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by their law, to prostrate himself on the in Newgate there; and 20l. yearly for ever ground, and to defend with life the person to the clergy beneficed in that city, for who poffesses it.
preaching 14 sermons in time of Lent, on
Tubjects appointed by himself. The subjects Memoirs of Edward Colson, Esq. are these : The Lent-fast; Against A.
theism and infidelity; the Catholic Church ; E DWARD COLSTON, a private gen- The Excellence of the Church of England ;
ticman, celebrated for his numerous The Powers of the Church ; Baptism ; Con and extensive charities, was the eldest ton of firmation ; Confeffion and Absolution ; The William Colston, Esq. an eminent Spanish Errors of the Church of Rome ; Euthufimerchant in Bristol, and born in that city, alm and Superstition; Reftitution; Free Nov. 2, 1636. He was brought up to quenting the divine Service ; Frequent com. trade, and refided some time in Spain; as munion ; The Passion of our blessed Savidid also his brothers, two of whom were in our. hunanly murdered there by alfalfins. He He bestowed, lastly, upward of 2000l. in inherited a handsome fortune from his pa- occasional charities and benefactions to rents, which received continued additions churches and charity schools, all within the from the fortunes of his brethren; all of city of Bristol. Let us proceed now to enuwhoin, though numerous, he survived. – merate, in the same general way, ,what he This family substance he increased immenfe- bestowed elsewhere. In the first place, ly by trade; and having, as we would wil. He gave 6oojl. for the augmentation of lingly hope, no near relations, he difpofed fixty Imall livings, the distribution of which of a great part of it in various acts of charity was to be after this manner. Any living, and beneficence,
that was entitled to queen Anne's bounty, In 1691, he built upon his own ground, might have this too, on condition that every at the charge of about 2500l. St. Michael's- parish, that did receive this, should be oblig: hill alms houses in Bristol ; , and endowed es to raise 100l. to be added to the them with land, whole yearly rent amounts cool. railed by Colfon : and many livings to 2821. 3$ 44..
have had the grant of this bounty. in The same year he gave houses and lands, He gave to St. Bartholomew's hospital in without Temple-gate in that city, to the so- London 2000l. with which was purchased an ciety of merchants for ever, toward the estate of cool..a year, which is settled on maintenance of fix poor old decayed failors, that hospital'; and he left to the fame, by to the yearly value of 241.
will, sool. To Chrift's hospital, at several In 1696, he purchaled a piece of ground times, 1000l. and snool. more by will. To in Temple firect in the fame city, and built the hospitals of St. Thomas and Bethlehem, at his own charge a school and dwelling. sool. each.. To the work-house without houle for a malter, to inftruct forty boys, Bilhopfgate, 200l. To the society for pro. who are allo to be clothed, and initructed pagating the gospel in foreign parts, 300!. -in writing, arithmetic,, and the church He built an alins house for fix poor people catechism. The estate given for this charity at Shene in Surry, and left very handlone amounts to Sol. yearly, clear of all charges. legacies to Mortlake in the fame county, 1. In 1703, he gave sool. toward rebuilding where he died: that is, he gave 45l. yearly, queen Elizabeth's hospital on the College- to he continued for twelve years after his green in Bristol; and for the clothing and death, for clothing and educating 12 boys educating of lix boys chere, appropriateul and 12 girls in that place, and 8sl. he bean elate, of ocl. a year, clear of charges, ing so many years old, to os poor men and belides scl. for placing out the boys appreni. women there, teach il, to be diftributed at tice.
the time of his decease, In 1708, he settled his great benefaction He gave 100l. per annum, to be continued of the hoipital of St. Augustin in Bristol, for iwelve years after his death, and to be confifting of a master, two ushers, and ico distributed by the direction of his executors: boys ; : for the maintenance of whom, he either to place out every year ten boys ap. gave an ehate of 1381. 155. 6 d. a year. prentices, or to be given toward the setting The charge of first feting up his hospital, up ten young tradetimen, to each rol. and making it convenient for the purpose, He gave likewise 10 eighteen charity. amounted to about 11,000l.
