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had then newly returned from some of his then principal of the college of St. Barbe, at travels, in which he had acquired a large Paris. Loyola had by this time presented contribution of alms, allifted him on this to the Pope the plan of his new order, and presling occasion, and by that act of generous as he had besides acquired great reputation, friendship he made an entire conqueft of his his holiness referred the whole business to affections.

him. This fingular character, who had Having finished the course of philosophy proposed to himself no less a design than which he read, and which, according to the the reformation of the whole world, and custom of those times, had lasted three who saw the urgent necessity of Europe, years and a half, he studied divinity, by the where the doctrine of Luther began to advice of Loyola, whose scholar' he now spread, informed Mascarcgnas, that out of openly avowed himself to be. Loyola he. ten, which was the whole number of his ing incited with a strong desire of converting disciples, he could spare him only two perthe Jews and infidels, discovered his inten- fons. The Pope approved this answer, and tions to Xavier, which he had already com- he ordered Loyola to make the choice him. municated to Le Fevre, and four other self, who thereupon named Simon Rodri. learned young men who had embraced his guez, a Portuguele, and Nicholas Bobadilla, form of life. °All the feven engaged thema Spaniard. The first of these was at that selves by a mutual promise, and by folemn time employed at Sienna, and the other in vows to God Almighty, to abandon their the kingdom of Naples; and though Rodriworldly goods, to devote themselves entirely guez was languihing under a quartan ague to the cause of religion, and to undertake a when be was recalled from Sienna, he failed voyage to Jerusalem ; or in case they could not to obey the summons, and embarking not accomplish that design in the course of foon after at Civita Vecchia, carried with a year, to throw themselves at the feet of him to Lisbon Paul Camerino, who had the fovereign Pontiff, and beg him to dif- fome months before joined himself to the pose of them in whatever manner he hould fociety: think most likely to promote the glory of : Mafcaregnas having finished his embassy, the church, and the interests of the catholic and being desirous of taking the other misreligion.

finnary along with him to Portugal, was These vows were made at Montmartre, within a day of his departure, when Loyola, in 1734. Towards the end of the year fol. finding that Bobadilla, who had fallen fick lowing, Xavier departed from Paris, in com- of a fever, was in no condition to undertake pany with Le Fevre, Bobadilla, and others, a journey, caft his eyes upon Xavier, as a in order to join Loyola, who was waiting proper person to fubstitute in his stead. for them at Venice. From Venice he made Xavier was informed of his voyage to a journey to Rome to obtain the Pope's he. the Indies but the day before the ambas. necliction ; but on his return, finding that fador's departure ; he had time, therefore, the war which had broke out between the only to bid his friends farewel, and set out T'urks and the Venetians had interrupted the from Rome on the 15th of March, 1540, in commerce of the Levant, and stopped all the company of Malcaregnas, without any intercourse with the Holy-Land, he retire equipage but a single book. During their ed to Bologna, where he spent his time in journey to Lisbon, which continued three such austerities and religious duties as were months, he subjected himself to the greatest enjoined him by his maiter, to spread his mortifications and austerities. The horse reputation and acquire fresh converts. which the ambassador allowed him for his

While Xavier was thus employing his own use he made common. At the inns he talents, and manifesting his zeal for the ser. became every man's servant, descending vice in which he had engaged, he was call. even to the meanest and lowest offices, ed to Rome by Loyola, who had presented through an excess of humility, which made himself before the Pope, and offered his own him forget the dignity of his character. He fervice, as well as that of his companions, resigned his chamber and bed to those who wherever his holiness might think proper to wanted them, and never sept but on the fend them.

bare ground. John the Third, King of Portugal, hav. As soon as they arrived at Lilbon, which ing about this time conceived a design of was towards the end of June, Xavier refending missionaries to the Eaft Indies, where tired to the hospital of All Saints, where the Portuguese arms had made considerable Rodriguez, who came by sea, had taken up conquefts, wote for this purpote to Maf. his lodging. Three or four days after, they caregnas, his ambassador at the court of were both

invited to court, where the King Rome, defiring him to obtain from his ho- and Queen received Xavier with every mark linels at least fix of those apoftolic men who of esteem and refpect ; but as the India had been recommended to him by a Portu- flect was not to fail till the following spring, grele, named Andrew Govea, who was Xavier employed his time in instructing some

