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that is meant by the charity of Christians, ceived his reason; for during the repait,
and philanthropy of heathen philosophers; while he was constantly engaged in aflerting
yet is this man a llave to envy, to resent. his authority, his wife was as anxious to dil-
ment, and to spleen; imperious to his fami• pute it ; and the comforts of conviviality
ly, cruel to his dependents, and quarrelsome were banished by this domeftic contention,
to his acquintance; continually lamenting which gradually increased till the lady left
the infults of the world, and the malignity the table. However, the Doctor triumphed
of others, and profefling that he alone is in this victory. I could discover, that he
happy, 'by. the habit of putting favourable dreaded she would return to the combat, and
conftructions on premeditated affronts, and, that the suspension of hoftilities would end
parrying insults by the guard of good nature; with my visit.
yet do his captiousnels, his intolence and his There can be no situation, however ele.
pride, expole him to attacks, which his im. vated, that will ensure continual happiness ;
placable resentments converts to never-ceaf- nor any fo abject as to be without enjoyment:
ing hatred.

indeed happiness and misery seem to netesla-
Squire Big is conscious that he left the rily united, that they are eqully dispersed
country in which his family had long resid- through all ranks of society; and though we
ed, because the neighbourhood refuled him cannot persuade ourselves we are content
that respect, to which neither his rank, for. or happy, we wish to conceal from others
tune, nor understanding, had ever entitled every appearance to the contrary ; we de.
him; yet is he continually boasting of 'influ- rive happiness from being thought to possess
ence which he dare not return to exert, and it, and comfort ourselves in wretchedness, if
of importance which he never means to re- we can disguise it from others.
fume ; folicitous to impress on others a fente I shall conclude my examples of seeming
of his own consequence, and to convince the contentment with a letter from one, who
u’orld that he is somebody when at home ; can have little reason to disguise the fenic
while he is consuming with melancholy, at of his melancholy situation it is from a
his own insignificance, and only exists to criminal under sentence of twelve months
disguise the fatal truth, that he is actually no confinement in a solitary cell of a county
boily any where.

prison : he is without friends, without proPoor Ned Cramp is a good natured ferty, without character, and without any throughtiess fellow, who has squandered a necessary of life, except the scanty allowway a small fortune to make the world think ance which hard labour procures amidst the he had a large one ; he talks of money in the horrors of a dungeon ; yet he wrote the fola funds which he has long fold out ; and la- lowing letter, and delivered it to the keeper, ments the tardinets of tenants whose rents he to be forwarded to a brother at a distance. long since asligned to satisfy his creditors :

« Dear Jack, he is constantly advising with his friends how to put out sums on the best security, “ This comes with my kind love, hoping while he is actually borrowing money at it will find you in good health aud spirits, as exorbitant interest: he talks of prudence and it leaves me at this present writing, thanks economy ass things well enough for people to nobody for it. I live in a pleasent part in narrow circumstances, but thanks hea of the kingdom here, and, only for the

“ he has no need of such virtues to fe- distance between us, not so much amiss.core the permanency of his happiness :" nor The people are not over and above sociable, is he induced to impose on others to fupport and lo I never mixes with one of 'em.a false credit, or to indulge extravagance, Work is in great plenty here, and provisions but to gratity the vain defire of being cost us nothing. The house I live in is newthought a monied man. Thus does he waste ly built, and they say 'tis one of the best of his days in mifery, that he may be deemed the fort in all England; for they can make happy, and will end them in poverty, that up better than forty separa:e bed-rooms he may be eftecmed affluent.

every night. I was sorry to hear poor Bob Doctor D---- has but one topic in all was catched-out last affizes ; but no matter companies : a few minutes conversation will for that, they say Botany Bay is a rare counbring round his favourite subject, and you try, and worth while to go on purpose to fee, will soon discover, that implicit obedience for 'tis quite another world. And so hoping in a wife, and the stricteft fubordination to we may all go there one time or other, this her husband, constitute ali his ideas of do- concludes me, dear Jack, mestic happiness ; his greatest glory seems

Youn's till death, to arise from the consciousness that he is abfo

fom Filch." lute master in his own family : of this boali

P. S. Direct to me, at A** Bridewell, ed fuperiority his friends can seldom bear where I have fallen into a job of work, th... witness, for he rarely invites them to his will hold me best part of next winter. kouic. Saving dined there lately, I per.




