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price of his labour; and if he receive nothing farther from your hands the account is balanced between you. But a generous person compassionates the lot of those, who are obliged to toil for his benefit or gratification. He lightens their burdens; treats them with kindness and affection ; studies to promote their interest and happiness; and, as much as possible, conceals from them their servitude, and his superiority:

5. "On the distinctions of rank and fortune, he does not set too high a value : and though the circumstances of life require, that there should be hewers of wood, and drawers of water, yet he forgets not that mankind are by nature equal; all being the offspring of God, the subjects of his moral government, and joint heirs of immortality. A conduct directed by such principals, gives a master claims, which no money can purchase, no labour can repay. His affection can only be compensated by love; his kindness, by gratitude; and his cordiality, by the service of the heart."


SECTION X Arachne and Melissa ; or, the happiness of cultivating a

good temper. 1. A good temper is one of the principal ingredients of happiness. This, it will be said, is the work of nature, and must be born with us : and so in a good measure, it is; yet it may be acquired by art, and improved by culture. Almost every object that attracts our notice, has a bright and a dark side.

2. He that habituates himself to look at the displeasing side, will sour his disposition, and consequently impair his. hiappiness; while he who beholds it on the right side, insensibly meliorates his temper; and by this means, im proves his own happiness, and the happiness of all about him.

3. Arachne and Melissa are two friends. They are alike in birth, fortune, education, and accomplishments. They were originally alike in temper too; but by different management, are grown the reverse of each other. Arachne has accustomed herself to look only on the dark side of every object

4. If a new literary work makes its appearance, with a thousand beauties, and butone or two blemishes, she slightly skims over the passages that should give her pleasure, and dwells upon those only that fill her with dislike. If you show her an excellent portrait, she looks at some partof the drapery, that has been neglected, or to a hand or finger which has been left unfinished.

5. Her garden is a very beautiful one, and kept with great neatness and elegance ; but if you take a walk with herinto it, she talks to you of nothing but blights and storms, of snails and caterpillars, and how impossible it is to keep it from the litter of falling leaves, and worm-casts.

6. If you sit down in one of her temples, to enjoy a delightful prospect, sheobserves to you, that there is too much wood, or too little water; that the day is too sunny, or too gloomy; that it is sultry, or windy : and finishes with a long harangue upon the wretchedness of our climate. :'

7. When you return with her to the company, in hopes of a little cheerful conversation, she casts a gloom over all, by giving you the history of her own bad health, or of some melancholy accident that has befallen one of her children, Thus she insensibly sinks her own spirits, and the spirits of all around her : and at last discovers, she knows not why, that her friends are grave,

8. Melissa is the reverse of all this. By habituating herself to look on the bright side of objects, see preserves a perpetual cheerfulness in herself, which, by a kind of hap.. py contagion, she communicates to all about her. If any misfortune has befallen her, she considers that it might have been worse, and is thankfulto Providence foran escape.

9. She rejoices in solitude, as it gives her an opportunity of knowing herself; and in society, because she communicates the happiness she enjoys. She opposes every man's virtues to his failings, and can find out something to cherish and applaud, in the very worst of her acquaintance.

10. She opens every book with a desire to be entertained or instructed: and therefore seldom misses what she looks for.Walk with her, though it be but on a heath or a common, and she will discover numberless beauties, unobserved before, in the hills, the dales, the brooms, brakes, and variegated flowers of weeds and poppies. She enjoys

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every change of weather, and of season, as bringing with it some advantages of liealth or convenience.

11. In conversation, you never hear her repeating her. own grievances, or those of her neighbours, or (what is worst of all) their faults and imperfections. If any thing of the latter kind is mentioned in her hearing, she has the address to turn it into en:ertainment, by changing the most odious railing into a pleasant raillery.

12. Thus Melissa, like a bee, gathers honey from eve. ry weed; while Arachne, like the spider, sucks poison from the fairest flowers, The consequence is, that of two tempers, once very nearly allied, the one is for ever sour and dissatisfied, the other always pleased and cheerful : the one spreads a universal gloom : the other a continual sunshine.




Disrespect to parents in no case allowable. 1. LEANDER, the eldest son of Socrates, fell into a violent passion with his mother. Socrates was witness to this shameful misbehaviour, and attempted the correction of it, in the following gentle and rational manner.