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youth whom the King had entrusted to his May, 1542, being the thirteenth month afcharge ; in visiting hospitals and prisons, and ter their departure from Lisbon. in such other offices as he conceived to be The town of Goa is situated on the Masuited to his character and profession. labar coast, in an island cf the same name,

The time of embarkation being come, which is about fix leagues in circumference. the King sent for him to the palace, where It is the capital of the Portuguese fetile. he difcourted with him upon the state of ments in India; the seat of the bishop and the Indies, and delivered to him all the in- the viceroy, and a place of very confiderafirulions and credentials that he judged ble trade. It had been built by the Moors necellary for his miffion. Xavier received several years before the Europeans paffed them with the most profound respect ; fay. into the Indies; and in the year 1910, ing, that as far as his weak strength wouid Don Alphonso d'Albuquerque took it from permit, he would endeavour to luftain the the infidels, and lubjected it to the crown of þurden which his majesty had laid upon his Portugal. houlders.

When Xavier landed, he repaired immeOn April the 9th, 1541, when entering on diately to the hospital, and there took up his the 36th year of his age, Xavier failed from lodging, notwithstanding the invitation of Lisbon, under the coinmand of Don Martin the governor, who offered him the use of Alphonso de Sosa, Viceroy of the Indies, a his palace. He began his missionary functiman of great experience, who had resided on by waiting on the bishop of Goa, whose in those countries for many years. Rod- name was Juan d'Albuquerque. This preriguez remained in Portugal at the King's late, firuck with the venerabie air and mosequeft, but Xavier carried along with him, deft countenance of Xavier, who after preas companions, Paul Camerino, an Italian, senting the Pope's briefs, had fallen on his and Francis Martilla, a Portuguese, who knees to implore his bletting, immediately was not yet in priest's orders. After a con- raised him up and embraced him, assuring tinual navigation of five months, they ar- him at the fame time, that if his episcopal rived, towards the end of August, at Moz• authority should be necessary to support his ambique, * on the eastern coast of Africa, character and second his labours, it should where they passed the winter. Setting out never be wanting. again in the spring, they proceeded thence The Portuguese who resided at Goa, to Melinda, I where they carried but a few were at this time plunged into the grofleft days, and still coafting along the African debauchery; the plealures of Asia had corshores, touched at the island of Socotora 3, rupted their morals, and their continual infrom which they crossed the Arabian gulph, tercourse with the natives still added to and reached the port of Goa on the oth of their shameful depravity. Xavier therefore, N

T E S. before he attempted the conversion of the • A city on the eastern coast of Africa, Infidels, thought it would be proper to opposite to the island of Madagascar, and bring about a rc:ormation among the Euro. the capital of an island of the lame name. peans. For this purpose he daboured with It is considered by the Pori uguese as the the greatest afiduity, paying particular at. key of ihe Indies. It is an excellent har- tention to the instruction of their children, bour, which affords a safe retreat for vessels occasionally visiting the hospitals, and reduring the winter season. The Dutch at- lieving the distressed by diftributing among tempted to take it, but without success, in them whatever he could procure in charity. 1607.

In the aiternoon he made a turn through the I The capital of a kingdom of the fame town with a hell in his hand, fummoning name near the mouth of the river Quil. fathers of families to fend their children and manci, where the Portuguese carry on a llaves to be catechiled. He afterwards pro

ceeded to public preaching, and in order $ Situated between Arabia the Happy and that the infidels might understand as well as the African coast, twenty leagues to the north the Portuguele, he ndt avoured to speak cast of Cape Guardafui : it is the most con. the Indian language, though in a gross, and fiderable fland towards the mouth of the clownish dialect. Red sea, but it has no port capable of con Having been informed by Michael Vaz, taining a large number of vefels. It is di- Vicar-General of the Indies, that on the vided into two parts by a chain of mountains Oriental coast, which lies extended from which raise their lummits above the clouds. Cape Comorin to the Ife of Khanar, and is It is reckoned to be about twenty leagues named the Fishing coaft, there vere certain in length, and nine in breadth. The capi. people, call d Paravas or Fishers, rho had tal is called Tamarin, and is very populous. caufid themfelves to be baptized son.. time This island abounds with cattle and fruit. before, on account of affiftance given hem The king of it is dependant upon one of the by the Portuguele against the Moors, Xavier cherifs of Arabia.

fét our thither in the year 1542, taking

great trade.

