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shearmen next day, are driven from the shelter-hall into a long narrow, low gut, which is called the sweating place, where they remain all night, crowded as close together as the shepherd can keep them, that they may sweat plentifully, which, as they say, is to soften the wool for the shears, and bil their edges. They are led by degrees in the morning into the spacious shearing-hall, which joins the sweatingtoom. The shepherd carries them off as fast as they are sheared to be marked with tar, and as this operation is necessarily performed upon one at a time, it gives a fair opportunity to the shepherds to call out for the butchery all the sheep of the flock that have outlived their teeth. The sheared sheep go to the fields to feed a little if it be fine weather, and they return in the evening to pass the night in the yard before the house, within the shelter of the walls, but if it be cold and cloudy they go into the house they are thus brought by degrees to bear the open air, and their first days' journies from the shearing-house to the mountains, are short, where we will leave them to conclude their annual peregrination, and go see how fare the flocks of Molina Arragon, which have by this time got thither; but while the mule is saddling a word on the shorn wool.
The sheep and shearers dispatched, the first thing done is to weigh the whole pile of wool; the next is to divide each feece into three sorts of wool; the back and belly give the superfine, the neck and sides give the fine; the breast, shoulders, and thighs, the coarse wool. A different price is fixed upon these three classes, though the general custom is to sell the whole pile together at a mean price. It is sold after it is washed, when it is to go out of the kingdom, or to any considerable distance in it; for as it never loses less than half its weight in washing, and often more when the gweating is violent, half the carriage is saved.
Here I see that I have changed the order I proposed in setting out, for I have followed the sheep from the moun. tains to the plains, and back again, but it is not worth mending.
Thirty-one leagues S. E. of Madrid and five leagues S. of the source of the river Tagus, is the town of Molina Arragon, capital of a lordship of the crown, which is twelve leagues wide, as many long, and alınost in the centre of Spain. The highlands of this little territory are covered with pine trees; the low lands feed about 150,000 sheep: here I learned some truths which prove that the three following opinions should be ranked ainongst vulgar errors.
1. That sheep eat and love aromátic plants, and that the Mesh of those that feed on hills where sweet herbs abound has a fine taste.
2. That salt springs are not found in the bigh primitive mountains, but in the low hills and plains only.
3. That metallic vapours destroy vegetation, that no rocks nor mountains pregnant with rich veins of ore are covered with rich vegetable soil.
The town of Molina is almost in the middle of the sheep walks. The solid part of the country is formed of red and grey sand-stone, lime-stone, white and grey granite, and plaster-stone, white, grey, yellow, bluish, greenish, and blood-red ; in some places these are all beautifully mixed in one stratum. Time and moisture uncompound these stones; for they have mouldered and are daily mouldering into the soil of the country, which is always of the same nature as that of the rock. The red fuller's earth, with which the manufacturers of Molina clean their cloth, is evidently the very grains of sand of the red rock degraded into earth. The rocks about the town contain either salt or saltpetre; you see the hewn stones of the houses covered with saline efflorescenses which are drawn out by the sun after rain. The whole territory of Molina is full of salt springs, but there is a copious salt-spring rising out of a land yet higher than the source of the Tagus and not far from it, which is one of the highest lands in all the inward parts of Spain; for it divides the waters of the ocean and Mediterranean. The Tagus runs 150 leagues to Lisbon, and the two rivers Gua. dalaviar, and Xucar, which rise near it, run to Valencia. This spring furnishes salt to the jurisdiction and bishopric of Albarrazin. There is another salt spring, in a high land too, which supplies the 82 towns and villages of Molina Arragon with salt. Now I will mention the salt spring that issues out of a spot in the Montana, which is higher than the source of the Ebro, and about a quarter of a mile from it.
There are many iron, copper, lead, and pure pyritous ores in these sheep walks, where grow the same plants and the same sweet grass as in the other parts. I will give one example. About two hours walk N. W. of Molina there is a little hill called the Platilla; it is about half a league over from valley to valley: its body is solid, rocky, of white granite, through which run in different directions, and without any order, an infinite number of blue, green, and yellow veins of rich copper ores, wbich hold a little silver, mineralized by a great quantity of arsenic and sulphur. The very surface of the rock is in many places stained bluish and
green, and the veins of ore are not above a foot deep in the fissures and in the solid rock, which contain lead ore sometimes up to the surface.
The following plants grow out of the soil which covers these arsenical sulphureous veins, and which is not above a font deep. True oak, ilex, whose leaves fall; white-thorn, juniper; these are poor shrubs, because they are browsed by the goats. Cystus, wild-rose, uva-ursi, phlomis salviæ, fol. A. luteo, verbascum of the highways, stochas, sage, thymum legitimum, clus, serpyllum, greater and lesser ; rosemary, helianthemum, pimpinella, chamædris, filipen duła, stachys lychnoides, incana, angustifolia, flo. aureo. var. The great asphodel, coronilla of the meadows, galbam luteum, yarrow, campanula radice esculenta, a jacobea, which I saw grow in the sand of the sea side, and is all quite white. A gladiolus, and a little glauciam, which grow in corn-fields in Spain, leucanthemum of the meadows, orchis, ornithogalum, muscari, polygala, and above twenty kinds more, which are found likewise in meadows, corn-fields, highways, hedges, and sea-shores; yet the non-calcarious earth of this mineral hill is covered with the same sweet small
grass the rest of the country, even the lime-stone land. "I made the same observations at the three greatest mines in Europe; St. Mary of the Mines in Alsatia ; Claustahl, in the Hartz-Mountains of Hanover; and Freyberg, in Saxony. The mines of St. Mary are at the head of a valley in the Voge-Mountains; its hills are some of them covered with oak and pines, others with apple, pear, pluns, and cherry trees : others are fine green downs for sheep and cows, with a great variety of plants; others are fields of wheat, which the year 1759, (as I find it in my notes) gave a product of eight for one. All these things grow in a foot or two deep of soil, which covers a rock full of the most arsenical, sulphureous, silver, copper, lead, and cobalt, ores in Europe, and most of their veins near the surface.