schouls in several parts of England, and to be He gave also 6l. yearly to the minister of continued to them for twelve years after his All Saints in Bristol, for reading prayers eve .. death, to each school yearly sl. ry Monday and Tuesdays morning through. Finally, he gave toward building a church out the year, and l. a yar to the clerk at Manchester in Lancashire, 201. and toand fexton : allo 61, a year for ever, for a 'ward the building of a church at Tiverton monthly fermon and prayers to the prisoners in Devonshire, silo
Belide these known and public beriefacti. Yet hence the poor are cloth’d, the hungry ons, he gave away every year large læms in
fed ; private charities, for many years together; Health to himself, and to his infants bread, and the preacher of his funeral sermon gives · The labourer bears : what his hard heart us to underftand, that thele did not fall much denies, It:ort of his public. In a word, this great His charitable vanity supplies. and exemplary christian feems to have pof
POPE, feffed no imall share of the judgment and delicacy, in the difpenfing, of his bounties, terion of human actions. Mr. Colton in
But contistency of conduct is the true cri. which are requisite to render the parties re- himself was humble, tenperate, and even lieved tie better for them. Among other abstinent. In all his actions be appeared to instances of this one may be noted in his be actuated solely by the divine principles of Il ver giving any thing to common beggars. re igion; and he may, therefore, be iately This he never did ; but he always ordered, that poor house-keepers, and fick and de recommended to the imitation of the wealihy,
as one that not only did good to a degree cayed persons, Mould be fought out as the uncommonly extendive, but did it from those fitieft ohjeets of his chiarity. We must not exalted motives that can alone be acceptable forget to oblerve, that though charity was this gentleman's fining virtue, yet he pos
to God. feried other virtues in an eminent degree.
To the Editor. He was a perlon of great temperance, ineek. SIR, nets, paticnre, anel equanimity. He always fooked chearful and piestatit, was of a partir I Hosophy, that the share of each man's
Believe it is generally allowed by: phicerile and quiet difpofition, 2nd remarkably circumfpect in all lois actionna's.
felicity is very inferior to its concomitant Some years before his decease, fie retired misery ; but it is at the same time univerfrom business, and came and lived at Lon- fally acknowledged, that by far the greater don, and at Mortlake in Surry, where he part of our anxieries is of our own creating, had a country feat. Here he died October and that a few trifling vexations which occur 11, 172), almof 85 and was buried in daily, embitter bur lives more than material the church of An-laints, Brikol, where a misfortunes," Whoever". then attempts to monument is erected to his memory, on cure 'thefe evils, must let the remedy be, as which art trumnerated his public charities, their disease is, ahogether imaginary: mentioned in this article: His funeral sermon Every individual must think himfeff highwas preached by Dr. Harcourt, and printed ly indebted to any other, who can add any at London the same year.
thing to the fall share of his happinefs ; In prruling the life of this excellent person, therefore I do not deul t-but that I Mall receive it may be obferved, that undiftingained by the bte ring all of your readers, fince ftriking incidents and adventures, by aught they can all become happier by treading in that can amuse the frivolous, or gratify the the path which I have to lowed, and by atinquilitive, it was one continued feries of tending to the admonition which I thall g oo inefo and liberality. Of benevolence give. and box nehrence it has been folin), that they in the earlier ages of infancy, when I do not alway's exift together. The noile might be fuppofed to all, as it were, only mind, in whom tenevolence is a prevailing hvirdin?, i remember to have been whip: viriut, is circumscribed,' perhaps in his by my mamana, for not making use of the finances : his wife's to do goou are unbound, wori pleart, when I asked fom-thing of her. ti', but he wants the means to grating them. I was surpriled that the omission of one Philosophical enough to be contcnted with word should be attended with such disagreea. the little le ha s; so far as his uwn wants only nie confequences, and resolved to las pleaf: are concerned, he never perceives that lie an hurdni times rather than experience the is poor, til he meets with some perfon in like again. Accordingly the next time I distress that he cannot relieve, br lome had oecation to make any request to her, 'I circumftance of human misery that he cannot did not fail to promise that fearful word,
On the other hand, he diat spreads when, happily for me, instead of the four his stores around, is, whatever be his motives, looks of my mamma, and the fourer looks a beneficent man.' But it the good that he of a birch rod, I was encouraged by the fala. docs, in the happiness that he diffulles. the ration of "that's a good boy, I had sly redivine principle of benevolence may vet be quelt grantert, and gos a penny belides. This wanting. The ostentation of riches, the circumstance of my hłe was fixed to indeliparace of generosity, and the affectation of bly on iny minut,' as to furnish me with many being virtuous, may influence a thoufand scilections, which have proved very effential a tions in themselves beneficent, without one to my happiness fince I grew up: 1 loon lenovoient motive.
