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THE

BRITISH ENCYCLOPEDIA.

BUC

BUC

The buccaneers are of two sorts ; the Polyadelphia Decandria class and buccaneers ox-hunters, or rather hunters order. Nat. order Columniferæ. Malva- of bulls and cows; and the buccaneers cez, Jussieu. Essential character: calyx boar hunters, who are simply called hun. three-leaved; petals five, arched, semi- ters: though it seems that such a name be bifid ; anthers on each filament three; less proper to them than to the former; stigma simple; capsule muricate, ending since the latter smoke and dry the flesh in a five-rayed star punched with holes, of wild boars, which is properly called five-celled, valveless, not opening. There buccaneering, whereas the former preis but one species, viz. B. guazuma, elm- pare only the hides, which is done with leaved bubroma or theobroma, or bastard out buccaneering Cedar. This tree rises to the height of Buccaneering is a term taken from Bucforty or fifty feet in the West Indies, hav- can, the place where they smoke their ing a trunk as large as the size of a man's flesh or fish, after the manner of the sabody, covered with a dark brown bark, vages, on a grate or hurdle made of Brasending out many branches towards the sil wood, placed in the smoke a considertop, which extend wide every way ; leaves able distance from the fire; this place is oblong, heart-shaped, alternate, nearly a hut of about twenty-five or thirty feet four inches long, and two broad near the in circumference, all surrounded and cobase, ending in acute points; the branches vered with palmetto leaves. have a nap scattered over them; they BUCCINATOR, in anatomy; a muscle have no buds; the flowers are in co. on each side of the face, common to the rymbs. In Jamaica it is known by the lips and cheeks. See ANATOMY. name of bastard cedar, and is peculiar to BUCCINUM, in natural history, a gethe low lands there, forming an agreeable nus of the Vermes Testacea. Animal a shade for the cattle, and supplying them limax ; shell univalve, spiral, gibbous ; with food in dry weather, when all the aperture ovate, terminating in a short caherbage is burned up or exhausted. The nal leaning to the right, with a retuse wood is light and so easily wrought, that beak or projection ; pillar-lip, expanded. it is generally used by coachmakers in There are between two and three hun. all the side pieces; it is also cut into dred species, separated into eight divistaves for casks.

sions; viz. A. inflated, rounded, thin, subBUCCANEERS, those who dry and diaphonous, and brittle. B. with a short smoke flesh or fish after the manner of exserted beak; lip unarmed outwardly. the Americans. This name is particularly C. lip prickly outwardly on the hind part; given to the French inhabitants of the in other respects resembling division B. island of St. Domingo, whose whole em- D. pillar-lip, dilated and thickened. E. ployment is to hunt bulls or wild boars, in pillar-lip appearing as if worn flat. F. order to sell the hides of the former and smooth, and not among the former divi. the flesh of the latter.

sions. G.angular, and not included among the former divisions. H. tapering, subu- viz. B. buceras, olive bark tree, is a tree late, smooth.

growing from twenty to thirty feet in BUCCO, the barbet, in natural history, height; the branches and twigs are dia genus of birds of the order Picæ, Ge. varicate or flexuose, roundish, smooth, neric character; bill sharp-edged, com- and even flowers, in racemes from the pressed on the sides, notched on each crowded leaves, simple, spreading, maside near the apex, bent inwards, with a ny-Powered; calyx hoary without, tolong slit beneath the eyes; nostrils cover- mentose within ; filaments twice as long ed with incumbent feathers; feet formed as the calyx; anthers roundish, yellow ; for climbing. These birds live chiefly in germ Alatied, with ten streaks at the base. warm climates, and are very stupid ; bill It is a native of the West Indies, Aowerstrong, straightish, almost covered with ing in spring. bristles; tail feathers usually ten, weak. BUCHNERA, in botany, so named in There are nineteen species, of which we honour of A. C. Buchner, a genus of the shall notice only B. jamatia, or spotted. Didynamia Angiospermia class and order. bellied barbet. This bird is found in Bra- Natural order of Personatæ Pedicuzil and Cayenne, is clumsy in its shape, lares, Juss. Essential character: calyx, and pensive and solitary in its manners. obscurely five-toothed ; corolla border It is so lethargic in its disposition, that it five-cleft, equal; lobes cordate, capsule will suffer itself to be shot at several two-celled. There are eleven species, times before it attempts to escape. Its of which B. Americana, North American food consists of insects, and particularly buchnera, has the stem scarcely branchlarge beetles, and the feathers of its tail ing; flowers in a spike remote from each are much worn by friction, so as to indi- other; two of the stamens in the jaws of cate the probability of the tail being em. the corolla, and two in the middle of the ployed, agreeably to the known habit of tube. The herb grows black in drying. Woodpeckers, in propping or supporting It is a native of Virginia and Canada. B. the büdy.

