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cunning the Romans gave evidence, in uniformly translating him into their ideas as the volatile and deceitful Mercury.

The wife of Thor claims the next rank; this is Freia, though the Edda sometimes oscillated in mentioning a male and a deity as Freir. It was something like flattery in the Romans to give to this rude and unfeminine deity their collective title for all the loves and the graces. The Roman Venus has little in common with this Scandinavian Valkyrier, but her sex.

The fourth in dignity and place was Tuisco, who, from a German title of his day to which I have before alluded, is put as the presiding deity over laws and their just execution. When, therefore, according to Tacitus (Germ, cap. 1), they make Tuisco the author of their race and the father of Mannus, I think they clothe under this myth the beautiful allegory, that mankind can form themselves into nations and races only by the observance and cultivation of just laws and equitable rule.

The fifth in order was Sater—a name possibly corrupted from Asa Tyr, though a district of Westphalia is still called Saterland, and the name of Saterburg is still found in our English Gazetters. His relation to the Latin Saturnius is very remote and recondite, and would require a longer tax upon your patience than I can now hope for. The Latin transferer may have possibly been induced to fix upon the father of Jove from a phonical resemblance.

The Moon seems to have taken place prior to the Sun, from his masculine sex, which, as Der Mond, is still retained by the German tongue, and inculcated by the ungallant rule of our grammars, that the masculine is more worthy than the feminine; for our sun, the lord and master of day, as die Sonne, is a lady in all the Indo-Germanic dialects; but in our own it has a pre-eminence, for which the bright luminary is probably indebted to the want of sexual distinction in our articles permitting our use of the masculine pronouns in relation to him, without impropriety and as a consequence of superiority, both in power and usefulness.

This is the order in which our seven deities of the week days rank as to power in the Scandinavian and Teutonic mythologies. It will be my purpose to shew you how this rank holds good in the sequence of these days, and how we must place them and commence, to retain their rotative precedence with the successive progress of each week.

It is according also to this rank that we find the principal deities placed in the representations left to us of them. There is an old blazonment at the University of Upsala with Thor, Woden, and Friga thus relatively placed, and the succession of the rest seems natural and necessary. When we, therefore, picture the whole seven, seated in conclave, (like the Homeric gods on Olympus), in the halls of Muspelheim, the invisible heavens; or quaffing mead by the side of their heroic sons of earth, in the bright Valhalla, we must imagine their position according to the following scheme :




5 Satur.

7 Sonne.

The pre-eminence of Thor will be fully proved by the following extract from “Eccard de Origine Germanorum”:Thor certe in templo Upsaliensi medius and honoratiori loco locatus fuit inter Wodanum & Fricconem. Statuas inquit ADAMUS trium Deorum venerantur populus, ita ut potentissimus eorum Thor in medio solium habeat triclinium. Hinc et inde locum possident Wodan et Fricco. Thor ipse aëri præsidere, & tonitru, fulmina, ventos imbrefque, serena & fruges gubernare creditus, & cum sceptro Iouem exprimere visus est. Inter Saxonum etiam Deos primum locum obtinuit, & Thunner vel Donner vocatus est. Uti enim donner nobis tonitru, ita Septentrionalibus torden significat tonare. Doctissimus Princeps & Episcopus Paderbornensis FERDINANDUS a Furstenberg in vetusto Msto. Palatino Romae Concilio Liftinensi anno DCCXLIII. habito subiunctam invenit Abrenunciationem diaboli operumque eius & breuem fidei Professionem veteri lingua Saxonica conscriptam. Inter alia in ea legitur: Ec forsacho allum dioboles wercum und Wordum ; thuna eren de Vuoden end Saznote, ende allem them umboldum the hira genotas sint. DIETERICUS STADENIUS, vir in veteris linguæ nostræ monumentum interpretatus, & suspicatus est, Saxnote distingnendum Saxn Ote : Verba vero thuna eren de legit thuna erende exposuitque lucorum cultui. Sed thun quidem pro sepe atque etiam urbe vel loco septo, nunquam tamen pro luco usurpatum legi: nec de lucis, sed de abrenunciatione falsorum Deorum ibi agitur, qui ordine recensentur.—Ego itaque scribo : thunaer ende Vuoden end Saxn Ote. Ita sensus integræ periodi est : Ego abrenuntio omnibus Diaboli operibus et verbis, Thunaro (sine Thoro) et Wodano et Saxonum Odino et omnibus spiritibus malis, qui consortes ipsorum



In this order I have followed the later custom of the Romans Tricliniums, which, like most of their usages was received from Etruria, and this latter country had undoubtedly its first colonisation from the Pelasgi, an Indo-Germanic people, and consequently of the same race as the Scandinavian and German first settlers, and must have followed the same laws and usages.

The rotation of time necessarily requiring a circle, when this Trinclinium was applied to the seven week days, the series was closed at the bottom, and a continuity was thus obtained, and the perpetual revolution commenced, of which, however, with the slight variation of Thomson's words, in my motto I may say—

They, as they roll, Almighty Father, they,
Are but the varied God.”

For all represent but various powers or attributes of one superior God.