tuund I had the admirable secret of pleasing
others and of making myself happy, or, to of any other perfuafion : my father coincided speak with a metaphor, that I had the pow. in this opinion with the greatest strictness : er of converting lead into gold. When I I perceived it, and determined to make my was at school, I had frequent opportunities greatest advantage by it. For this purpose Í of trying the effect of this secrets and ufed became acquainted with a young lady of fato fatter every scholar with whom it was mily, fortune, and underflanding, but who my interest to be friendly. If I wanted any differed from us in religious principles: it is thing of him I wou'd praise his generofly, true, I never Ihewed her any marks of pecu. but if I knew him to be flinky, I would liar fondness, but I whispered it about as a praise his economy; if lulling I would praise mighty fecret to two or three female acquainhis jodily; it a bully, his courage; and if tances, hoping by these - means it would iule, his jovial temper ; always endeavouring come to my father's ears: meanwhile I lookto adapt my balts to the fjb I would with to ed dejected, and spoke but little in the old catch.
gentleman's presence, and counterfeited the As I always endeavour to please others by fymptoms of love as well as I poflibly could. fattery, folcannot always avoid being pleafed My father at length heard of it, and thought with it mytilf; for I cannot at this day help the news confirmed by my behaviour. It reading any book that is addreffed to the can Was with a great deal of concern that he did, benevolent, learned, or pious reader, asked me the truth of it: I pretended I could unless it be some mully folio or quar19, and not deny ; but, as an excuse, I praised her cveu th n my vanity prompts ine to read the beauty and mental accomplishments, and part thus dedicated.
hoped that he approved of my choice. I am withat very charitable, and make it. He answered, No-that the difference of a inaterial point never to speak ill of any one, , religion was an unsurmountable objection. unless it is in the company of ladics, or a'! begged leave to retire, promifing to return rival, and even then I am very cautious, in an hour. I went out, and having adjusted for I let them begin the fander, and then I my countenence to the deepest despair, and am sure it is only good breeding to lay yes appeared before him at the expiration of the to what they say. If any one of my neigh- time, I told him, I consented to resign all bours buys anything, I praise his judgment pretensions to the lady, rather than give him extravagantly; an instance of it occurred of any uneasinefs ; fince the reflection of inone who bought a horse: “Ah, neighbour gratitude to a tender affrElionate parent would (lays 1) I find you have cut your bind teeth.” damp all the happinefs I could hope to en. J£ I go to the shop of a mechanic, I praise joy with her. This had nearly staggered his ingenuity, and always express particular the old gentleman's resolution, for he dewonder at any contrivance I know to be his clared he would farcely deny any thing to own. To an aftronomer I can talk in rap. Such a loving dutiful fon ; and at length his fures of the fars; to a mufician of the pow- rigidity gave way to his paternal affection, crs of sound; and even the barber of the and he consented that I should marry the village looks upon me as a man of vaft pe. young lady, provided the acted up to the netration, because I once observed to him, principles of her owo religion. This laft that he handled his razor with amazing dex- had nearly ruined all; yet I pretended to terity.
be overjoyed at his condescension. I resolvBut above all things I lay it down as a role ed, however, to .try whether I could not ever to lie oblerved, to laugh or at least smile, gain her affections, in which I happily fucai every piece of wit I bear, although heard ceeded, by a vigiline perseverance, and a an hundred times before ; and to lend an at liberal use of my fecret Her father was tentive ear to every anecdote or fory of Jo- next to be attacked. I firfi gained his love leph and his brethren, or the smart Ipeeches by my repeated and well-timed alleverations of Buchanan the king's fool. I mention of my respect for him, and I afterwards: that this rule is one of my most valuable gained his consent to our union hy a few ones, as it procured me the privilege of be- compliments on his universalcharity. This ing let down in black and white, in a certain is the artifice ihat united me to my dear Sopiece of parchment, carefully kept iny a good phia, who is one of the finest and worshie; old uncle of mine.
of women. I have pleated my father by But there is one piece of flattery which I such an undoubted proof of my filial lovs once committed, that I look pon as my and duty; I have ubtained a gentecl compe. master-piece, as it excels every thing or piece tency from him, and now reit aliured of his of deep contrivance that I am master of, entire love and woundence in me. And, and which I honesly confess I relate as much finally, by these innocent means, I have proa from motives of vanity as from a delire to cured happiness for your warı by perfons, and benefit mankind by it. I belong to a sect of without doing the least injury to any indiviChristians who look upon it wrong for any dual. Thus, Sir, I have given you'a few of their members to intermarry with those anecdotes of my life, which inore fuiiy cvia Gent. Mag. Sept. 1788.
