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found very little difficulty, and then applied himself to the study of the poetical writers, and the prophets, which he read over so often, with so close an attention, and so happy a memory, that he could not only translate them without a moment's hesitation into Latin or French, but turn, with the same facility, the translations into the original language, in his tenth year.

Growing at length weary of being confined to a book which he could almost entirely repeat, he deviated by stealth into other studies, and, as his translation of Benjamin is a sufficient evidence, he read a multitude of writers of various kinds. In his twelfth year he applied more particularly to the study of the Fathers, and Councils of the six first centuries, and began to make a regular collection of their canons.

He read every author in the original, having discovered so much negligence or ignorance in most translations, that he paid no regard to their authority.

Thus he continued bis studies, neither drawn aside by pleasures nor discouraged by difficulties. The greatest obstacle to his improvement was want of books, with which his narrow fortune could not liberally supply him; so that he was obliged to borrow the greatest part of those which his studies required, and to return them when he had read them, without being able to consult thein occasionally, or to recur to them when his memory should fail him.

It is observable, that neither his diligence, unintermitted as it was, nor his want of books, a want of which he was in the highest degree sensible, ever produced in him that asperity, which a recluse life, without any circumstance of disquiet, frequently creates. He was always gay, lively, and facetious, a temper which contributed much to recommend his learning, and which some students, much superior in age, would consult their ease, their reputation, and their interest, by copying from hin.

In the year 1735 he published “ Anti-Artemonius, sive Initium Evangelii S. Joannis, adversus Artemonium vindicatum,” and attained such a degree of reputation, that not only the public, but princes, who are commonly the last by whom merit is distinguished, began to interest themselves in his success; for the same year the King of Prussia, who had heard of his early advances in literature on account of a scheme for discovering the longitude, which had been sent to the Royal Society of Berlin, and which was transmitted afterwards by him to Paris and London, engaged to take care of his fortune, having received further proots of his abilities at his own court.

Mr. Barretier, being promoted to the cure of the church of Stettin, was obliged to travel with his son thither from Schwabach, through Leipsic and Berlin, a journey very agreeable to his son, as it would furnish him with new opportunities of improving his knowledge, and extending his acquaintance among men of letters. For this purpose they staid some time at Leipsic,and then travelled to Halle, where young Barretier so distinguished himself in his conversation with the Professors of the University, that they offered him his degree of Doctor in Philosophy, a dignity correspondent to that of Master of Arts among us. Barretier drew up that night some positions in Philosophy and the Mathematics, which he sent immediately to the press, and defended the next day in a crowded auditory, with so much wit, spirit, presence of thought, and strength of reason, that the whole University was delighted and amazed; he was then admitted to his degree, and attended by the whole concourse to his lodgings, with compliments and acclamations.

His Theses or Philosophical Positions which he printed in compliance with the practice of that University, ran through several editions in a few weeks, and no testimony of regard was wanting that could contribute to animate him in

his progress.

When they arrived at Berlin, the King ordered hiin to be brought into his presence, and was so much pleased with his conversation, that he sent for him almost every day, during his stay at Berlin; and diverted himself with engaging him in conversations upon a multitude of subjects, and in dis, putes with learned men, on all which occasions he acquitted himself so happily, that the King formed the highest ideas of his capacity and future eminence. And thinking per haps with reason, that active life was the noblest sphere of a great genius, he recommended to him the study of modern history, the customs of nations, and those parts of learning, that are of use in public transactions and civil employments, deciaring that such abilities, properly cultivated, might exalt him, in ten years, to be the greatest minister of state in Europe. Barretier, whether we attribute it to his moderation or inexperience, was not dazzled by the prospect of such high promotion; but answered, that he was too much pleased with science and quiet, to leave them for such inextricable studies, or such barrassing fatigues. A resolution so unpleasing to the King, that his father attributes to it, the delay of those favours which they had hopes of receiving; the King having, as he observes, determined to employ him in the ministry.

It is not impossible that paternal affection might suggest to Mr. Barretier, some false conceptions of the King's de. sign; for he infers from the introduction of his son to the young princes, and the caresses which he received from them, that the King intended him for their preceptor, a scheme, says he, which some other resolution happily destroyed.

Whatever was originally intended, and by whatever means these intentions were frustrated, Barretier, after having been treated with the highest regard, by the whole Royal Family, was dismissed with a present of two hundred crowns, and his father, instead of being fixed at Stettin, was made pastor of the French church at Halle; a place more commodious for the study to which they retired; Barretier being first admitted into the Royal Society at Berlin, and recommended by the King to the University at Halle.