But, being now without beginning or end, an arbitrary starting point might be taken, and was so actually by different races, according to their differing views of the power and pre-eminence of the deities.

As we find, amongst the northern nations Thor occupying the first position, it was natural, and almost necessary, that the week should begin on the day peculiarly dedicated to him. Amongst our heathen forefathers—to speak popularly~ Thursday was their Sunday, or holy day.

In the variety of the superstitions and practises of all Europe, in their legends and notices of popular manners, which the Germans more especially have collected with such industry and interest, I have noted more than fifty examples of the popular and exclusive sanctity of Thursday.

| This couch, as I have figured it, was usual, and it restricted many of the Roman convivial parties to seven, the number of our week deities. Martial, in the Tenth Book of his Epigrams, XLIV., entitled “Frugale Convivium,” has an excellent example of this number and position of his guests. He enumerates five.

“Stella, Nepos, Cani, Cærealis, Flacce venitis

Septem Sigma capit: sex sumus, adde Lupum.” The Sigma will hold, he adds, seven : I am the sixth, and so give the remaining invite to Lupus. The meaning of Sigma here is given by a commentator in a note.

“Lectus erat discubitorius factus in morem literæ gracæ Sigma quæ in prisco more scribebatur ad similitudinem literæ Latinæ, C. Itaque Lectus ille hemicylum, id est, semicirculem imitabatur. Septem convivas sigma capiet.

In Mecklenburg, on this day, labour is in a great measure restricted to works of necessity. It is thought that if any girl spin on a Thursday evening, Frau Holle throws her an empty spindle, and cries, “spin this also full.It is more especially the day to make pilgrimages to holy wells or shrines, and in lower Saxony is a peculiar favourite for the popular rites. This was also the English custom for this day, particularly on Holy Thursday, sanctified, it is true, by the Christian religion; but it may be a question whether its founder, with a prophet's regard to the weaknesses of his future proselytes, did not choose this day of his triumphal entry into Jerusalem, and his ascension into heaven on their own Sabbath, the more easily to reconcile them hereafter, to his own institutions. The Church of Rome acknowledged this supremacy and sanctity of Thursday, when it ordained that the most sacred solemnization of its Church-the Procession of Corpus Christi-should be held on this week day.

Mone, the continuator of Creuzer's Symbolik, says of the peasantry of the Russian Baltic provinces, Liefland, Courland, &c., that, as they abstain from spinning on the Thursday, this day seems to have been their Sunday. In Grimm's German Mythology, (new edition, p. 173), he says that unmistakeable traces of the former holiness of Thursday still are found amongst the people. The Church was obliged to interdict abstinence from work on the Thursday—nullus diem

Another papal bending to this pristine feeling is found in that high festival in the Vatican, when every fifty years the Pope solemnly opens a year of Jubilee on a Thursday. This solemnity is measured by the magnificence of pontifical display, and the curious prescription of the ritual, when a door blocked up the previous fifty years is opened by Christ's Vicegerent personally with a golden hammer, and whence symbolically are opened the most effective benisons of mother Church. A malicious critic might feel inclined in this to recal attention to the opening of the Temple of Janus, a classic prelude to all the horrors of War and the direful effects of contests and controversy, and he would find that the site both of the classic and papal entrance was identically the old Janiculum, first seat of old Janus, whilst, curiously enough, the Vatican also would bring to mind the vaticinations which were there practised, and which no doubt Janus brought with him thither from the rival Veii and ancient Etruria.

Jovis in otio observet: and in a Rubric, de Feriis, “quæ faciunt Jovi aut Mercurio,” we have the prohibition against it; and in another the reproach—“quintam feriam in honorem Jovis honorasti.”

I could, as I have already hinted, heap up conformities and corroborations, till they were tiresome; but I find I have already occupied the time which will be more profitably filled by those who follow me, and I will therefore only add one or two of our own popular results on the same topic. To keep from work of any kind on a Sunday, our peasantry repeat the rhyme :

Who on the sabbath pares his horn,

"Twere better for him he had never been born; but the original Latin prohibition is to Thursday,

Ac toto Thori die hominibus ungues secare minime licet. From the Harleian Miscellany MS. I can quote a reference which points to the feelings of our first Christian converts, when Christmas-day, if falling on a Thursday, gave to the coming year much of the character it would have under Thor's rule; he was the presager of war in stormy tempests, but with it a bountiful procurer of the fruits of the earth and the dairy, for thunder is known as a fertiliser. Like the Prussian Percun during a thunderstorm, offerings were brought to him.

If Christmas day on a Thursday be,
A windy winter you shall see-
Windy weather in each week,
And hard tempests strong and thick.
The summer shall be good and dry,
Corn and beasts shall multiply.

That year is good for lands to till, &c.
In superstitious cures at the present date, Sundays and
Thursdays are put upon an equality of efficacy. So, from
the statistical account of Scotland (xix. p. 210), I collect :-

“ A man in I has the power of curing the king's evil. He touches or rubs over the sore, two Thursdays and two Sundays successively, in the name of the Trinity, and says, It is God that cures.'

By contrast I might shew that the popular and seaman's dislike for commencing voyages on Friday, or any conside

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