firms my afertion, that, flattery is a more and the gradual prevalence of spinions, forf useful and necesary means of happiness, willingly admitted, and then habitually inthan all the fine-fpun arguments of logic, dulged ; if objections, by being overlooked, with which I acknowledge I am not well ac were forgotten, and defire superinduced conquainted; and I am so affured of the innocence viction ; yet he shared only the common of pleasing others by it, that I would even weakness of mankind, and might be no less attempt to Batter you, were it not that I fincere than his opponents, (p. 151.) He know you are 100 wije to be Nattered. taught only the state-coctrine of authority, I am, sir,
and the unpleasing duty of submission : and Your humble Servant,
he had been so long not only the monarch SAMUEL SMOOTH. but the tyrant of literature, that almost all Character of Dr. Johnson, as drawn by and insulted by a new name, not yet con
mankind were delighted to find him defied binjelf.
fieered as any man's rival, (p. 155.) I N perusing the Lives of the Poets, I have cannot but remark a kind of respect, perhaps
often thought I traced Johnson depicting unconsciously, paid to this great man by his his own mind so accurately, so naturally and biographers ; every house in which he relided faithfully, that I could not refift the inclina- is historically mentioned, as if it were an tion to make a selection of some passages, injury to neglect naming any place that bs which, put together, appear to form an honoured with his presence, (p: 570.) exact and juft character of him. And after His warmelt advocates mult allow, that he so much has been said of the Doctor, I hope never spared any afperity of reproach, or it will not he disagreeable to your readers to brutality of insolence, (p. 190.) He never peruse a CHARACTER OF DR. JOHNSON learned the art of doing little things with “ WRITTEN BY HIMSELF.". _" Mwatograce ; he overlooked the milder excellencies nomine de te fabula narratur.”
of fuavity and softness; he was a lion that “ His miscellanies contain a collection of had no ikill in dandling the kid, (p. 118.) Short compofitions, written fome as they He was naturally a thinker for himielf, con were dictated by a mind at leisure, and some fident of his own abilities, and disdainful as they were called forth by different occa- of help or hindrance. There is in his writ. fions. (Vol. 1. Cowley, p. 53.) His power ings nothing by which the pride of other is not so much to move the affections, as to authors might be gratiticd, or favour gainexercise the under ftanding, (p. 56.) Hised; no exchange of praise, or solicitation levity never leaves his learning behind it, of support, (p. 262.) He had watched with (p. 61.) The plenitude of the writer's great diligence the operations of human naknowledge flows in upon his page, so that ture, and traced the effects of opinion, hu. the reader is commonly surprised into fome mour, intercft, and passion. From fuch improvement, (ibid.) He wrote with abun- remarks proceeded that great number of fendant fertility, with much thought, but with tentious difichs which have passed into little imagery ; he is never pathetic, and conversation, and are added as proverbial rarely sublime, but always either ingenious axioms to the general stock of praciical or learned, either acute or profound, (p: knowledge, (Butler, p. 280.) He improved 86.) He read much, and yet borrowed taste, if he did not calarge know ledge, and little, (p. 87 ) He was in his own time con may be numbered among the Benefactors to fidered as of unrivalled excellence, (ibid.) English literature, (Roscommon, p. 320.) die is one of those writers that improved our He passed his time in the company that was taste and advanced qur language, and whom highest both in rank and wit, from which we ought therefore to read with gratitude, even his obftinate sobriety did not exclude though, having done much, he left much him. Though he drank water, he was to do, (Denham, p. 118.) It appears in enabled by his fertility of mind to heighten all his writiags that he had the usual conco- the mirth of Bacchanalian assemblies, (Walmitant of great abilities, a lofty and steady ler, p. 367.) His convivial pawer of plea. confidence in himfelf, perhaps not without fing is universally acknowledged ; but those fome contempt of others; for scarcely any who conversed with him intimately, found man ever wrote fo' much, and praised fo him not only paflionate, especially in his few. Of his praise he was very frugal; as old age, but reseatful, (p: 382.) To see the he set its valne high, and considered his highest mind thus levelled with the meanet, mention of a narze as a security against the may produce fome solace to the consciousness waste of time, and a certain prefervative a. of weakness, and some mortification to the gainft oblivion, (Milton, p, 130, 135.) - pride of wisdom. But let it be remembered, While he contented himself to write (poli- that minds are not levelled in their power, tics), he perhaps did only what his confci- but when they are firft levelled in their deence didated : and if he did not very vigi- fires, (Dryden, vol. II. p 33.) His reputaTeatly watch the influence of his own pallions, tion in his cine was such, that his name was
thought netessary to the success of every discovers a mind very widely acquainted both poetical or literary performance, and there with art and nature, and in full poffeffion of fore he was engaged to contribute fornething, great stores of intellectual wealth, (p. 112.) whatever it might be, to many publications, The power that predominated in his in. (p. 35.)
