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be small, this does not produce cruelty. It may lead to the omission of duties, as it will be accompanied with indifference to the miseries of others. When one organ is small, abuses may result from another being left without proper restraint. Thus powerful faculties of Acquisitiveness, and Secretiveness, combined with a weak faculty of Conscientiousness, and weak reflecting faculties, may produce theft. Powerful faculties of Combativeness and Destructiveness, with a weak faculty of Benevolence, may produce cruel and ferocious actions."

It is singular, as our author points out, that

so Dr. Watts seems to have anticipated, by a very acute conjecture, the real philosophy of Memory. He says, “It is most probable, that those very fibres of the brain which assist at the first idea or perception of an object, are the same which assist also at the recollection of it, and then it will follow, that the Memory has no special part of the brain devoted to its own service, but uses all those in general which subserve our sensation, as well as our thinking and reasoning powers.'

On the association of ideas, we quote the following :

“The metaphysicians conceive that our thoughts follow each other in an established order of succession, and have attempted to find out circumstances which determine the order and causes in virtue of which one idea introduces another into the mind; in short, by reflecting on their own consciousness, they have endeavoured to discover laws regulating the succession of ideas in mankind in general. Such an attempt appears to the phrenologist to be opposed by impossibility. If we place a number of persons on a hill top, say Arthur Seat, overlooking a champaign country, an arm of the sea, and a great city,--one in whom Ideality predominates, will be enchanted with the beauty and magnificence of Nature ; one in whom Acquisitiveness is the leading propensity, will think of the profits of the farms, and ships, or of the works whose elevated chinıneys throw clouds of smoke into the air. One in whom Coustructiveness prevails, will criticise the lines of the roads, and the architecture of the monuments. One in whom Benevolence and Veneration predominate, will think of the sources of enjoyment spread out before him, and feel gratitude and reverence to an all-bountiful Creator spontaneously arising in his soul. Now, a metaphysician, who has also visited Arthur Seat, expects, by reflecting on the ideas which the recollection of it call up in his own mind, to discover laws of association that will enable him to judge of the ideas that will present themselves to the minds of all the other persons here supposed, on its being mentioned in their presence. This expectation, however, is clearly vain; because, the original im. pressions received by each individual, differed toto cælo from those experienced by all the others; and when the scene is recalled, the associated feelings and ideas of each must clearly be those which his peculiar mind formed at the first aspect of the scene.”

The explanation of sympathy is also both new and satisfactory :

• Sympathy is not a faculty, nor is it synonymous with moral appro

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bation. The same notes sounded by ten instruments of the same kind harmonize, and blend softly together, to form one peal of melody, The cause of this is to be found in the similarity of the constitution and state of the strings. Each faculty of the human mind has a specific constitution; and, in virtue of it, produces specific kinds of feelings, or forms specific kinds of ideas; and wherever similar faculties are active in different individuals, similar feelings are experienced by each, and similarity of feeling is sympathy. Hence he who is under a strong feeling of Destructiveness, will delight to join with others in schemes of devastation. He who strongly feels Veneration will join in adoration with the most glowing fervour. He in whom Benevolence is very active, will join in schemes of charity with a melting soul. He who has powerful Reflecting Faculties, will seek the society of those who reason and reflect. He who bas Tune in an eminent degree, will seek the company of those who will gratify it by producing pleasant sounds. He who has the Knowing Faculties most powerful, will seek the company of those who converse, but exercise little reflection: and the reason of the sympathy in each case is to found in the similarity of the constitution of the faculties in the particular individuals who synipathize."

On the size and activity of the organs, we refer to the following observations:-

As 'self-conviction can be obtained only by self-observation,' every one who desires to become a Phrenologist should learn to observe. A healthy brain, at a vigorous period of life, is the proper subject for observation; and as the fundamental principle of the science is, that the power or energy of mental manifestation bears a uniform relation, cæteris paribus, to the size of the organs, we must be careful not to confound this quality of mind with that of mere activity in the faculties, as size in the organ is an indication of the former, and not at all of the latter.