cernua, drooping buchnera, is a shrub BUCEROS, the hornbill, in natural his. half a foot in height, branching regularly; tory, a genus of birds of the order Picze. a little jointed from the scars left by the Generic character; their bill is convex, leaves; purplish ; flowers sessile, erect, curved, sharp-edged, large, outwardly with a linear, sharp bracte, shorter than serrate, with a horny protuberance near the calyx, and two shorter lateral bristles; the base of the upper mandible ; the nos- calyx tubular, oblong semiquinquefid, trils are behind the base of the bill; the equal; corolla white, with a filiform tube, tongue is sharp-pointed, and short; the twice as long as the calyx, and bent back, feet gressorial. There are sixteen spe. border flat, five-parted; segments subocies enumerated by Gmelin, though La- vate ; anthers within the jaws, two lowtham reckons only four; of these the most er than the other two; stigma inclosed, curious is the B. abyssinicus, or Abyssi. reflex, thickish. Native of the Cape of nian hornbill. This is found in the coun- Good Hope. try from which it takes its name, princi- BUCK, in natural history, a male hornpally among fields of jaff, and nourishes ed beast, whose female is denominated : itself by the green beetles which abound doe. See CERVUS. in them. Its young are numerous, some. BUCKET, a small portable vessel to times amounting even to eighteen. hold water, often made of leather, for its Though capable of Aying far, it chiefly lightness and easy use in cases of fire. It

It builds its nest in large thick is also the vessel let down into a well, or trees, near churches or other elevated the sides of ships, to fetch up water. buildings : this nest resembles a magpie's BUCKING, the first operation in the in being covered, but is several times whitening of linen-yarn or cloth: it conlarger than an eagle's; it is seldom much sists in pouring hot water upon a tubful elevated above the ground, but almost al- of yarn, interningled with several strata ways firm on the trunk, and the entrance of fine ashes of the ash tree. See BLEACHto it is always from the east. This bird is, in some places, called the bird of BUCKLER, a piece of defensive ardestiny.

mour used by the ancients. It was worn BUCIDA, in botany, a genus of the Do- on the left arm, and composed of wickers decandria Monogynia class and order. woven together, or wood of the lightest Natural order of Holoraceæ. Elæagni, sort, but most commonly of hides, fortifiJussieu. Essential character; calyx five- ed with plates of brass or other metal, toothed, superior; corolla none; berry The figure was sometimes round, some. one-sceded." There is but one species; times oval, and sometimes almost square.

runs.

ING,

It

Most of the bucklers were curiously the calyx. B. occidentalis ; spear-leaved adorned with all sorts of figures of birds buddlea ; this plant is much taller than and beasts, as eagles, lions : nor of these the first, and divides into a greater numonly, but of the gods, of the celestial bo- ber of slender branches, which are coverdies, and all the works of nature; which ed with a russet hairy bark, with long custom was derived from the heroic spear-shaped leaves, ending in sharp times, and from them communicated to points; these grow opposite at every the Grecians, Romans, and Barbarians. joint ; at the end of the branches are pro