The mines of Claustahl are in a plain, which is in truth the summit of a mountain. The Dorothy and Caroline veins of silver, lead, and copper ore stretch away eight miles to the Wildman Mountain. The finest meadows and sweetest grass are upon these veins and all their branches near the city; they feed 900 cows, and 200 horses. They are mowed in June; a second grass springs up, which is nowed in August. A multitude of plants grow in these meadows over the mines, as valerian, gallium f. albo, coronilla, chrysanthemum segetum, leucanthemum, viola tricolor. bistort. bonus Henricus, St. John's wort, agrimony, ladies-mantle, tussilago, &c.
The mines of Freyberg are in the low hills near the city: I saw them all covered with barley in the month of July: a stranger would not imagine that men were reaping corn over hundreds of miners' heads, who were blowing up veins of ore, arsenic, and brimstone.
It is true I also saw mines in the barren naked mountains and hills, but it is certain that their barrenness is not the effect of mineral vapours. The air, moisture, heat, and cold, have more power over the surfaces of some rocks than others, to moulder the stone into earth; such is the high mountain Ramelsberg, at whose foot is the imperial city of Goslar, whose inhabitants live, and have lived these 900 years, by the mine of this steep, barren mountain. I crept up to its summit, and found it was split and cracked into millions of fissures, from a foot wide to a hair's breadth; that in other places the rock was shivered into small rotten stones, which, in some spots, were perfectly uncompounded and fallen into earth, from whence sprung a little grass, moss, and a few plants. In short, I saw that the time of its decay into vegetable mould was not yet come, and that the mountain Kamelsberg will be one day as green as Claustahl, which shews, I think, that the world is not so old as some men fancy. I will make no apology to Mr. Peter Collinson for this digression; I heard fame declare bim twenty-three years ago an enemy to error; he must love truth, though he finds it placed out of order.
As my duty obliged me to pass hundreds of days at the Platilla mine of Molina, I saw thousands of sheep feed around it. I observed that when the shepherd made a pause, and let them feed at their will, they sought only for the fine grass, and never touched any aromatic plant; that when the creeping serpyllum was interwoven with the grass, the sheep industriously nosled it aside to bite a blade, which trouble made them soon seek out a pure graminous spot. I observed too when the shepherd perceived a threatening clond, and gave a signal to the dogs to collect the tribe and then behind it, walking apace himself to lead the sheep to shelter, that as they had no time to stoop they would take a snap of stæchas, rosemary, or any other shrub in their way, for sheep will eat any thing when they are hungry, or when they walk fast. 'I saw them greedily devour henbane, hemlock, glaucium, and other nauseous weeds, upon their issue out of the shearing-house. If sheep loved aromatic plants, it would be one of the greatest misfortunes that could befall the farmers of Spain. The number of bee-hives is incredible; I am almost ashamed to give under my hand, that
I knew a parish priest who had 5000 hives. The bees suck all their honey, and gather all their wax from the aromatic flowers, which enamel and perfume two thirds of the sheep walks. This priest cautiously seizes the queens in a small crape fly-catch, he clips off their wings: their majesties stay at home; he assured me that be never lost a swarm from the day of his discovery to the day he saw me, which I think was five years.
The shepherd's chief care is not to suffer the sheep to go out of their toils until the morning sun has exhaled the dew of a white frost, and never let them approach a rivulet or pond after a shower of hail; for if they should eat the dewy grass, or drink hail water, the whole tribe would become melancholy, fast, pine away, and die, as often happened. Hail water is so pernicious to men in this climate, that the people of Molina will not drink the river water after a violent shower of hail : experience taught the danger; but let it be never so muddy, and rise never so high after rain, they drink it without fear. Perhaps this may be the unheeded cause of many endemical-epidemics of other cities. The sheep of Andalusia who never travel, have coarse, long, hairy wool. I saw a flock in Estramadura whose wool trailed on the ground. The itinerant sheep have short, silky, white, wool. I do believe from a few experiments, and long observation, that if the fine-wooled sheep stayed at home in the winter, their wool would become coarse in a few generations. If the coarse-wooled sheep travelled from climate to climate, and lived in the free air, their wool would become fine, short, and silky, in a few generations.
The fineness of the wool is due to the animal's passing its life in an open air of equal temperature. It is not colder in Andalusia and Estramadura in the winter than it is in the Montana or Molina in summer. There is little frost in Andalusia, sometimes it snows in June in Molina. I felt a cold day upon
the least cloud in summer. Constant heat or constant cold, with housing, are the causes of coarse, black, and speckled wool. All the animals, I know, who live in the open air, constantly keep up to the colour of their sires.There are the most beautiful brindled sheep in the world among the coarse-wooled sheep of Spain. I never saw one amongst the fine-wooled flocks; the tree but less abundant perspiration in the open air, is swept away as fast as it flows, whereas it is greatly increased by the excessive heat of numbers of sheep housed all night in a narrow place. It fouls the wool, unakes it hairy, and changes its colour. The swine of Spain, who pass their lives in the woods, are all of one