An Eray on English Poetry.

Elizabeth began to reign in 1558.

Epic Poets,-Spencer, Milton, Davenant, WHERE

HILE the accumulated materials of suc. Philofopbical and Metapbyfical.-Sir John

cellive ages seem to have been requi. Davis, Phin, Fletcher; Giles Fletcher, site for the completion of other arts, many of H. More. which, indeed, still remain imperfect and Dramatic.-G. Gascoyne, Shakspeare, progressive, poely with a'certain preternatu. Malfinger, Jonson, Beaumont, Fletcher, ral eccentricity, has dillinguished herself by Shirley arriving at a degree of comparative perfecti, Hijsorical.-Niccols, Sackville, , Daniel, on, with lefs gradual and adventitious allit. Drayton, May, J. Beaumont.

Satyrical. Hall, Marston, Rowland, Though ages have elapsed fince the birth of Donne. Homer, we still gaze at him with undimi- Pafioral.-Warner, Drayton, Browne, ni!hed curiosity, till our eyes grow din with Fairfax. admiration; yet this bard, who has stood the Amatory and Miscellaneous.-Raleigh, fcrutiny of Greece and of Rome, and the try- Drummond, Marlow, Cowley, Carew, Cor. ing teit of three thouland years, had no pre- het, King, Abington, Cartwright, Randolph, existing molels of consequence to look up to; Suckling. the literary prospects of his day were barren, Translators.-- Fairfax, Sandys, Crashawe. uncultivated and disheartening: Criticism, as In thus bringing forward the most meritoit was a subsequent production to his works, rious and prominent luminaries of a paft ages and in great meafure originally derived from a natural question seems to arise; how hapthem, had no thare in advancing him to im- pens it that the great parts of poetry Thould mirortality, by forming his taite, - correcting to foon be filled up, and manifeft a degree of his fancy, or improving his judgment. Shake excellence, in fome respects unequalled, and fpeare, whose name will suffer little in being in others unexceeded, by our later writers ? Thentioned after him, when, to read and in the following remarks I have endeavoured write, was an accomplishment, untutored by to alliga a true reason. I cannot but think learning (for thofe "scanty sparks of it that that there exists a very close analogy between faintly glimmered on his eyes through the the intellectual and the bodily, powers, and medium of translation, are hardly to be that the strength of the one, in its operations, considered as such) destitute of the advanta- is in a similar manner affected with that of the ges of birth, without rules, and without ex- other. The secondary endeavours of bodily amples, carried dramatic poetry to a height exertion, are feldom proportioned to the arthai has hitherto baffled imitations, and seems door of the first; the labours of the husbandlikely to descend to future times without a man, are generally found to be most efficaci. rival.

ous in the morning, the fultry noon induces The original rectitude of some men's laffitude and weakness, and the night com. minds, is toch as to serve them in place both eth'on in which no man worketh.' If we of rules and examples ; and though genius turn our eyes to the mind's works in indivithus unaíifted, feldom; in any department duals, instances are sufficiently numerous of science, produces a perfect model, yet it where its primary effufions remain unequalled is always its pride, and not vafrequently its by every lucceeding one ; like the nature of lot, to rise in proportion to the deficiency of some foils, whose fertility is exhausted by a its resources, and bear up without them in fingle harveft, and whole after-crops do but such a manner as to give an appearance of turn with the rankeft weeds, or the most ficktheir being imneceifary. If we feriously and 'ly flowers. The ftar of Science no sooner impartially examine the cluiler of poetical appeared in the British hemisphere than, nutes that Ihone, and were concentered in ftruck with the luxury of its bcams, the minds the face of minely one years, from the ac- of men were suddenly aroused, and awakencffion of Elizahein, inclufively, to the rei- ed to the moft animated exertions, and the toration of Charles thell and compare them most daring flights: filent were the legendawith those who have respectively fourished ry oracles of the bard and the minftřel, the from that time to this, a period of an hun- dark and long impending clouds of barbarilm dred and thirty-eight years, we fall find the were difpelled, and instantly gave way to a palanx of older cianes but little affected hy clear and a healthy horizon. Add to this, we a comparison with the more modern mufter conttantly find a period in the annals of everolls,