BUCKLERS, votive. Those consecrated duced spikes of white flowers, growing to the gods, and hung up in their tem- in whoris round the stalks. It grows in ples, either in commemoration of some sheltered places in the West Indies, behero, or as a thanksgiving for a victory ing too tender to resist the force of strong obtained over an enemy; whose buck. winds. lers, taken in war, were offered as a tro. BUDDING, in gardening, is a method phy.

of propagation, practised for various sorts BUCKRAM, in commerce, a sort of of trees, bui particularly those of the coarse cloth, made of hemp, gummed, ca- fruit kinds. It is the only method which lendered, and dyed several colours. can be had recourse to, with certainty, for is put into those places of the lining of a continuing and multiplying the approved garment, which one would have stiff and varieties of many sorts of fruit and other to keep their forms. It is also used in trees; as, although their seeds readily the bodies of women's gowns; and it grow, and become trees, not one out of a often serves to make wrappers to cover hundred, so raised, produces any thing cloths, serges, and such other merchan- like the original; and but very few that dises, in order to preserve them and keep are good. But trees or stocks raised in them from the dust, and their colours this manner, or being budded with the from fading:

proper sorts, the buds produce invariably BUCOLIC, in ancient poetry, a kind of the same kind of tree, fruit, flower, &c. poem relating to shepherds and country continuing unalterably the same afterattairs, which, according to the most ge

wards. nerally received opinion, took its rise in The stocks for this use are commonly Sicily. Bucolics, says Vossius, have some raised from seed, as the kernels or stones conformity with comedy. Like it, they of these different sorts of fruit, &c. sown are pictures and imitations of ordinary in autumn or spring in beds, in the nur. life; with this difference, however, that sery, an inch or two deep, which, when comedy represents the manners of the a year or two old, should be transplanted inhabitants of cities; and bucolics, the into nursery rows, two feet asunder, and occupations of country people. Some- fifteen or eighteen inches distant in the times, continues he, this last poem is in rows, to stand for budding upon, keeping form of a monologue, and sometimes of a them to one stem, and suffering their dialogue. Sometimes there is action in tops to run up entire; wlien of two or it, and sometimes only narration; and three years growth, or about the size of sometimes it is composed both of action the little finger at bottom, or a little and narration. The hexameter verse is more, they arc of a due size for budding the most proper for bucolics in the Greek upon. and Latin tongues. Moschus, Bion, The- Stocks raised from suckers arising from ucritus, and Virgil, are the most renown. the roots of the trees of these different ed of the ancient bucolic poets.

sorts, lavers, and cuttings of them, are BUDDLEA, in botany, so named in also made use of, but they are not so good honour of Adam Budulle, a genus of the for the purpose. Budding may likewise Tetranária Monogynia class and order. be performed occasionally upon trees Natural order of Personatæ. Scrophu. that already bear fruit, when intended to fariæ, Jussieu. Essential character: ca- change the sorts, or have different sorts lyx four cleft; corol four cleft; stamens on the same tree, or to renew any parfrom the divisions; capsules two furrow- ticular branch of a tree; the operation ed, two-celled, many-secded. There are being performed on the young shoots of eight species, of which B. americana, long the year, or of one or two year's growth spiked buddlea, is a shrub the height of only. The most proper height to bud a man ; leaves ovate.lanceolate ; flowers stocks varies according to the intention, in long slender spikes, axillary, and ter- but from about three or four inches to six minating; composed of little, opposite, feet or more from the ground is pracmany-flowered, crowded racemes ; co- tised. To have dwarf trees for walls, and rolla coriaceous, scarcely longer than espaliers, &c. they must be budded from