“ In physics, power is quite distinguishable from activity. The balance-wheel of a watch moves with much rapidity, but so slight is its impetus, that a hair would suffice to stop it; the beam of a steamengine traverses slowly and ponderously through space, but its power is prodigiously great."

In muscular action, these qualities are recognized with the same facility; and, in mental manifestation, the distinction between power and activity is equally palpable,

“Many members of the learned professions display great felicity of illustration and fluency of elocution, surprising us with the quickness of their parts, who nevertheless are felt to be neither impressive por profound. They possess acuteness without power, and ingenuity without comprehensiveness and depth of understanding. This also proceeds from activity, with little vigour. There are other public speakers, again, who open heavily in debate, their faculties acting slowly but deeply, like the first heave of a mountain wave. Their words fall like minute-guns upon the ear, and to the superficial they appear about to terminate ere they have begun their efforts. But

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even their first accent is one of power; it rouses and arrests attention; their very pauses are expressive, and indicate gathering energy to be embodied in the sentence that is to come. When fairly animated, they are impetuous as the torrent, brilliant as the lightning's beam, and overwhelm and take possession of feebler minds, by impressing them irresistibly with a feeling of gigantic power.

“Upon the principle before stated, that size is a measure of power, brains may be expected to vary in their general size, in proportion to the degree of mental energy possessed. Our first object, therefore, ought to be to distinguish the size of the brain generally, so as to judge whether it be large enough to admit of manifestations of ordi. nary vigour ; for if it be too small, idiocy is an invariable consequence. Our second object should be to ascertain the relative proportions of the different parts, so as to determine the direction in which the power is greatest.

It is proper to begin with the observation of the more palpable differences in size. In some instances, the greater mass of the brain lies between the ear and the forehead ; in others, between the ear and the occiput; and in others above the ear in perpendicular height. Great differences in breadth are also remarkable; some being narrow throughout, and some broad. Some are narrow before, and broad behind, and vice versa."

Another important direction is the following:

" It is necessary to keep in view, that large size may consist in length or breadth, or in both. The length of an organ is ascertained by the distance from the medulla oblongata to the peripheral surface. A line passing through the head from one ear to the other, would nearly touch the medulla oblongata, and hence the external opening of the ear_is assumed as a convenient point from which to estimale length. Thus, the organs of intellect are situated in the forehead, and in proportion to the length of the line from the ear to that region, is the length of these organs. The breadth of an organ is judged of by its peripheral expansion; and it is a general law of pbysiology, that the breadth of any organ throughout its whole course, bears a relation to its expansion at the surface; the optic and olfactory nerves are examples in point. Hence, if the line from the ear to the forehead is much larger than from the ear backward, and the breadth pearly the same, we infer that the intellectual organs predominate. If, on the other hand, the forehead is very narrow, as in Thurtell

, and the hind-head very broad, we hold the animal organs to predominate, although the length were the same in both directions.”

Mr. Combe further instructs the student, that,

“When one organ is very largely developed, it sometimes pushes a neighbouring smaller organ a litile out of its place. This may be distinguished by the greatest prominence being near the centre of the large organ, and the swelling extending over a portion only of the other. The observer should learn, by inspecting a skull, to distinguish the mastoid process behind the ear, and several bony prominences which occur in every head, from elevations produced by development

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of brain, as also to discriminate bony excrescences sometimes formed by the sutures, when such occur.

“ The terms used to denote the gradations of size in the different organs, in an increasing ratio, are Very small

Moderate

Rather large
Small

Rather fuil

Large
Rather small

Full

Very large. Captain Ross has suggested, that numerals may be applied with advantage to the notation of development. He uses decimals; but these appear unnecessarily minute. The end in view may be attained by such a scale as the following:

8. Rather small 15. 2. Idiocy

9.