- ry country, at which its people begin to be The following scale will tend it one view sensible of the fame and the ignominy of ige to illufraic how large and valuable a portion norance: this no tooner becomes perceived of literatr:re is compounded in a very narrow than it is deeply felt; the mind stimulated by period. Many names are omitted of no par. a forcible impulse, catches the aların, and 2. cular 'import, indi Muaily or collectively haftens at once to renounce its slavery ; in the Collidered:

Rruggle and collision that ensues, the ge.


nius of the people frequently takes astonish- duke, acquainted him with the yacancy, and
ing studies towards perfection. Not satisfied asked him for the appointment.-—How un-
with a tardy, gradual, and deliberate reform, fortunate (faid the duke) it is not more than
the cause of learning and improvement is five minutes ago, I gave away that regimerit."
carried far beyond those limits that experi. “You lie! (replied the other emphatically)
ence and cooler reason might have fixed for you could not know that such a thing was in
its advances. Peter the Great had no sooner your gift till I informed you.” “Oh! my
teturned from the inspection of foreign courts, dear friend, said the duke (recollecting hox
and the influence of the trasplanted arts had his baleness had laid hini open to the veteran's
begun to soften the grofsness and severity of chastisement) you are too warm ; what I
the Russian manners, than his court, disguft- said was merely to try your temper-the re-
ed at the meanness of their appearance, giment is your’s.
would not content themselves with a mere
reform, nor proceed in the common course, Faits and Observations on the African Slave
from squalor to decency, and from thence to

clegance; but resolved to do something, and (By Joba Marthews, Lieutenant in tbe Roy.
not knowing where to stop, they hastily pafl-

al Navy.) ed over the happy medium, and allumed at

THE nations who inhabit the interior and irregular magnifiçence, not to be paral- parts leled by any nation on the face of the globe. Leone, profess the Mahometan religion, and We may yet farther observe, that the milita. following the means prescribed by their prory spirit of the day, in Eliza's reign, being phet, are perpetually at war with the lurput upon the stretch, far beyond its usual rounding nations who refuse to embrace their tone, by the perilous and alarming situation of religious doctrines. the kingdom, served to excite and to diffuse The prisoners made in those religious a general inclination for action, that invigo- wars, furnish a great part of the Davis rated attempts of every kind, whether lite which are sold to the Europeans; and would, rary or political. The temper of the times I have reason to believe, from the concurwas happily and fingularly disposed for the ring testimony of many of the most intellireception and cultivation of theclassics, which gint natives be put to death, if they had not then more immediately began to operate with the means of disposing of them. salutary effects. The manly spirit of expir

That death would be the fate of their priing chivalry lent a romantic grace to the pre. soners, the example of the inhabitants of Mavailing tafte, which, associating with the dagascar, is sufficient proof; for since the fantastic incongruities of Italian imagery, re- Portuguese decline dealing with them they quired nothing

but the chastity and good fenfe put all their prisoners to death. of antient learning to add a weight.

It is also given as a reason for the abolishMilitary Anecdote.

ing of this traffic, that the distinction of crimes

are multiplied, and every tranfgreffion punished "He great duke of Marlborough once with llavery, in consequence of their inter

met with an inftance how an inferior course with the Europeans. may resent the prevaricating injustice of his Upon this head I hall observe, that the fuperior officer; it was as follows: A gene- crimes of murder, poison, witchcraft, aral officer, had, by length of meritorious ser• dultery, and theft, are always considered as vices, a fair claim to a regiment, and had ace capital, and have been punished with death cordingly the promise of one from the duke. or llavery, cime immemorial. This promise, however, was very long dis- That the punishment of death, for the regarded. Vacancy after vacancy happened; commiflion of these crimes, is remitted by and on application the general was put off. their becoming Naves, I believe, in many The fact was, that the duke was sordid e instances, to be the case ; yet surely no one nough, through Sarah hisduchess, to fell them would adduce this circumstance as a proof of as they became vacant; and this general had its inhumanity. either not the inclination or the means to sa- Lesler offences, whether they respect the sisfy this commander in chief's rapacity. The religious ceremonies, or particular customs answer that he generally got was, that unfor- of the country, are punished by fine, which tunately the regiment for which he applied, if the defendant is not able to pay, he bewas already given away. He therefore re- comes the Nave of the plaintiff till redeemfolved to look out for an occasion on which ed, nor can he be redeemed without the pro he might be the earliest suitor. He was not fecutor's consent. long before he found one. A colonel of a From these reasons it appears that the aboregiment died in the night, and he got infor. lition of the Nare trade would add nothing mation of it from the colonel's valec early in to the happin:ls of the Africans. the morning. He went and knocked up the



