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observe and obey. The first Parliament of this reign evinced its perfect compliance with the views of the Protector and the
Monarch by repealing the laws against the Lollards, thať of the six articles, and confirming the supremacy of the latter; other acts were made which admitted the laity to the full participation of the communion, gave the appointment of bishops to the crown, restrained the jurisdietion of ecclesiastical courts; and finally the various chantries were suppressed, and their revenues seized.
Having stated these particulars, I shall beg leave to refer the reader for further information to works written expressly on the subject, merely observing, that in, due time the Council confirmed the form of prayer prepared by the Protestant clergy, than which none can be more sublime and excellent. Annexed is an engraving taken from a vignette in wood, affixed to the title of the common prayer-book, published in 1549, representing the King in Council, debating on its merits, which has evidently been sketched by the hand of a perfeet master. In dismissing the reign of Edw. VI. we cannot avoid reflecting with pleasure, that noť even a Bonner suffered for religion ; at the same time we must lament, that Joan Butcher and a Dutchman perished in the flames for their anabaptist opinions, just then imported from Germany. The contrition and reluctance exhibited by the King when signing the warrant for the
death of the former makes us regret his youth at the moment, and convinces us had he reached maturity of years his advisers would have been disappointed.
The death of the virtuous and promising Edward at this critical period of the change in religion naturally depressed the hopes of the Protestants, and elevated those of the Catholics. It is said that Mary faithfully promised to preserve the form of worship, and not to oppose the doctrines introduced in the reign of her brother ; but her acts immediately dissolved the visions of happiness caused by this declaration; and those were commenced by her placing Stephen Gardiner in the see of Winchester, and constituting him Lord High Chancellor, of whom it will be sufficient to say, he postponed his dinner-hour, to have the satisfaction of knowing that Latimer and Ridley were consumed by the fire himself had kindled for them. The next decisive step of the Queen was to displace the bishops of London and Durham, and to appoint Bonner and Tunstall to those sees. On the 15th of September, Latimer and Cranmer were condemned; and on the 1st of October, 1553, she received the crown of the realm -- the purity of which she immediately sullied, by proclaiming a general pardon, with as many exceptions in its provisions as completely answered her purposes against the Protestants. Thus secured in the plenitude of power,
everi resented the honest proceedings of her judges in the courts of law; and having been informed that Sir James Hales had made a decision violating the supremacy of the pope,
she caused him to be imprisoned in the King's Bench, the Compter, and the Fleet; till, despairing of relief, this unhappy man committed suicide. A synod was assembled by her command, in the first year of her reign, which restored the Roman Catholic religion. On the 4th of February, John Rodgers was burnt; and on the 9th, Hooper, bishop of Worcester. On the 16th of October, 1554, Ridley and Latimer were burnt at Oxford ; where they had been enticed, under a pretence of arguing the absurd question of the real presence in the sacrament of the Lord's Supper.
After her marriage with Philip of Spain, she ventured to introduce the pope's legate à latere into England; by which means his supremacy was at once established. Pole, who held this high office, lost no time in representing to parliament the offences they had committed against the true church, by the several statutes made in favour of the new religion, requiring them to repeal all those acts immediately: the obsequious representatives of the nation obeyed the mandate, declared their readiness to recant their errors, begged for pardon, and were finally absolveda In March, 1555, Mary gave up her claim to the abbey lands seized by her father; and thus com