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with him two young ecclefiaftics of Goa, which is above three times the circumference who had a tolerable knowledge of the lan- of the earth. guage spoken on that coast. After staying After a variety of adventures in the places here above a twelvemonth, during which above-mentioned, Xavier returned to Mahe cmployed all his abilities and address to lacca, where he stayed a few months. Be. bring over the Paravas to the Catholic faith, ing upon the point of his departure, the finding that one priest was not sufficient for Portuguese ships, which used to come every the number of new converts, he resolved to year from China arrived there, in one of seck for affiítance; and with that view set which a Japanese gentleman, named Anger,

on his return, about the conclufion of came pasienger. He was a married man, jf the year 1543, and having got lo Cochin thirty-five years of age, pofieffed of confiby the middle of January, arrived at Goa derable riches; and who, having committed not long after.

a murder in his own country, wished to feek Xavier having given the charge of the a refuge among the Portuguese. lie was serninary of Goa to Father Paul Camerino, conducted to Xavier, who, having instructed and procured such asistance as he could, re- him in the principles of the Christian reliturned with all expedition to the Paravas. gion, fent him, and his two fervants, who After this he visited the kingdom of Tra. were likewise natives of Japan, to the femivancar, where the Brachmans, who were nary of Goa. incenied at seeing their págods abandoned Xavier being again desirous of visiting the for the new doctrine of a ftranger, resolved Fishing Coaft, embarked for Cochin, where to be revenged upon the author of fo sud- he arrived on the 21it of January, 1548. den a change. Several attempts were made As his principal design was to establish the to dispatch him, by people fecretly engaged fociety in the Indies, he collected all the Jeto lie in wait for him; and once he was suits who were on the coast, and having obliged to hide himself in the covert of a distributed them into their proper places, foreit, where he passed the following night appointed Anthony Criminal to be their fu.. upon a tret, to escape the fury of his ene. perior. He then let out for Goa, which he mics, who made the stricteft search to find reached on the 20th of March of the same him.

year. The first thing he did was to vilit It would require a whole volume to give the three Japanele, whom he found dilpola particular account of all the places which ed to receive baptism. He again instructed Xavier visited in the course of his travels them himself, and they were baptized with through India, for the purpose of convert- great folemnity in the cathedral by Don Juan ing the infidels, and extending the power d'Alhuquerque, bishop of Goa. and influence of the Society of Jesus, of In discoursing with these people, Xavier which he was a moit zealous member. learned that the empire of Japan was one of From the kingdom of Travancar he pro- the most populous in the world ; that the ceeded to Camboya, the lile of Manar *, Japanese were naturally ingenious, and of a Meliaport, Malacca, Macallar or Celebes, tractable difpofition; and that they were Amboyna, Ternate, and the lies De Moro, fond of knowledge, and very rational; he situated at the disance of about fixty leagues therefore formed a resolution of subduing from the Moluccas, and inhabited by a that country, which had been lately disco. barbarous and favage race of people. In vered by the Portuguese *. This enterprize short, those who have taken the trouble to appeared to him more worthy of being uncalculate the distances of all the places thro' dertaken, as no misionary had ever fet his which he paned aliure us, that they amount foot in Japan; and as he persuaded himself to more than thirty-three thousand leagues,

N O TE S.
N 0 T E S.

* It is not certainly known who firn dir. This island lies on the western fide of covered Japan. Sonie authors fix the date Ceylon, from which it is feparated only by of this event in the year 1534. But Xaver, a very narrow channel. It was once cele in a letter which he wrote from Cochin, brated for its pearl tifhery; but no pearls are says, that it was five or fix years later ; and found there at prefent. The Portuguese Péter Maffeus and other writers are of the were matters of it, and established a govern- opinion of Galvanus, who tells us, in his ment there, but they were driven from book, entitled, The First who difiovered thence by the Dutch in 1658.

the World, that Anthony Mota, Francis † It is pretended that St. Thomas resided Zaimot, and Anthony Devat, were driven long in this city Near it is a grotto, in the upon the coasts of Japan by a dreadful temfide of a hill, in which they say the apoltle peft in the year 1942. It is not however hid himself during a persecution. It lics on certain, whether fome others had not visited the coast of Coromandel, and is known allo it before. by the name of St. Thomas.

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that the glory of so dangerous an expedition Damascus: and he was only thirteen year was reserved for him.

of age when he accompanied the caravan of (To be continued.)

his uncle, and that his duty compelled him Gibbon's Sketch of the Person and Character merchandize of Cadijah. In these hafty and

to return as soon as he had disposed of the of Mahomet.

