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LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS.

Riley, Rev. Isaac, S.T. D., Buffalo, N. Y.

Summers, Thomas O., S. T. D., LL.D., Russell, A. J., C. E., Ottawa, Canada,

Late Prof. of Systematic Theology, Vanderbilt Univ., Tenn.

Crown Timber Agent. Tarr, Ralph S., Esq., Cambridge, Mass. Schaff, Philip, Ph. D., S. T. D., LL.D.,

Tillett, Rev. Wilbur F., Nashville, Tenn., Baldwin Prof. of Sacred Lit., Union Theol. Sem., New York.

Prof. of Systematic Theology in Vanderbilt University. Schlagintweit, Dr. Emil, M. R. A.S., Munich,

Torrey, Joseph G., Esq., Boston, Mass.
Member of the Royal Academy of Sciences of Bavaria.
Schwatka, Lieut. Frederick, New York,

Trowbridge, Wm. P., A. M., Ph. D., LL.D., M.N.A.S.,
Author of Along Alaska's Great River.

Professor of Engineering, Columbia College, New York. Secchi, P. H., Rome, Italy,

Van Santvoord, C., Esq., Kingston, N. Y. Late Director of Observatory at Rome. Vinton, Francis L., E. M., New York, Seelye, Julius H., A. M., S.T. D., LL.D.,

Professor of Civil and Mining Engineering, School of Mines, President of Amherst College, Mass.

Columbia College. Seguin, E. C., Jr., M. D.,

Waldo, Leonard, Esq., Cambridge, Mass., Clinical Prof. of Diseases of the Mind and Nervous System.

Assistant in the Astronomical Observatory of Harvard UniCollege of Physicians and Surgeons, N. Y..

versity. Short, Charles, A. M., LL.D., New York,

Walker, Francis Amasa, LL.D., Boston, Mass.,
Prof. of Latin in Columbia College.

President of Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Silliman, Benjamin, M. D., LL.D.,

Warren, John F., Esq., Tuscaloosa, Ala.,
Late State Chemist of Connecticut.

Editor of Times. Simmons, George C., Esq., New York,

Weld, M. C., Ph.B., Closter, N. Y.,
Clerk U.S. Board of Engineers.

Late Assistant Editor of American Agriculturist. Sims, J. Marion, M. D., New York.

Wheeler, Francis B., D. D., Poughkeepsie, N. Y. Smith, Francis H., Lexington, Va.,

Whitney, Prof. James A., LL.D., New York,
President of Virginia Military Institute.

President of Society of Practical Engineering. Smith, Rev. George W., D. D., Hartford, Conn., Whitney, Prof. Josiah D., LL.D., M. N. A. S., San President of Trinity College. Francisco, Cal

State Geologist of California. Southworth, Alvan S., Esq., New York.

Whittier, John G., Amesbury, Mass. Spofford, Ainsworth R., LL.D., Washington, D. C., Winchester, C. T., Esq., Chicago, Ill.

Librarian of Congress. Staunton, William, S. T. D.,

Wingate, Charles F., Esq., New York, Founder and first Rector of St. Peter's Ch., Brooklyn, N. Y.

Sanitary Engineer. Stephens, Alexander H., A. M., LL.D.,

Woolsey, Theodore D., S. T. D., LL.D.,

Ex-President of Yale College, Conn. Late Governor of Georgia. Stoughton, Rev. John, S. T. D., LL.D., London, Eng.

Wurtz, Prof. Henry, A. M., Ph. D., Hoboken, N. J. Stuart, H. L., Esq., New York,

Zinsser, Frederick, M. D., New York.

THORIIDÆ-THORNTON.

Inx.