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Refleflions on the various Views in which But what most of all thews the hand of

History exbibiis ibe Conduct of Divine Pro. Providence, and the weakness and fhort. vidence.

fightedness of men, are great events being (From Dr. Priefley's Lectures on Hiftory.)

brought about contrary to the intention of

the persons who were the chief instruments timents of virtue, by the variety of intended to produce a contrary event. Thus views in which it exhibits the conduct of di- perfecution has always been the means of vine Providence, and points out the hand of promoting the perfecuted religion; insomnuck, God, in the affairs of men. Por certainly that it is become a common proverb, that whatever suggests to us the idea of a divine the blood of the martyrs, is the feed of the Being, either in the end, or means, of great church. Thus, likewise, Athens, Lacecvents, must be favourable to piety and dæmon, Carthage, Rome, and many other virtue.

ftates have been ruined by their own succes. That the world has a governor or a super- fes. Philip II. of Spain, by his intolerable intendant, is just as evident as that it had a oppression, was the cause of the freedom of maker. For no person does any thing with the states of Holland. Such has often been out some design, or without intending to the consequence of wicked men over-acting make some use of it. A telefcepe is made to their parts. Thus also the fenate of Roine be ufed for the better distinguishing diftant was once faved by Catiline's making the objects, the eye itself for feeing things at a signal for the massacre too soon. moderate distance from us, and no doubt, With what fatisfaction may a perfon who has men, and the world, for fome end or other. an eye to divine Providence read iuch a pallage

And as the same Being that made the as the following in Machiavel, that Borgia greatest things, made the smallest things al- ' had fe weil conducted his measures, that he to, all being parts of the same system, Tome must have been master of Rome, and of the ule, no doubt, is made of every thing, even wholc ecclefiaftical state after the death of his what appears to us the most inconfiderable ; father, but that it was impossible for him to fo that, as our Saviour observed, a sparrow forelee that he himself would be at the point falls not to the ground without God, and of death at the very time that Alexander his the very

hairs of our heads are numbered.' father finished his life. They were both poiAllo, as nothing was made, so nothing can foned at an entertainment, by a mistake of came to pass without the knowledge, the ap- the waiier, who ferved them with the wine pointment, or permision of God.-Some which was to have taken off their enemies. thing, therefore, is intended by every thing It is no uncommon thing, in the history of that is madle. But in little things a design is divine Providence, that persons being known not lo apparent as in greater and more itrikto have abilities shall have been the means of ing things. Though, therefore, the hand keeping them in obscurity, while others have of God be really in every thing that happens, been advanced in consequence of their feenand that is recorded in history, our attention ing insignificance. If Augustus had town is more forcibly drawn to it in great events, any capacity, as a state finan or general, any and especially in things which happen in a greatness of soul, or any thing in the leaft manner unexpected by us.

enterprising, at first, he would probably never How can we help acknowledging the hand have been inafter of the Roman empire. But of God when we lee great and important while Cicero, and Antony, in their turns, events brought about by leemingly trifling thought to make a tool of him, they, unand inconsiderable means which leem to have known to themselves, increased his power little or no relation to the end ; as when our and influence, at the expence of their own. king James and both houses of parliament In this view it is very amusing, and usewere rescued from destruction, by a letter ful, to consider to what a different purpose, which a conspirator sent with a view to save the labour, powers, and works of men, and one of the members of the house of lords nations, have been employed from what was for whom he had a friendship?

originally thought of and intended ; as thai Who would have imagined that the de- the Romans, after all their conqueits of other fire which Henry Vill. had to be divorced nations, should be often governed by favage from his wife, would have brought about the and tyrannical barbarisns, fuch as Maximin reformation in England? The indifcretion and others ; and that that city, the mallress of a Portuguese priest, who wou'd not give of the world, which was built by Romulus, place to one of the king's officers in Japan, and whose power was enlarged by fuch men and the oliflinacy of the Jeluits, in retuling as Camillus, Scipio Africanus, Marius, Sylla, to give up thc house which a nobleman had Cæsar, Pompey; and Trajan, fhould now given them, when his son claimed it back again, be in subjection to the Pope, and the feat of occafioned the extirpacion of the Roman ca- a power totally different from what had beDiolic religion in that country.