At Halle he continued his studies with his usual application and success, and either by his own reflections or the persuasions of his father, was prevailed upon to give up his own inclinations to those of the King, and direct his inquiries to those subjects that had been recommended by him.

He continued to add new acquisitions to his learning, and to increase his reputation by new performances, till, in the beginning of his nineteenth year, his health began to decline, and his indisposition, which being not alarming or violent, was perhaps not at first sufficiently regarded, increased by slow degrees for eighteen months,during which he spent whole days among his books, and neither neglected his studies nor lost his gaiety, till his distemper, ten days before his death, deprived him of the use of his limbs; he then prepared himself for his end, without fear or emotion, and on the 5th of October, 1740, resigned his soul into the hands of his Saviour, with contidence and tranquillity:

1740, Dec. 1741, Feb,

II. Method of staining Marble. MR. URBAN, THERE having been very great admiration expressed by many, who have seen mother of pearl, Egyptian and other stones, stained with landscapes, figures, and even portraits, $0 as to appear to be in the substance of the stone, very

neatly executed by a German ; I was pleased in finding an old receipt, containing the secret by which this work is or probably may be effected; I send it you, not doubting but it will he agreeable to your ingenious readers, and that your publishing it may occasion the improvement or revival

of the art, if lost to the English, | Method for preparing a liquor that will sink into and penetrate

maróle ; so that a picture drawn on its surface, will appear also in its inmost parts.

Take of aqua-fortis, and aqua-regia, two ounces of each; of sal-ammoniac, one ounce; of the best spirit of wine, two drachms; as much gold as may be bad for four shillings and six-pence; of pure silver, two drachms. These materials being provided, let the silver, when calcined, be put into a vial; and having poured upon it the two ounces of aquafortis, let it evaporate, and you will have a water, yielding first a blue, and afterwards a black colour : likewise, put the gold, when calcined, into a vial, and having poured the aqua-regia on it, set it by to evaporate ; then pour the spirit of wine upon the sal-ammoniac, leaving it also to evaporate ; and you will have a golden-coloured water, which will afford divers colours. And after this manner, you may extract many tinctures of colours out of other metals : this done, you may, by means of these two waters, paint what picture you please upon white marble of the softer kind, renewing the figure every day for some time with some fresh súperadded liquor; and you will find that the picture has penetrated the whole solidity of the stone, so that cutting it into as many parts as you will, it will always represent to you the same figure on both sides.

Mr. Bird, a stone-cutter in Oxforil, practised this art before the year 1660; several pieces of marble so stained by him

are to be seen in Oxford ; several others being shown to King Charles II. soon after the Restoration, they were broken in his presence, and found to correspond through the whole substance. Yours, &c.

J. B. 1747, Suppl.

III. An Invention in Architecture, communicated by a person of

distinction in Switzerland to an Italian Merchant.


A GENTLEMAN of small fortune, but well skilled in architecture, baving drawn a plan of an intended building, which was to be for the most part of stone, shewed it to the most experienced workmen, in order to obtain a true notion of the expence. Their answer carried the cost much higher than he could either expect or afford ; and, upon his inquiring particularly into the grounds of this expence,

he told that it arose from the ornaments he had designed, and the

wages that must be paid to the stone-cutters.

This was a high mortification to our man of taste ; he was unwilling to desert bis plan, which had cost him so much trouble; and at last, after much thinking, a notion came into his head, that it might not be impossible to perform the mouldings on the cornices and entablements with planes. He tried the experiment with his own hands, and succeeded in hard and well seasoned stones, as well as those that were green and fresh from the quarry. Upon this, he applied himself to a joiner, shewed him what he would have done, and how it might be cione ; and the man, after a little trial, offered to do as much for six livres, as in the ordinary method would have cost twenty crowns. But upon a view of the invention, the mason he intended to employ took the task off his hands, and, by the help of a wooden press, of a very simple and easy construction, after preparing the stones, by taking off their loose upper coat with a chisel, and placing them upright close together, he executed his business so effectually, that the very first day he did as much as fifteen of his men could have done, and passed his plane over all the stones in the line, whereas in the common way they must have been done singly, by which means the work was much more true, though performed only with the joiner's old tools. This astonished even the person who performed it, but at the same time it encouraged him to think of adding to the invention, and in a short time he carried it much further than the author expected.

In order to this, he contrived a new sort of planes, in which the wood and iron were so disposed, that he was able to execute a cornice, or entablement, in which were three, four, or five mouldings of different forms and sizes, at one operation, and by these means performed with his own hands as much, in the same space of time, as could have

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