Thori'idæ [ Thorius-Gr. Oopóeis, "undeveloped "-the | 1860), Life of J. M. W. Turner, R. A. (2 vols., 1861), True name of the only known genus), a family of salamanders as Steel (1863), Haunted London (1865), Two Centuries of (Gradentia), distinguished by Prof. Cope for a species Song (1866), Ä Tour round England (1870), Old and Nero found in Mexico exhibiting the "lowest grade of ossific London (2 vols., 1873-74), Criss-Cross Journeys, and His. deposit found among the tailed batrachians (whence the torical and Legendary Ballads and Songs (1876). Dame), accompanied by characters of full development in

Thorndike (GEORGE QUINCY), b. in Boston about 1825; other respects. The parietal and palatine bones are repre

graduated at Harvard 1847; studied art in Paris; settled sented mostly by cartilage and membrane; the posterior

at Newport, R. I., and devoted himself to landscape-paintnares are therefore not separated from the orbit, the pala

ing. Among his best-known productions are The Dumptine bones are not prolonged over the parasphenoid : there

lings, Lily Pond, Swans in Central Park, and The Wayside is no pontorbital arch; teeth are developed on plates on the parasphenoid bone: the tongue is boletoid and free in

Thorndike (ISRAEL), b. at Beverly, Mass., in 1757; front; the carpus and tarsus are ossified; the vertebræ concave behind. The single known species has been named

received a common-school education ; was commissioned Thorius pennatul, and is terrestrial in habits." (See Cope

captain of the privateer Warren Oct. 30, 1776; subse

quently acquired wealth by commerce with China and the in Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Phila., 1869, pp. 110-112.)

THEODORE GILL.

East Indies and by manufactures; was a member of the

convention that framed the Federal Constitution ; settled at Tho'rium, also Thorinum, one of the rare metals, | Boston 1810, and in 1818 presented to Harvard University discovered by Berzelius in 1828 in a Norwegian mineral

the valuable library of Prof. Ebeling of Hamburg. D. at which he called thorite, from the mythical being Thor. | Boston May 10, 1832. Thorite is a hydric silicate of thoria, or oxide of thorium, consisting of Tho.SiO2.2H20. Berzelius and Chydenius

Thornton (EDWARD), b. at Clapham, Surrey, England, both obtained metallic thorium of densities 7.657 and 7.795

217795 in 1810; entered the civil service of the East India Comby treating the chloride ThCl, with sodium. It is a gray

pany at an early age; spent many years in the India metallic powder, which burns with great brilliancy to snow

House, London, from which he retired 1860 with the decowhite infusible thoria or thorina, Tho. Water does not act

ration of commander of the Bath. Author of India, its upon it, and nitric and sulphuric acids with difficulty,

State and Prospectx (1835), Chapters on the Modern History though muriatic acid attacks and dissolves it powerfully.

of British India (1839), History of the British Empire in This is the statement of Berzelius, but Chydenius makes it

İndia (6 vols., 1841-45; 3d ed. 1862), A Gazetteer of the easily soluble in nitric and difficultly in muriatic acid. It

Countries adjacent to India on the North-cest (2 vols., 1844),

and A Gazetteer of India (4 vols., 1854: 2d ed., 1 vol., 1857). therefore, no doubt, has different allotropic forms. Its equivalent weight is as yet uncertain, some adopting 115.7,

He edited William Milburn's Oriental Commerce (2d ed. others 118.4. Thorium occurs also in other minerals besides

1825), and wrote most of the articles upon India in the 8th thorite, as orangile (a heavier allotrope of thorite itself ),

ed. (1853-60) of the Encyclopædia Britannica. as columbate in some pyrochlores, as phosphate in mona.

Thornton (Sir EnwARD), LL.D., K.C. B., b. about 1820, zite, and aceording to Chydenius in eusenite, as columbate son of Hon. Edward Thornton, British minister in Portugal, ani tantalate.

HENRY WURTZ. who for services rendered the government of that country Thorn. See CRATÆGr's.

was created count of Casi!has in the Portuguese nobility;

entered the diplomatic service in 1842 as attaché at Turin; Thorn, town of Prussia, province of West Prussia, on

became paid attaché in Mexico 1845, and secretary of legathe Vistula, is strongly fortified, surrounded with walls,

tion there 1851; rendered valuable unofficial services in and defended by forts; has some manufactures of cloth,

facilitating the negotiation of the treaty of Guadalupe linen, soap, tobacco, and gingerbread, and carries on an

Hidalgo 1848: was secretary of legation at Buenos Ayres active trade in corn and cattle. Copernicus was born here,

1852-53; appointed chargé d'affaires to Uruguay 1854; and a fine monument in his honor has been erected in tho

also commissioned to Paraguay, which country he repeatmarket place. P. 20,617.

