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with reason suppose they would, did they live in these days, and things were so situated as they are at present.”
That our forefathers should have paid so decided an attention to the learned languages, and so effectually secured their acquirement, by devoting the exclusive attention to them in the grammar-schools they founded, is less surprising the more attentively the subject is considered. It was not until the Reformation that it could be said that a regular system of education was formed in Britain. The priests seemed previously to have monopolized the little learning which was to be found; and the colleges were chiefly visited by them. The laity were lamentably ignorant: it was not uncommon to meet with a nobleman who could neither read nor write. It must be expected that our language was then as rude and imperfect as the people who spoke it. Little inducement existed to the study of it; and, of the few who were capable, no one thought it his business to improve it, or, if he had any thing of importance to communicate, would have thought it proper to waste it in the neglected language of his country. Indeed, but for the Latin of the monks, we should scarcely have had a vestige of our early history preserved.
The arts and sciences had revived in Europe, and the Greek and Roman languages had reached their purity and perfection. The Barbarians and Turks, overrunning Greece, dispersed the learned, who ever seek the regions of peace, and thereby provided Europe with able masters. Henry the Eighth, and the contemporary monarchs, displayed a glorious rivalry in welcoming the illustrious strangers : they were received at the various courts with the attention to which their talents and acquirements entitled them.
Our ancestors were not unmindful of the advantages with which they were thus favoured, but set about the study of the classics with vigour, and adopted measures to secure their offspring from the miseries of so degrading an ignorance as that with which they were so familiar.
In addition to these remarkable circumstances, the minds of men had begun to be exercised upon subjects of the highest importance; and knowledge could only be obtained through the medium of the Latin language. Luther and Calvin, those distinguished men to whom the people were indebted, not only for information on the theological subjects on which they treated, but for the excitation of a spirit of inquiry, at once more daring and liberal than had hitherto prevailed, these, and other distinguished writers, had no other security of being generally read and understood than by writing in Latin : hence the desire for a classical education soon became general among persons of respectability,
and essential to persons of distinction. Our countrymen, happily just emerging from the fetters of a cruel superstition, began to exercise their reasoning powers, and to examine the great matters of religion for themselves; to do which, it became indispensible to be able to read the language in which inquiries, investigations, and discussions, were written.
It is very gratifying to observe, that this general and unavoidable fashion of the day had the happiest effect on our language, imperceptibly leading to the incorporation of a variety of terms adapted to the new topics of discourse, and thus increasing its copiousness and harmony.
This was particularly the case during the glorious reign of Elizabeth, as a careful comparison of her authors with those of preceding reigns will show Of this opinion was Dr. Swift, who makes this remark in his letter to the Lord High Treasurer,--- The per wherein the English tongue received most improvement I take to commence with the beginning of Queen Elizabeth's reign, and to conclude with the Great Rebellion in 42." It would be a waste of time to show that neither the same necessity nor inducement now exists for the exclusive study of the learned languages. On what subject can we obtain information in the learned languages, in which we are altogether deficient in our own ? or who has vanity and pedantry enough to urge to classical pursuits, that our language may be further enriched from those sources ? Let us close this part of our subject in the expressive words of Locke :-“ I am not here speaking against Greek and Latin ; I think they ought to be studied, and the Latin, at least, understood by every gentleman. But, whatever foreign languages a young man meddles with, (and the more he knows the better,) that which he should critically study, and labour to get a facility, clearness, and elegancy, to express himself in, should be his own, and to this purpose he should daily be exercised in it."
It is interesting and instructive to trace the progress of language from reign to reign, from age to age,—to mark, through this safe medium, the state of civilization, the improvement of the national taste, and the march of mind among them; and this, it is proposed, in a future essay, to attempt.
An examination of the popular orations of the ancients will convince us that their authors were masters of the languages they employed; and the impressions those compositions made, abundantly show that, elegant as they are, the ear of the people to whom they were addressed must have been finely tuned to harmony and purity of style, although it is not insinuated that they could have been acquainted with the principles on which that style was formed. *This conclusion is fully confirmed by historical anecdotes : witness the well-known story of the herb-woman's criticism on the pronunciation of the accomplished Theophrastus ; the uproar of the Roman theatre at the false quantity of an actor; and the laudable-- the philosophical care of the people, that the nurses of their children should be persons of education. A review of the earliest examples of the Anglo-Saxon extant, and of intervening specimens, until we arrive at the modern English, can hardly fail of the effects we have attributed to such an exercise.
MUTUAL INFLUENCE AND CONTROL OF THE FACULTIES,
SENTIMENTS, AND PROPENSITIES.