2. “Come hither son,” said he; “ have you never heard of men, who are called ungrateful?”. “Yes, frequently," answered the youth. “And what is ingratitude ?" de. manded Socrates. " It is to receive a kindness," said Leander, “ without making a proper return, when there is a favourable opportunity.'

3. “ Ingratitude is therefore a species of injustice," said Socrates. “ I should think so," answered Leander. then," pursued Socrates, “ ingratitude be injustice, does it not follow, that the degree of it must be proportionate to the magnitude of the favours which have been received ?" Leander admitted the inference; and Socrates thus pursued his interrogations.

4. “ Can there subsist higher obligations than those which children owe to their parents; from whom life is derived and supported, and by whose good offices it is rendered honourable, useful, and happy?" " I acknowledge the truth of what you say," replied Leander; "but who could

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suffer, without resentment, the ill-humours of such a mother as I have ?" “What strange thing has she done to you?” said Socrates.

5.“ She has a tongue,” replied Leander," that no mortal can bear.” “ How much more," said Socrates, “has she endured from your wranglings fretfulness, and incessant cries, in the period of infancy! What anxieties has she suffered from the levities, capriciousness, and follies, of your childhood and youth! What affliction has she felt, what toil and watching has she sustained, in your illnesses ! These, and various other powerful motives to filial duty and gratitude, have been recognised by the legislators of our republic. For if any one be disrespectful to his parents, he is not permitted to enjoy any post of trust or honour.

6. “ It is believed that a sacrifice, offered by an impious hand, can neither be acceptable to Heaven, nor profitable to the state; and that an undutiful son cannet be capable of performing any great action, or of executing justice with impartiality. Therefore, my son, if you be wise, you will * pray to Heaven to pardon the offences committed against your mother.

7. “ Let no one discover the contempt with which you have treated her; for the world will condemn, and abandon you for such behaviour. And if it be even suspected, that you repay with ingratitude the good offices of your parents, you will inevitably forego the kindness of others; because no man will suppose, that you have a heart to requite either his favours or his friendship."




Brethren should dwell together in harmony. 1. Two brothers, named Timon and Demetriụs, having quarrelled with each other, Socrates, their common friend, was solicitous to restore amity between them. Meeting, therefore, with Demetrius, he thus accosted him : “Is not friendship the sweetest solace in adversity, and the greatest enhancement of the blessings of prosperity ?” “Certainly it is,” replied Demetrius;" because our sorrows are dimipation.”


nished, and our joys increased by sympathetic partici

2. “ Amongst whom, then, must we look for a friend?" said Socrates. “Would you search among strangers ? They cannot be interested about you. Amongst your rivals? They have an interest in opposition to yours. Amongst those who are much older or younger than yourself? Their feelings and pursuits will be widely different from yours. Are there not, then, some circumstances favourable, and others essential, to the formation of friendship?"

3. " Undoubtedly there are," answered Demetrius, “ May we not enumerate," continued Socrates," amongst the circumstances favourable to friendship, long ac. quaintance, common connexions, similitude of age, and union of interest?” “I acknowledge,” said Demetrius, "the powerful influence of these circumstances; but they may subsist, and yet others be wanting, that are essential to mutual amity."

4. " And what,” said Socrates, “ are those essentials which are wanting in Timon ?" " He has forfeited my esteem and attachment," answered Demetrius. “And has he also forfeited the esteem and attachment of the rest of mankind?” continued Socrates. “ Is he devoid of benevolence, generosity, gratitude, ond other social affections?” 66 Far be it from me," cried Demetrius, “ to lay so heavy a charge upon him! His conduct to others, is, I believe irreproachable ; and it wounds me the more, that he should single me out as the object of Ms unkindness."

5.“ Suppose you have a very valuable horse," resumed Socrates, " gentle under the treatment of others, but ungovernable, when you attempt to use him ; would you not endeavour, by ali means, to conciliate his affection, and to treat him in the way most likely to render him tractable ? Or, if you have a dog, highly prized for his fidelity, watchfulness, and care of your flocks, who is fond of your shepherds, and playful with them, and yet snarls whenever you come in his way; would you attempt to cure him of this fault by angry looks or words, or by any other marks of resentment? You would surely pursue an opsite course with him?

6. " And is not the friendship of a brother of far more worth, than the services of a horse, or the attachment of


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