tellectual operations was rather strong reafon That conversion will always be suspected than quick sensibility. Upon all occafons that apparently comes with interes. He that were presented, he studied rather than that never finds his error till it hinders bis felt, and produced sentiments not such as naprogress towards wealth or honour, will not ture enforces, but meditation supplies.-be thought to love truth only for himself. With the simple and clemental passions, as Y.ct it may easily happen, that information they spring feparately in the mind, he feenis may come at a commodious time ; and, as not much acquainted; and seldom describes truíh and interest are not by any fatal neces. them, but as they are complicated by the fity at variance, that one may by accident various relations of society, and confused in introduce the other. When opinions are the tumults and agitations of life, (p. 173.) ftruggling into popularity, the arguments by He was a man of such estimation among hai which they are opposed or defended become companions, that the casual cenfures or more known; and he that changer his pro- praises which he dropped in conversation feffion would perhaps have changed it be were considered, like those of Scaliger, as fore, with the hike opportunities of inftrudi- worthy of preservation, (Smith, p 249.) on, (p. 61.) See vol. I. p. 59!.
His phrases are original, but they are fonie. The modefty which made him fo flow to times harsh ; as he inherited no elegance, advance, and so casy to be repulsed, was none has he bequeathed. certainly no suspicion of deficient inerit, or unconsciousness of his own valuc : he ap
Sketcb of the Character of Lord Hood. pears to have known, in its whole extent,
T was frequently urged by the opponents che dignity of his character, and to have set of Lord Hood, during the late Westa very high value on his power and perfor. minster election, that his Lordihip, as a mances. He probably did not offer his con ineans of interesting the electors to support versation, because he expected it to be soli- bis caufe, had arrogated to hinilelf the merit cited ; and he retired from a cold reception of victories in which he had no thare, parnot submissive, but indignant, with such re- ticularly that of the 12th of April, and had verence of his own greatnels as made him attempted to place upon his own brow, those unwilling to expose it to neglect or violation, laurels which were the just property of ano(p. 84.) He has been described as magifte- ther. rially presiding over the younger writers, Without entering into the motives which and alluming the distribution of poetical induced his Lordhip's enemies thus conh. fame; but he who excels has a right to dently to propagate falsehoods of the most teach ; and he whole judgmeat is incontesta. illiberal nature, as a friend to gallantry and ble, may, without usurpation, examine and professional merit, I Mall impartiaily state decide, (p. 85.)
the whole of his Lorrlmip's public services; His criticism may be considered as general and if the career of any man has been truly or occasional. In his general precepts, which glorious to himself, and advantageous to his depend upon the nature of things, and the country, I trust a recital of his actions will Structure of the human mind, he may doubt. prove that of Lord Hood to have been fo, in less he tafely recommended to the confidence a very eminent degree. of the reader; but his occasional and parti After having with the greatest credit, past. cular positions were sometimes negligent, ed through the subordinate gradations, and and sometimes capricious, (p. 108.) His when a Lieutenant been wounded in a danscholastic acquisitions seem not proportionate gerous service of boarding a ship of the eneto his opportunities and abilities. "He could ny, he was appointed to command the Janot, like Milton and Cowley, have made hio maica Noop, as Master and Commander. name illustrious merely by his learning. He Awl in the year 1756, hy his gallant conmentions but few books, and those such as duct off Louisbourg, having attracted the lie in the beaten tract of regular study, from notice of Admiral Holmes, he was by that which if ever he departs, he is in danger of respectable officer preferred to the rank of losing himself in unknown regions, (p.111.) Poft Captain, into his own ship the Grafton. Yet it cannot be said that his genius is ever In 1757, when Captain of the Antelope of unprovided of matter, or that his fancy lan. So guns, he drove on more on the coast of guishes in penury ofictas. His works abound France the Aquilon French man of war, of with knowledge, and sparkle with illuftrati- fuperior force, and completely deflroyed ons. There is fcarce aby science or faculty her. that does not supply him with occasional And the recollection of his cqnally trave images and lucky Smilitudon ; every page ac judicious conduct ou iho got of February