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indeed somewhat thoughtful, but then it seems to arise from a chearfulness of thought, which, I hope, it will be allowed Shakespeare was no stranger to. However this be, as the faces on the two monuments are unlike each other, the admirers of that at Westminster only, will have it, that the country figure differs as much from the likeness of the original, as it does from the face in the Abbey, and so far endeavour to deprive it of its merit: this is a derogation I can by no means allow, and that for the following reasons :
Shakespeare died at the age of 53. The unanimous tradition is, that by the uncommon bounty of the then Earl of Southampton, he was enabled to purchase a house and land at Stratford, the place of his nativity: to which place, after quitting the public stage, he retired, and lived chear fully amongst his friends some time before his death. If we consider these circumstances aright, that Shakespeare's disposition was chearful, and that he died before he could be said to be an old man, the Stratford figure is no improper representation of him.
The exact time when the country monument was erected is now unknown; but, I presume, it was done by his executors, or relations, probably while his features were fresh in every one's memory, and perhaps with the assistance of an original picture too. These are no unreasonable suppositions, and which, I think, cannot easily be overthrown, especiaily when corroborated (as I hope to prove they are) by the following observation, not hitherto made, that l know of, by any one.
Facing the title page of one of the folio editions of Shakespeare's Works, there is a head of him engraved by one Martin Droeshout, a Dutchman, and underneath this cut appear the following lines, written by Ben Jonson, who personally knew, and was familiarly acquainted with our Poet.
The figure that thou see'st here put,
B. J. In these verses Ben plainly asserts, that if the eng graver could have drawn Shakespeare's wit in brass, as well
as he has done his face, the performance would have been preferable to every thing of the kind; a convincing proof how great a likeness he knew there was between the Poet and that picture of him.
Now, if we compare this picture with the face on the Stratford monument, there will be found as great a resemblance as perhaps can well be betwixt a statue and a picture, except that the hair is described rather shorter and straiter on the latter, than on the former; and yet this difference will not, I dare say, be material enough to justify the doubt I have attempted to remove; and, if not, then I hope what I have here advanced will induce those gentlemen, who have not thought so well of the Stratford monument, to have a better opinion of it for the time to come.
XXIX. Contrivance for Muscular Exercise.
Bagnio-Court, Newgate-street, Oct. 23.
MR. URBAN, MODERATE exercise is one of the necessary means of health ; but the employments of many people oblige them to a sedentary life; and in the winter seasons valetudinary persons are often kept at home by the inclemency of the weather: I propose therefore a kind of exercise which I have found very beneficial to myself, and which may be used by persons of all constitutions, ages, and conditions, in all houses, and in all seasons, by which all the benefits that can result from common exercises may easily be obtained.
I have two box pullies with wood screws fixed in the ciel. ing of a room, at the distance of about three feet, or three, and a half, and a sliding line, made of what is called curtain line, and two handles made of cocoa-wood, four inches and a half long, and bored through.
This apparatus cost me two shillings and two-pence. The sliding line passes through one handle, then over the pullies, and through the other handle, and at each end it is tied with a slip knot, that the handles may be let higher or lower, according to the height of the person who is to exercise.
When I use this exercise, I begin, with lifting up my
right arm, and the heel of my right foot, and then bring them down, and strike the heel gently on the floor, at the same time lifting up my left arm and heel; and thus continue an alternate moving up and down my arms and heels, so long as I see fit; which produces reciprocal contractions and relaxations of the muscles of the arms, chest, side, back, belly, thighs, legs, and feet, and likewise of all the muscles connected with them while the exercise is continued.
I make the motions moderate as to quickness, and always count them; when both heels have struck on the floor, I say one, when they do so again I say two, and so on.
I make an hundred of these motions in about four minutes, in which time I frequently find all the pores over the surface of my body opened, and a very sensible perspiration produced.
I seldom exceed the number of two hundred at one exercise ; some persons indeed require more; but I advise every one to have done when they begin to sweat.
The exercise may be repeated five or six times a day, or oftener, and takes up but little time.