edly visited; minister to the Argentine Republic 1859; enThorn-Apple. See DATURA.

voy to Brazil 1865-67, and in Dec., 1867, appointed envoy Thorn'back fi.e. “back with prickles" or "thorns"). / to the U.S. (retired 1881); knighted Aug. 9, 1870; a memtbe name given in some parts of England to the Raia | ber of the joint high commission on the Alabama claims elurata. This is a short-snouted ray, whose dorsal surface, i 1871; a privy councillor 1871 ; arbitrator of the Mexican especially about the snout and interorbital space, is covered and American claims commission 1873, and participated in with small epines, and along the middle of the back and the Centennial ceremonies at Philadelphia July 4, 1876. He tail with a row of large spines, resembling somewhat the was appointed British ambassador to Russia 1881. thorns of a rose-bush; the male has further still larger Thornton (HARRY I.), b. in Virginia; removed in early thorns on the sides of the head and pectoral fins, and the life to Kentucky. He removed to Huntsville, Ala., and befemale has nunerous spines, each arising from a large came a judge of the supreme court; resided in Mobile and roun lish base. It is very abundant along some parts of 'in Eutaw, Ala., and was a successful lawyer. Mr. Fillmore the English coast, and is the most esteemed as a table-fish appointed him a commissioner of California land-titles in of any member of the genus. It comes into the shallow 1853, a few years after which he died.-Ilis brother, Col. water in spring and summer, and is then taken in the JAMES 0. THORNTON of Tuscaloosa, was secretary of state greatest numbers.

THEODORE GILL. of Alabama 1824–31. Thorn'borough (Sir EDWARD), b. in 1756; entered Thornton (JAMES S.), U.S. N., b. Feb. 25, 1827, in New the British navy; was first lieutenant of the Falcon, one Hampshire; entered the navy as a midshipinan Jan. 15, of the vessels which participated in the attack on Bunker | 1841; became a lieutenant in 1855, commander in 1866, Hill, 1775 ; took an active part in subsequent naval actions captain in 1872 ; was executive officer of Farragut's flagduring the war of the American Revolution, and distin- I ship at the battle of New Orleans and the passage of Vicks. gui bed himself on various occasions in the war with : burg, and executive officer of the Kearsarge when she capPrance, rising to the rank of admiral of the white and re- ! tured the Alabama. D. May 14, 1875. Capt. Thornton was ceiving the thanks of Parliament. D. Apr. 3, 1831.

an officer of great gallantry and a prime seaman, highly comThornbury (GEORGE WALTER), b. at London, England, mended by Farragut, and thus spoken of by Capt. Winslow in 1N?; became contributor to periodicals at the age of in his official report of June 20, 1864: “I feel it due to my seventeen ; was connecte i with the Atheneum 1851; studied executive officer, Lieut.-Com. Thornton, who superintended art and orcasionally practised painting, but devoted him- | the working of the kearsarge's battery, to particularly menself to periodical literature, including essays, poems, novels, tion him for an example of coolness and encouragement of travels, and biograpbies. D. June 7, 1876. Among his the men while fighting, which contributed inuch toward the numerous works are Shakespeare's England, or Sketches of success of the action."

FOXHALL A. PARKER. ons Social History during the Reign of Elizabeth (2 vols., Thornton (John WINGATE), b. at Saco, Me., Aug. 12, 1936), Songs of the Caraliers and Roundheads (1857), Life | 1818; graduated at Cambridge Law School 1840; was one in Spain (2 vols., 1859), Turkish Life and Character (21 of the founders of the New England Historic-Genealogical vols., 1860), British Artists from Hogarth to Turner (2 rols.,, Society, vice-president of the American Statistical Associ

Vol. VIII-1

(REVISED)

JOHNSON'S
UNIVERSAL CYCLOPÆDIA:

Ꭲ Ꭱ E A S Ꭰ Ꭱ !

USEFUL KNOWLEDGE

ASSOCIATE EDITORS.