Superficial excursions, the eye of genius A

CCORDING to the tradition of his might discern fome objects invisible to his

companions, Mahomet was diflin- groller companions ; some seeds of knowguilhed by the beauty of his perfon ; an out- ledge might be cast upon a fruitful soil; but ward gift which is seldom delpifcd, except by his ignorance of the Syriac language must those to whom it has been refused. Before have checked his curiosity; and I cannot he spoke, the orator engaged on his side the perceive, in the life or writings of Mahomet, affections of a public or private audience. that his prospect was far extended beyond the They applauded his commanding presence, limits of the Arabian world. From every his majestic aspect, bis piercing eye, his gra- region of that salitary world, the pilgrims of cious imile, his flowing beard, his counte- Mecca were annually assembled, by the calle nance that painted every sensation of the soul, of devotion and commerce: in the free conand his gestures that enforced each expression course of multitudes, a fimple citizen, in his of the tongue. In the familiar offices of life, native tongue, might ftudy the political ftate he scrupulously adhered to the grave and ce and character of the tribes, the theory and remonious politeness of his country: his re- practice of the Jews and Christians. Some spectful attention to the rich and powerful useful ftrangers might be tempted, or forced, was dignified by his condescension and affa- to implore the rights of hospitality: and the bility to the poorest citizens of Mecca : the enemies of Mahomet have named the Jew, frankness of his manner concealed the arti- the Persian, and the Syrian monk, whom fice of his views; and the habits of courtesy they accufe of lending their secret aid to the were imputed to personal friendship or uni- composition of the Koran. Conversation enversal benavolence. His memory was capa- riches the understanding, but folitude is the cious and retentive, his wit easy and social, school of genius; and the uniformity of a his imagination sublime, his judgment clear, work denotes the hand of a single artist. From rapid, and decisive. He poltested the cou- his carliest youth, Mahomet was addicted to rage both of thought and action; and, al- religious contemplation ; caeh year, during Though his designs might gradually expand the month of Ramadan, he withdrew from with his success, the fire idea which he en- the world, and from the arms of Cadijah: tertained of his divine inision bears the stamp in the cave of Hera, three miles from Mecca, of an original and superior genius. The fon he consulted the fpirit of fraud or enthusiasm, of Abdallah was educated in the bosom of the whose abode is not in the heavens, but in the noblest race, in the use of the purest dialect mind of the prophet. The faith which, unof Arabia; and the fluency of his speech was der the name of lpam, he preached to his facorrected and enhanced by the practice of mily and nation, is compounded of an eternel dilereet and feasonable filence. With these truth, and a necessary fiction, That there is powers of eloquence, Mahomet was an illi. only one God, and obai Mabumet is gbe apoftie tcrate Barbarian: his youth had never been of God *. instructed in the arts of reading and writing ;

At the conclusion of the life of Mahomet, the common ignorance exempted him from it may perhaps he expected, that I should thame or reproach, but he was reduced to a balance his faults and virtues, that I Mould narrow circle of existence, and deprived of decide whether the title of enthusiast or imthose faithful mirrors, which reflect to our postor more properly belongs to that extraor. mind the minds of sages and heroes. Yet dinary man. Had I been intimately conver. the book of nature and of man was open to fant with the son of Abdallah, the tak would his view ; and soine fancy has been indulged

N 0 T in the political and philosophical observations which are ascribed to the Arabian traveller. * This is followed by a differtation on the He compares the nations and religions of the principal doctrines of the Mahometan religiearth; discovers the weakness of the Persian on, which the author finds a tolerably conand Roman monarchies; beholds, with pity venient vehicle for his fpleen against Christi. and indignation, the degeneracy of the times; anity; and this again is followed by a detail and resolves to unite, under one God and of the successes and difficulties of Mahoniet, one king, the invincible spirit and primitive which, in a few respects, differs from the virtues of the Arabs. Our more accurate common accounts, particularly in the denial enquiry will fuggeft, that instead of visiting of the general opinion, that the prophet was the courts, the camps, the temples of the subject to epileptic fits, of the abfürd fory Lait, the rwa journies of Mahomet inio Sy- of the pigeon, and of the iroc coffin suspendria were confined to the fairs of Coftra and ed betweon two magnets,