The doctrines of Phrenology have been long visited by much ridicule, and opposed with much prejudice. For some time past, however, the opinions of many appear to have been considerably changed; whilst the number of its supporters has increased, and its adversaries diminished. We have now arrived at the period when we not only expect, but receive, attention, instead of jest, and investigation, instead of ribaldry, when those who oppose, take, at least, some little troublé first to understand the subject : and it may be hoped that, ultimately, our antagonists will refrain from attacking what has not been advanced; and impute only to the system its own necessary qualities, and its own legitimate consequences and conclusions.
Before proceeding to the immediate subjects of the present paper, it may not be improper briefly to state the leading positions of this new system of the human mind.
The object of Phrenology is to shew, that there is a necessary and actual connection between the internal nature of human beings, and the external form of the head.
It is a very old doctrine, that the countenance possesses the capacity of indicating the moral and intellectual character of the individual. The science of Physiognomy has been long reduced to general rules; and there are very few who venture to assert that it is wholly without foundation. The objections against it have been rather to some of its details and peculiar features, than to its general principle. The object of Phrenology has, therefore, no claim to absolute novelty; but
the means by which it proceeds, its instruments of operation, are, beyond all doubt, perfectly and entirely new. It does not appear that it ever occurred, in the slightest degree, to any human being before the time of Dr. Gall, to conjecture even that a connection could possibly be traced between the external appearance and peculiar portions of the brain ; or that, in proportion to the activity or quietude of certain parts of the brain, there would be indicated correspondent enlarge-, ment and depression, and, in the result, a precise analogy between the real character of man, and these external developments of his cranium.
The old theory of the brain, as connected with the mind, was, that it acted in one entire and general mass; that its operation was single, uniform, and simultaneous; in fact, that it constituted a solitary organ, one, and indivisible. The mind was held to be monarchic, and the brain constituted the despot's throne ; while the heart, by a figure of speech, was assigned to the moral post of receiving and entertaining the passions and sentiments!
We have now to contend that the mind possesses distinct faculties: the plurality of the faculties, indeed,--and of the organs of those faculties,-form the fundamental principles of Phrenology. And, as the old doctrine was-that the mind was a single power, and that it acted by a single instrument, the theory now is, that it possesses separate faculties of various degrees of capacity, and that its operations are conducted by distinct and separate organs, each adapted to its specific purpose.
Whether the separate locality of the faculties be an essential point in the soundness of the doctrine, or not, may perhaps admit of question; but it is clear, that the distinct location of the several organs of these faculties is the foundation and indispensable principle of Phrenology.
It is an unquestionable fact, that no two skulls are precisely similar in form; and it is equally true, that no two persons are precisely alike in character. We have then these preliminary facts as a basis to proceed upon.
The only remaining point seems rapidly advancing to certainty. We possess a large collection of evidence to shew that those persons who are remarkable for peculiar faculties and sentiments, as well as peculiar propensities, are uniformly distinguishable for similar manifestations upon the exterior of the cranium.
Much plausibility has been imparted to the system by general reasoning, but it chiefly depends upon evidence. IT IS A QUESTION OF FACT, that we bring before the public,
and we call upon every one to investigate the testimony with his own senses.
It will be allowed, as a general proposition, that, when two classes of phenomena always appear in conjunction, there is the best evidence that a necessary union exists between them. We have no other knowledge of cause and effect than the constant perception of the former being found universally, or generally, to precede and be connected with the latter. Thus, all violent emotions are accompanied by some external appearances; and, as these are invariably exhibited under the same circumstances, we are compelled to believe that the one is a necessary consequence of the other.
The cbject of the present paper is not to investigate the faculties and sentiments in their individual and abstract nature, but to view the operation of these faculties in their relative state, and to investigate their combinations, to show the connection which exists between all the branches of this system, thus composed of faculties, sentiments, and propensities, and to elucidate the mode in which the intellectual and the moral nature of man is influenced by the animal propensities.
The propensities, or lower faculties, of human beings, are justly held in comparative degradation. When unassociated with moral sentiment, or mental power, they are obviously of a mere animal and brutal nature; yet, in the production of any great efforts, whether in moral conduct or intellectual exertion, they are of essential, and perhaps of the first, importance.
It is a fact beyond dispute, that great intellect, in an active state, is always allied to strong feelings : those feelings constitute, indeed, the impulse, the moving force, without which the system would be inert and motionless; and the capacity, however naturally strong, would remain dormant.
The whole organization of sentiment, intellect, and passion, possesses a reciprocal and mutual effect each part upon the others. The operation is in truth two-fold, --first, in some instances, controlling, not only their original development and its progress, but also their subsequent action after the period of development; secondly, in other instances, stimulating their manifestations, and increasing the sphere of their activity.
This may be partially illustrated by analogy to the nature of the senses, which appear to be similarly constituted,-sometimes producing greater accuracy of judgment, by the combination of their powers,—but at others, diminishing the exercise and intensity of the single sense, by subdividing the unity of the impression. Thus, the sense of hearing is more con