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THE

HISTORICAL WORKS

OF

WILLIAM ROBERTSON,

D. D. F. R. S. E.

PRINCIPAL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF EDINBURGH,

AND

HISTORIOGRAPHER TO HIS MAJESTY FOR SCOTLAND.

WITH AN ACCOUNT OF HIS

LIFE AND WRITINGS,

BY

THE RIGHT REV. GEORGE GLEIG, LL.D.F.R.S.E.

ONE OF THE BISHOPS OF THE SCOTCH EPISCOPAL CHURCH.

A NEW EDITION,

IN SIX VOLUMES.

VOL. V.

EDINBURGH :

PRINTED FOR DOIG & STIRLING, EDINBURGH; OTRIDGE & SON,
SUTTABY, EVANS, & FOX, R. SCHOLEY, G, COWIE & CO.
LONDON; AND M KEENE, DUBLIN;

BY JOHN BROWN.

1813.

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VIEW W

OF THE

PROGRESS OF SOCIETY IN EUROPE,

FROM THE

SUBVERSION OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE, TO THE BEGINNING

OF TIIE SIXTEENTII CENTURY.

SECTION I.

I

of the Re

View of the Progress of Society in Europe, with respect to

interior Government, Laws, and Manners. Two

wo great revolutions have happened in the political SECT. state and in the manners of the European nations. The first was occasioned by the progress of the Roman power;

The ctiicts the second hy the subversion of it. When the spirit of nan power conquest led the armies of Rome beyond the Alps, they on the state

of Europe. found all the countries which they invaded inhabited by people whom they denominated barbarians, but who were nevertheless brave and independent. These defended their ancient possessions with obstinate valour. It was by the superiority of their discipline, rather than that of their courage, that the Romans gained any advantage over them. A single battle did not, as among the effeminate inhabitants of Asia, decide the fate of a state. The vanquished people resumed their arms with fresh spirit, and their undisciplined valour, animated by the lo of liberty, supplied the want of conduct as well as of union. During those long and fierce struggles for

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