fore ielided in it, and of which the founders


could have no conception. How far was of Hannibal, when master of Rome, who Constantine from foreleeing, that Constan- was able to change the whole form of tinople would be the capital of the Turkish 'their government, even when he was conempire, and the principal support of a reli- quered. gion opposite to that which he establimhed ! History too, in the misfortunes and hard. How far, also, were the heads of the Gre- Tips to which the most distinguished persocian commonwealths from foreseeing, that nages have been reduced, gives us a deep their country, the seat of arts and liberty, conviction of the instability of all human would ever' become the most ignorant, things, and prepares our minds, to submit and enslaved of all the ftates of Europe ! to adversity with more patience and resigna

A regard to divine Providence, is, like- tion, as 10 a condition from which we fee wise, extremely useful to heighten our fa. none are exempt. Even the misfortunes and tisfaction in reading history, and throw an' disappointments of brave and good men, agreeable light upon the most gloomy and who have brought themselves into difficulties, disgusting parts of it. With a view to this, in consequence of their generous attempts, the most disagreeable objects in history wil in favour of the liberties and best interests bear to be looked upon with fatisfaction. of '

mankind, do not, as exhibited in history, And could we fee every event, in all its in the lealt tend to Nacken our zeal in the connexions, and most diftant influences, we fame glorious caufe ; at the same time that thould, no doubt, perfectly acquiesce in eve- they make us more prudent in the choice and ry thing that comes to pass under the go- prosecution of our measures, to attain the vernment of God; in seeing that all evils, same end, and dispose us to yield to disaplead to, and terminate in a greater good. pointment with a better grace. That an But in many cases, we see events which acquaintance with history has this effect, I give us pain at first fight, and which occafi- appeal to what any person feels after reading on much regret and disappointment, to of the untimely end of Agis, Cato, Brutus, those who give more scope to their passions Hampden, and the great Algernon Sydney. than to their reflection while they are read. The honourable mention that will, to the ing; which, if we look no farther than the end of the world, be made of such glorious, next and immediate consequences, we though unfortunate men as these, and their Mall be thoroughly satisfied and pleased noble ends, will raise more friends to the with.

same great interests ; while their misfortunes No person conversant with the ancient will only serve to make those friends more classical historians, and who has thereby ac- prudent, and therefore probably more fucquired a classical taste, and classical notions cessful in their endeavours. of liberty, but regrets that Rone, in the But, independent of these martyrs of liheight of its glory, should fall under the berty raising up inore, and more successful power of masters. But it is because he does patrons of it, the remarkable reverses of not consider that all the provinces of the vaft fortune in the history

of considerable persoRoman empire were most miferably op- nages, has a fine effect upon the human pressed and plundered by the republican go- mind. It wonderfully softens and calms it, vernors, who had little to fear from courts and gives it an excellent temper for encounof jaftice; but were relieved and happy un- tering with the vicissitudes of life. What der the government of persons who lived other sensations do we feel, while we read in conflant fear of being accused of mal- that Henrietta, daughter of Henry IV of administration, to an inexorable master. France, and wife to Charles I of England, Nay the provinces were not much less happy was reduced to the utmolt extremity of pounder Tiberius and Nero, than under 'Tra- verty; and that her daughter, who was afjan and the Antonines.

terward married to a brother of Lewis XIV, A reader of Thucydides is apt to be ex. is said to have lain in bed for 'want of coals tremely mortified at the ill treatment of to keep her warm, while the people of Pa. Alcibiades, and the defeat of the Atheni- ris, blind with rage, paid no attention to ans before Syracuse. But it is because he their sufferings? The same kind of lensatidoes not think that would probably have ons we feel, when we read of the great and been the consequence of the success of that successful general Belisarius (if the story be expedition ; namely, the flavery of Greece, true) begging his bread; of Cortez, the and, from the nature of its government, renowned conqueror of Mexico, living unthe confusion and savery of Athens too. known and in disgrace in Spain, and scarce As success naturally points out our favourite able to get to speak to his master Charles V, hero to us, we cannot help conceiving a though when the king asked, who' the fellow violent indignation against Hanno, for tak- was that was fo clamorous to Tpeak to him, ing no more care to fend recruits to Hanni- he cried out, 'I am one who have got your bal, after the battle of Cannæ. But juftly majesty more provinces, than your father did he, and all Carthage, dread the power let you towns. He afterwards ferved in a Gent. Mag. Of. 1788.



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