It is an universal exercise; and the motions produced by it in all the muscles, and vessels of the body, and in all their contained fluids, are a most proper means to preserve the natural tenuity of the blood, and to destroy many morbid cohesions. It conduces much to an easy respiration, and to prevent asthinas, and other difficulties of breathing. It manifestly promotes the discharge by insensible perspiration, that copious and important evacuation from the body, as well as the other escretions from the blood. It affords great relief against that lowness of spirits, and those gloomy imaginations, with which many are afflicted, and in general will be found beneficial in all those disorders which are called nervous.
It will be of singular advantage to those young ladies, who, about ten or twelve years of age, become pale in their countenances, and short breathed; weak and infirm persons may thus obtain the benefits of exercise, without tiring themselves; and those who are advanced in life, may preserve, or recover in some measure, that agility of their Jimbs, which by age and indolence is often lost.
Persons afflicted with the gout, when they can stand on their feet a few minutes together, may take the benefit of this exercise daily; and they who cannot stand, may have the pullies so fixed, as to use them sitting, which will be of considerable service,
. It may be used also by the blind, and in hospitals, where it will hasten the recovery of the sick; likewise in prisons. I am a sincere well-wisher to all people,
And, Sir, your very humble servant, 1759, Oct.
Bagnio-Court, Nov. 22. I APPREHEND it may be acceptable, if I add a few things relative to that sort of muscular exercise recommended in my letter of Oct. 23, and therefore must observe, that, as it is of importance rightly to order the quantity in the dose of every medicine, and the times of repeating it, for obtaine ing the salutary end intended, so it is of some moment Dearly to determine the number of motions to be made in each muscular exercise, and how often they should be daily performed; but these must be varied according to the age and other circumstances of the people.
As a mean quantity for sedentary persons, which may be increased or diminished, as the different cases may require, I propose, that each exercise should consist of 200 motions of the right arm and heel upwards and downwards, and of as many of those on the left side of the body, all which will take up about seven minutes, and propose that this exercise be daily performed eight times, which will take up no more than 56 minutes, or one hour.
If any choose to spend a quarter of an hour at a time, by performing two exercises together, and to perform the whole at four times, they may do so.
Persons may perform more or fewer of these exercises in a day, as they shall find most conducive to their health. It should be remembered, that lifting up and down the heel is one essential part of the exercise.
I may now observe, that the great easiness of this sort of exercise shews that a prudent use of it may prore very beneficial to persons after their recovery from fevers, especially after the small pox, the distemper being often terminated many days before the patients can be fit to go abroad; but they may begin the use of our muscular exercise very soon after the disease is come to its period, as the apparatus for it may be put up in any sick chamber, and as they may begin it with no greater number of motions, in an exercise, than they find easy to themselves, and may gradually increase the number of them.
This course is very proper to maintain in sufficient
quantity the discharge by the insensible perspiration, to promote a due distribution of the nutritious parts of the aliments they take, and to hasten the recovery of their strength.
Persons, whose feet and legs are swelled, and pit in the evenings, and the swelling of which goes down in the morning, may find great advantage from a sufficient use of our muscular exercise, as the frequent contractions and relaxations of the muscles and vessels of the parts affected, produced by it, will propel their contained Auids onward in the way of circulation, and strengthen the vessels to more vigorous contractions, and thereby prevent that slow return of the blood and lymph, through the sanguine and lymphatic veins, which occasioned the feet and legs to swell.
Our exercise, on the same account, may also be recommended to those who have a bloated habit of body, or are in danger of falling into a dropsy.
But, in such cases, exercise is only an external help. The advice of a physician to direct remedies for altering and mending the blood, and removing the cause of the morbid symptoms, is necessary.
I am, &c. 1759, Nov.
ON a rod of iron, insulated on silk strings, are hung small bells of different sizes for the different notes: there must be two bells, which are unisons to each note; the one suspended by a wire, and the other by silk; a metal ball suspended by silk between each two unison bells, serves for a hammer. From the bell suspended by silk descends a wire, the end of which is fastened by another silk line, and terminates in a ring to receive a small'iron lever, which rests on an insulated iron rod. Matters being thus disposed, upon turning the glass globe, the bell suspended by the wire is electrified by the rod or conductor which supports it; and the other bell suspended by the silk, is electrified by the other iron rod on which rests the little lever. By pressing down a key, I raise this lever, and cause it to touch another uninsulated rod; at which instant the hammer moves, and strikes the two bells so quick, that only one undulous sound is produced,