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fill be difficult, and the success uncertain: fidy, of cruelty and injustice, were often
at the distance of twelve centuries, I darkly subservient to the propagation of the faith ;
contemplate his inade through a cloud of re. and Mahomet commaded or approved the
ligious incense; and could I truly delineate afaffination of the Jews and idolaters who
the portrait of an hour, the fleeting reiem. had escaped from the field of battle. By the
blance would not equally apply to the folita- repetition of such acts, the character of Ma-
ry of mount Hera, to the preacher of Mecca, homet must have been gradually stained; and
and to the conqueror of Arabia. The author the influence of such pernicious habits would
of a mighty revolution appears to have beta he poorly compensated by the practice of the
endowed with a pious and contemplative dil: personal and social virtues which are neces
pofition : fu foon as marriage had railed him lary to maintain the reputation of a prophet
above the pressure of want, he avoided the among his sectaries and friends. Of his last
paths of ambition and avarice; and, till ine yuars, ambition was the ruling paffion; and
age of forty, he lived with innocence, and a politician will fufpect, that he secretly
would have died without a name. The unity smiled (the victorious impostor!) at the en-
of God is an idea moft congenial to nature thusiasm of his youth and the credulity of his
and reason: and a slight conversation with profelytes. A philosopher will observe, that
the Jews and Christians would teach him to their credulity and bis success, wou'd tend
delpise and detest the idolatry of Mecca. It more strongly to fortify the assurance of his
was the duty of a man and a citizen to im. divine miffion, that his interest and religion
part the doctrine of falvation, to rescue his were inseparably connected, and that his
country from the dominion of sin and error. conscience would be foothed by the perluafi-
T) energy of a mind inceffanily bent on on, that he alone was absolved by the Deity
the fame object, would convert a general from the obligations of positive and moral
obligation into a particular call; the warm laws. If he retained any veftige of his native
suggestions of the understanding or the fan-. innocence, the fins of Mahomet may be al-
cy, would be felt as the inspiration of hea• lowed as an evidence of his fincerity.' In the
ven; the labour of thought would expire in support of truth, the arts of fraud and fiction
rapture and vision; and the inward sensation, may be deemed less criminal ; and he would
the invisible monitor, would be described with have started at the fouiness of the meaus, had
the form and attributes of an angel of God. he not been satisfied of the importance and
From enthusiasm to imposture, the ftep is pe- justice of the end. Even in a conqueror or a
rilous and flippery: the dæmon of Socrates priest, I can surprise a word or action of un-
affords a memorable instance, how a wife affected humanity' ; and the decree of Ma-
man may deceive hinself, how a good man homet, that, in the fale of captives, the
may deceive others, how the conscience may mothers thould never be separated from their
sumber in a mixed and middle state between children, may suspend or moderate the cen-
felf-illusion and voluntary fraud. Charity fure of the hitorian ş.
may believe that the original motives of Ma. Account of the Execution of William Brodie
homet were those of pure and genuine bene
volence ; but a human missionary is incapable

and George Smith at Edinburgh, on the

2d of October last.
of cherishing the obftinate unbelievers who
reject his claims, despise his arguments, and

A

T a quarter paft two o'clock William persecute his life; he might forgive his per. fonal adversaries, he may lawfully have the brought upon the platform at the west-end enemies of God; the stern palfions of pride of the Luckenbooths, attended by two of and revenge were kindled in the bofom of the city Magiftrates, and proper officers.Mahomet, and he fighed, like the prophet of Mr. Brodie had on a full suit of black, his Nineveh, for the deftruction of the rebels hair dressed and powdered ; Smith was whom he had condemned. The injustice of dressed in white, with black trimming. Mecca, and the choice of Medida, tranf. They were affifted in their devotions by the formed the citizen into a prince ; the humble Rev. Mr. Hardie, one of the ininisters of preacher into the leader of armies; but his

Ν Ο Τ E. sword was consecrated by the example of the saints; and the same God who afflicts a finful § A Mort sketch of his private life is next world with pestilence and earthquakes, might introduced, in which we are informed, that inspire, for, their conversationor chastisement, the apottle of God submitted to the menial the valour of his fervants. In the exercise offices of the family ; he kindled the fire, of political government, he was compelled milked the ewes, and mended, with his own to abate of the stern rigour of fanaticism, to hands, his shoes, and his woollen garment. comply in some measure with the prejudices On solemn occasions, he feafted his compaand passions of his followers, and to employ nions with ruftic and hospitable plenty; buc even the vices of mankind as the instruments in his domestic life many weeks would elapse of their salvation. The use of fraud and per- without a fire kindled on his hearth.

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