MARTIN B. ANDERSON, A.M., LL.D.,

John LE CONTE, A. M., M.D., LL.D.,

President of the University of Rochester, N. Y.;

Prof. of Physics, Univ. of California;

John G. BARNARD, A.M., LL.D., M.N.A.S., S. B. LUCE,

Col. U.S. Engineers, Bvt. Major-Gen. U.S. A.;

Rear-Admiral, U. S. N.;

C. F. CHANDLER, Ph. D., M.D., LL.D., M. N. A.S., GEORGE P. MARSH, LL.D., M. N. A.S.,

Prof. Anal. Chem., School of Mines, Columbia College;

Late Minis. Plenipo. of U. S. at Rome, Italy;

AARON L. CHAPIN, A. M., S. T. D.,

John S. NEWBERRY, M. D., LL.D., M. N. A.S.,

President of Beloit College, Wisconsin;

Prof. of Geology and Palæontology, Columbia College;

HENRY DRISLER, A.M., LL.D.,

WILLARD PARKER, A. M., M. D., LL.D.,

Jay Professor of Greek, Columbia College;

Professor of Surgery, Columbia College, Med. Dept. ;

THEODORE W. Dwight, A.M., LL.D.,

| WILLIAM G. PECK, A. M., LL.D.,

Professor of Municipal Law, Columbia College; Professor of Astronomy and Mathematics, Columbia College;

OCTAVIUS B. FROTHINGHAM, A. M.,

John D. PHILBRICK, LL.D., D. C. L.,

Late Pastor Third Unitarian Society, N. Y. City;

Late Supt. of Public Schools of Boston;

THEODORE GILL, A. M., M.D., PH.D., M. N. A.S., PHILIP SCHAFF, Ph. D., S.T. D., LL.D.,

Prof. of Zoology, Columbian University, Washington, D. C.;

Baldwin Prof. of Sacred Lit., l'vion Theol. Sem., N. Y.;

Asa GRAY, M.D., LL.D., M. V. A.S.,

JULIUS H. SEELYE, A. M., S. T. D., LL.D.,

Fisher Professor of Natural History, Harvard University;

President of Amherst College, Mass.;

HORACE GREELEY, LL.D.,

AINSWORTH R. SPOFFORD, LL.D.,

Founder of the New York Tribuue;

Librarian of Congress;

SANT EL S. HALDEMAN, A.M., LL.D., M. N. A.S., WILLIAM STAUNTON, S. T. D.,

Prof. of Comparative Philology in the Univ. of Penn.; Founder and First Rect. of St. Peter's Church, Brooklyn, N. Y.;

WILLIAM T. HARRIS, A. M., LL.D.,

| ALEXANDER H. STEPHENS, A. M., LL.D.,

• El. of The Journal of Speculativo Phil., St. Louis, Mo.;

of Georgia, Member 434 Congress, L'. S. A. ;

JOSEPH HENRY, LL.D., M. N. A.S.,

ABEL STEVENS, A.M., LL.D.,

Late Secretary of Smithsonian Institution;

Formerly Elitor of the Methodist, New York;

RosWELL D. HITCHCOCK, A. M., S.T. D., LL.D., THOMAS 0. SUMMERS, S. T. D., LL.D.,

President of the l'nion Theol. Sem., New York; |

Late Professor of Syst. Theol., Vanderbilt I'niv., Tenn.;

CHARLES P. Kral'TH, A. M., S. T. D., LL.D., WM. P. TROWBRIDGE, A.M., Pu.D., LL.D., M.N.A.S.,

Vice-Provost of the University of Penn.;!

Prof. of Engineering, Columbia College;

THEODORE D. WOOLSEY, S.T. D., LL.D.,

Ex-President of Yalo College, Conn.

ASSISTANT EDITORS.

PORTER C. BLISS, A. M., L. P. BROCKETT, A. M., M. D., GEORGE CHASE, LL.B., CLARENCE Cook,

PROF. E. D. HUDSON, JR., M. D., CLEMENS PETERSEN, A. M., JOHN N. POMEROY, LL.D.

WITH NUMEROUS CONTRIBUTIONS FROM WRITERS OF DISTINGUISHED EMINENCE IN EVERY DEPARTMENT

OF LETTERS AND SCIENCE IN THE UNITED STATES AND IN EUROPE.

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