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within, about three to six inches from wet may pass off, and not enter into the
the bottom, that they may first furnish stock. To the part of the stock wbich is
branches near the ground: for half stand. left, some fasten the shoot which pro.
ards, at the height of three or four feet; ceeds from the bud, to prevent the dan.
and for full standards, at from about five ger of its being blown out, but this must
to six or seven feet high ; the stocks be. continue no longer than one year ; after
ing trained accordingly. The necessary which it must be cut off close above the
implements and materials for this pur- bud, that the stock may be covered by it.
pose are, a small budding knife for pre- BUFF, in commerce, a sort of leather
paring the stocks and buds for insertion, prepared from the skin of the buffalo,
having a flat thin haft to open the bark of which, dressed with oil, after the manner
the stocks in order to admit the buds; of shammy, makes what we call buff-skin.
and a quantity of new bass strings well This makes a very considerable article in
moistened, to tie them with. In perform the French, English, and Dutch com-
ing the operation of budding, the head merce at Constantinople, Smyrna, and all
of the stock is not to be cut off, as in along the coast of Africa. The skins of
grafting, but the bud inserted into the elks, oxen, and other like animals, when
side, the head remaining entire till the prepared after the same manner as that
spring afterwards, and then cut off A of the buffalo, are likewise called buffs.
smooth part on the side of the stocks at BUFFALO, in zoology, an animal of
the proper height, rather on the north the ox kind, with very large, crooked,
side away from the sun, should be chosen; and respinated horns. See Bos.
and then with the knife an horizontal cut BUFFONIA, in botany, so named in
marie across the rind, and from the mid. honour of the Count de Buffon, a genus
dle of that cut a slit downwards about two of the Tetrandria Dygynia class and order.
inches in length, in the form of the letter Natural order of Caryophillei. Essential
T, being careful lest the stalk be wound. character: calyx four-leaved ; corol four
ed. Then, having cut off the leaf from petalled ; capsules one-celled, two-seed-
the bud, leaving the foot-stalk remaining, ed. There is but one species, viz. B. te-
make a cross-cut about half an inch be. nuifolia ; small buffonia, or bastard chick.
low the eye, and with the knife slit off the weed, has an annual root, the stem half a
bud with part of the wood to it, some- foot in height, upright.com

only branch-
what in the form of an escutcheon, pull- ed at the base ; leaves in pairs at each
ing off that part of the wood which was joint, resembling grass leaves, but when
taken with the bud, being careful that the plant is in flower, they are dry and,
the eye of the bud be left with it, as shrivelled ; stamens two, sometimes four;
all those buds which lose their eyes filaments very slender, shorter than the
in stripping should be thrown away as corolla, fastened to the receptacle ; an-
good for nothing: then having gently thers saffron coloured : the capsule splits
raised the bark of the stock, where the at top into two hearts; seeds blackish.
cross incision was made with the fat haft It is a native of England, France, Italy,
of the knife clear to the wood, thrust the and Spain. It flowers in May and June.
bud in, placing it smoothly between the BUFO, toad. See Raxa.
rind and the wood of the stock, cutting BUG See CIMEX.
off any part of the rind, belonging to the The housebug, or cimex lectuarius, so
bud, which may be too long for the slit ; extremely troublesome about beds, is of
and after having exactly fitted the bud to a roundish figure, and of a dark cinna.
the stock, tie them closely round with mon colour. One of the best methods
bass strings, beginning at the under part for extirpating these insects from bed-
of the slit and proceed to the top, taking steads is, by thoroughly washing all the
care not to bind round the eye of the parts where they are likely to lodge with
bud, which should be left open and at a solution of muriated mercury, or, as it
liberty. When the buds have been in. is called in the shops, corrosive sublimate.
serted about three weeks or a month, Great caution should be had in the use of
examine which of them have taken ; this mixture, as it is one of the most
those which appear shrivelled and black deadly poisons known.
being dead, but such as remain fresh and BUGİNVILLÆA, in any, a genus
plump are joined; and at this time loosen of the Octandria Monogynia class and or-
the bandage, which, if not done in time, der. Corolla inferior, tubular, four tooth-
is apt to pinch the stock, and greatly in- ed; stamina inserted on the receptacle :
jure, if not destroy, the bud. The March fruit one-seeded. One species, B. specta-
following, cut off the stock about three bilis, found at the Brazils.
inches above the bud, sloping it, that the BUILDING, a fabric erected by art,

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