16. Rather large 3.

10. Moderate 17. 4. Very small

11.

18. Large 5.

12. Rather full 19. 6. Small

13.

20. Very large. 7.

14. Full “The intermediate figures denote intermediate degrees of size, for which we have no names. The advantage of adopting numerals would be, that the values of the extremes being known, we could judge accurately of the dimensions denoted by the intermediate numbers; whereas it is difficult to apprehend precisely the degrees of magnitude indicated by the terms small, full, large, &c. except we have seen them applied by the individual who uses them. In observing the appearance of individual organs, it is proper to begin with the largest, and select extreme cases.

Again,

“No error is more to be avoided, than beginning with the observation of the smaller organs, and examining these without a contrast. It ought to be kept constantly in view, in the practical application of Phrenology, that it is the size of each organ in proportion to the others in the head of the individual observed ; and not their absolute size; or their size in reference to any standard head, that determines the predominance in him of particular talents or dispositions. Thus, in the head of Bellingham, Destructiveness is very large, and the organs of the moral sentiments and intellect are small in proportion; and according to the rule, that, cæteris paribus, size determines energy, Bellingham's most powerful tendencies are inferred to have been towards cruelty and rage."

We are also reminded that,

It is proper next to advert to certain conditions which may co-exist in the brain with size, and to attend to their effects. Size, I have said, is not the only requisite to the manifestation of great mental power;

the brain must possess also a healthy constitution, and that degree of activity which is the usual accompaniment of health. Now the brain, like other parts of the body, may be affected with certain diseases which do not diminish or increase its magnitude, and yet impair its

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functions; and, in such cases, great size may be present, and very imperfect manifestations appear; or it may be attacked with other diseases, such as inflammation, or any of those particular affections whose nature is unknown, but to which the name of mania is given in Nosology, and which greatly exalt its action; and then very forcible manifestations may proceed from a brain comparatively small; but it is no less true, that when a larger brain is excited to the same degree by the saine causes, the manifestations become increased in energy in proportion to the increase of size. These cases, therefore, form no valid objection to Phrenology. The Phrenologist ascertains, by previous inquiry, that the brain is in a state of health. he makes the necessary limitations in drawing his conclusions."

The activity of the organs constitute a branch of the subject of great importance. The causes of that activity form, in our judgment, the principal obstacle in the accurate appreciation of character. It does not appear that mental activity wholly depends on bodily health or structure; but may, for any thing we know to the contrary, partially consist in the fluid contained within the nerves. This difficulty, however, extends itself only to the degree of precision, and does not affect the general estimate.

The rules for judging of the effects of the organs, when combined in different relative proportions, are very clearly pointed out, and examples are supplied to illustrate their

application. Our limits enable us to extract only the following :

Rule first.—“Every faculty desires gratification with a degree of energy proportionate to the size of its organ ; and those faculties will be habitually indulged, the organs of which are largest in the individual."

Rule second.-“ As there are three kinds of faculties, Animal, Moral, and Intellectual, which are not homogeneous in their nature, it may happen that several large animal organs are combined in the same individual with several moral and intellectual organs highly developed. The rule then will be, that the lower propensities will take their direction from the higher powers; and such a course of action will be habitually followed, as will be calculated to gratify the whole faculties whose organs are large.”

“ If Love of Approbation large is combined with large Ideality and moderate reflecting faculties, the individual will be ambitious to excel in the splendour of his equipage, style of living, dress,' and rank. If, to the same combination, be added a powerful intellect and large Conscientiousness, moral and intellectual excellence will be preferred as the means of obtaining the respect of the world.”

If Self-esteem large is combined with deficient Love of Approbation and Conscientiousness, the individual will be prone to gratify his selfish feelings, with little regard to the good opinion, or the just claims, of society. If Self-esteem large is combined with large Love of Approba

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