national cum quid evenerit, nec committere, ut

interests would be displeased. It was aliquando dicendum sit.non putaram.'

never brought forward as an object of Mr. URBAN, Hampseire, Jar. 2.

great merit or consequence; the princi: HE following letter having been pal motive is fufheicnily pointed out at

the beginning of the introduci ion. He the London news papers, it is tran

feems to polless a partial knowledge in fcribed for the Gentleman's Magazine, and many fubjects of the kid may pos

the speculative line of coloured gials; in hopes it may be the more extensively fibly have pailed through his hands by useful. A CONSTANT CUSTOMER.

the intervention of his friend Sain Pas IT is not without surprize, and with terfon. As an admirer of the art, it real sorrow, that I lately observed in the

would be efieemed a favour if P.Q. an achvertisergent, of what I have no doubt is a licentious and obscene publica- ing, and where*. IIis trate, it may be

would inform me if Mr. P. be full livtion. I never saw it: but the intimations thrown out by the advertisements were, I prefumed, did not advance his fortune; suppose, thought sufficient to attract the eye

which is no wonder, for many such col. of lewdness, and awaken the curiosity of lectors of curiofities are to be met with youth. It is indeed surprifing and forrowful, on the Continent,' whole expectations thai, in an age profelling the tublinie reve have been diluppoinied. Now as P. Q: lation of the Gospel, we Mhould thus openly has brought on the lubject, it is natural spread corruption and indecency, when the to imagine him a connoisseur, of which virtue of the Greek and Roman states would

he has given a degree of proof, in fayprobably have prohibited and abherred it. in hoc care did they toke (in the purer ages

ing that the piece in question is the work

of a Flemish artist. It is very true; and of those state) to prevent their youth from

I thall freely own that it was purchaled being and enervated by vice! And Thall this be our condemnation, that the

by me in Flanders, where I procured greater 119 bit of aivine purity is invited to us,

many others of the fort, which are now but that men yet chuíe a darkness worle than

in my poffeffion. What could be colheathen, winly hoping to cover themselves

leech at home veic, in general, imperfrom the consequences of such perversion? * That this ingenious and worthy, thoughi

“ Hear the decency of fanguage which unfortunate, min is liring, our correspondChriftianity inspired upon obscene and detest cat will be glad to hear. See p. 338. IDIT.

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The Bradshaws.--Remarkable Dissežtion.—St. Owen's Bay. 397 feet, or ill designed ; and therefore the Mr. URBAN,

May 2 fuperior merit of the foreign

matters SThe

waist and of the illand of Jersey; strengthened my opinion, that the Flemish ftainers excelled our English, and and that isand, being open to the mouth that a great many admired remains of of the British channel, is exposed to the this art, now in being with us, are the violence of the Westerly winds, and work of foreigners. Many attempts rage of the sea, quite uninterrupted by have been made to recover the ancient any other land than the great continent method of fluxing glass with superficial of America. That end rif the island is and transparent colours, which at this now, however, bounded by a high and day feems drawing near to its former steep bluff, or cliff: but. I apprehend, perfection. An artist in the neighbour. it was not aluays in that state, but that hood of Birmingham, I am well affured, the sea has made large incroachments bids fair to rival the most illustrious of thereon, and consequently devoured his predecessors.

O R. many acres of lower land, and swallow.

ed up the tices now to be found in the Mr. URBAN,

Mar 4.

ocean, and for many yards under the I

BELIEVE I mav venture to inform sandy defert you meption; for there is

your correspondent B-S-Cl. that not only the finest foil in the island, but Bradshaw's remains were not buried in many houses, as well as trees, are buW'igan church. The Bradshaugh fa- ried under that defert sand, the chimmily, late in that neighbourhood, once nies of some of which I have seen. No spelt their name Bradíhaw; but I have wonder, therefore, that large trees have always heard them mentioned as a loyal been found lying where they originally family; and I do not believe any of grew, as mentioned in your News of them would have esteemed it an honour last month. Why those winds, whick to have claimed relationship to the Lord cover this fertile, and once most beautiPresident.

ful, part of the island, with fand in these I should imagine the stairs leading to latter ages, escaped to many preceding their gallery were originally as at pre ones, must be explained by wiser heads fent. Under them, in the family chan- than mine; but it is probable the land's cel, lie the remains of Sir William end of England extended farther than it Bradshaw, knt. and Mabel his wife, of does at present, or that the islands of remarkable meinory, with a monument Scilly were, in former days, one hingle erected to them. Any of your readers, island of much greater magnitude, and by referring to the Baronetage, will consequently protceted the Jersey island learn something of the penance of Ma: from those ravages and devastations it bel, and the romantic (though true) is now seen under*. In a strong Wesoccurrences that occafioned it. There terly wind at this day, high as the cliff have been variery of accounts relative to now is, though much of the loose sand the burial-place of the Lord President, is difpersed over the adjacent country, which, hoivever, is certainly not in yet more is fupplied even from the mara Wigan church.

BENEDICT. gin of the fea. Nor is it possible to stand

upon that descent and face a storm, the Mr. URBAN, Margate, May 5. drift of the sands is so cutting and seYO OU have remarked, p. 362, that vere, and, consequently, so changes the

“ a diffcction at Mr. Coruik Thank's, furface of the lands, as to expose some. in Windmill-ftreet, is said to have oco times the chimnies of houses, which are calioned much fpeculation.” Now, Sir, covered at others. The island of Jersey any of your medical readers may find, would afford an Antiquary much matin Buncius's Practical Anatomny, book ter of attention; there are, I believe, IV. lect. xi. obf. 7, a full and an accu several Druidical monuments t to be ex. rate defcription (from Cattierus, obf. plored there. Yours, &c. 17) of the deflection of an aliaslin, executed for murder in the year 1630,


May 3. whose viscera were all reveríod, the


"HE Episcopalians of Scotland had, apex of the heart pointing to the right, I hoped, configned the whole charge and its basis to the left tide of the tho. of their armoury, offensive and defenrax, and the liver occupying, in the * Perhaps the islands of Scilly have been abdomen, the place of the stomach and cut oft from the main land. spleen, &c. ROB. ED. HUNTER, + See vol. LVII. p. 700. EDIT.

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