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The buccaneers are of two sorts ; the Polyadelphia Decandria class and buccaneers ox-hunters, or rather hunters order. Nat. order Columniferæ. Malva- of bulls and cows; and the buccaneers cez, Jussieu. Essential character: calyx boar hunters, who are simply called hun. three-leaved; petals five, arched, semi- ters: though it seems that such a name be bifid ; anthers on each filament three; less proper to them than to the former; stigma simple; capsule muricate, ending since the latter smoke and dry the flesh in a five-rayed star punched with holes, of wild boars, which is properly called five-celled, valveless, not opening. There buccaneering, whereas the former preis but one species, viz. B. guazuma, elm- pare only the hides, which is done with leaved bubroma or theobroma, or bastard out buccaneering Cedar. This tree rises to the height of Buccaneering is a term taken from Bucforty or fifty feet in the West Indies, hav- can, the place where they smoke their ing a trunk as large as the size of a man's flesh or fish, after the manner of the sabody, covered with a dark brown bark, vages, on a grate or hurdle made of Brasending out many branches towards the sil wood, placed in the smoke a considertop, which extend wide every way ; leaves able distance from the fire; this place is oblong, heart-shaped, alternate, nearly a hut of about twenty-five or thirty feet four inches long, and two broad near the in circumference, all surrounded and cobase, ending in acute points; the branches vered with palmetto leaves. have a nap scattered over them; they BUCCINATOR, in anatomy; a muscle have no buds; the flowers are in co. on each side of the face, common to the rymbs. In Jamaica it is known by the lips and cheeks. See ANATOMY. name of bastard cedar, and is peculiar to BUCCINUM, in natural history, a gethe low lands there, forming an agreeable nus of the Vermes Testacea. Animal a shade for the cattle, and supplying them limax ; shell univalve, spiral, gibbous ; with food in dry weather, when all the aperture ovate, terminating in a short caherbage is burned up or exhausted. The nal leaning to the right, with a retuse wood is light and so easily wrought, that beak or projection ; pillar-lip, expanded. it is generally used by coachmakers in There are between two and three hun. all the side pieces; it is also cut into dred species, separated into eight divistaves for casks.
sions; viz. A. inflated, rounded, thin, subBUCCANEERS, those who dry and diaphonous, and brittle. B. with a short smoke flesh or fish after the manner of exserted beak; lip unarmed outwardly. the Americans. This name is particularly C. lip prickly outwardly on the hind part; given to the French inhabitants of the in other respects resembling division B. island of St. Domingo, whose whole em- D. pillar-lip, dilated and thickened. E. ployment is to hunt bulls or wild boars, in pillar-lip appearing as if worn flat. F. order to sell the hides of the former and smooth, and not among the former divi. the flesh of the latter.
sions. G.angular, and not included among the former divisions. H. tapering, subu- viz. B. buceras, olive bark tree, is a tree late, smooth.
growing from twenty to thirty feet in BUCCO, the barbet, in natural history, height; the branches and twigs are dia genus of birds of the order Picæ, Ge. varicate or flexuose, roundish, smooth, neric character; bill sharp-edged, com- and even flowers, in racemes from the pressed on the sides, notched on each crowded leaves, simple, spreading, maside near the apex, bent inwards, with a ny-Powered; calyx hoary without, tolong slit beneath the eyes; nostrils cover- mentose within ; filaments twice as long ed with incumbent feathers; feet formed as the calyx; anthers roundish, yellow ; for climbing. These birds live chiefly in germ Alatied, with ten streaks at the base. warm climates, and are very stupid ; bill It is a native of the West Indies, Aowerstrong, straightish, almost covered with ing in spring. bristles; tail feathers usually ten, weak. BUCHNERA, in botany, so named in There are nineteen species, of which we honour of A. C. Buchner, a genus of the shall notice only B. jamatia, or spotted. Didynamia Angiospermia class and order. bellied barbet. This bird is found in Bra- Natural order of Personatæ Pedicuzil and Cayenne, is clumsy in its shape, lares, Juss. Essential character: calyx, and pensive and solitary in its manners. obscurely five-toothed ; corolla border It is so lethargic in its disposition, that it five-cleft, equal; lobes cordate, capsule will suffer itself to be shot at several two-celled. There are eleven species, times before it attempts to escape. Its of which B. Americana, North American food consists of insects, and particularly buchnera, has the stem scarcely branchlarge beetles, and the feathers of its tail ing; flowers in a spike remote from each are much worn by friction, so as to indi- other; two of the stamens in the jaws of cate the probability of the tail being em. the corolla, and two in the middle of the ployed, agreeably to the known habit of tube. The herb grows black in drying. Woodpeckers, in propping or supporting It is a native of Virginia and Canada. B. the büdy.
cernua, drooping buchnera, is a shrub BUCEROS, the hornbill, in natural his. half a foot in height, branching regularly; tory, a genus of birds of the order Picze. a little jointed from the scars left by the Generic character; their bill is convex, leaves; purplish ; flowers sessile, erect, curved, sharp-edged, large, outwardly with a linear, sharp bracte, shorter than serrate, with a horny protuberance near the calyx, and two shorter lateral bristles; the base of the upper mandible ; the nos- calyx tubular, oblong semiquinquefid, trils are behind the base of the bill; the equal; corolla white, with a filiform tube, tongue is sharp-pointed, and short; the twice as long as the calyx, and bent back, feet gressorial. There are sixteen spe. border flat, five-parted; segments subocies enumerated by Gmelin, though La- vate ; anthers within the jaws, two lowtham reckons only four; of these the most er than the other two; stigma inclosed, curious is the B. abyssinicus, or Abyssi. reflex, thickish. Native of the Cape of nian hornbill. This is found in the coun- Good Hope. try from which it takes its name, princi- BUCK, in natural history, a male hornpally among fields of jaff, and nourishes ed beast, whose female is denominated : itself by the green beetles which abound doe. See CERVUS. in them. Its young are numerous, some. BUCKET, a small portable vessel to times amounting even to eighteen. hold water, often made of leather, for its Though capable of Aying far, it chiefly lightness and easy use in cases of fire. It
It builds its nest in large thick is also the vessel let down into a well, or trees, near churches or other elevated the sides of ships, to fetch up water. buildings : this nest resembles a magpie's BUCKING, the first operation in the in being covered, but is several times whitening of linen-yarn or cloth: it conlarger than an eagle's; it is seldom much sists in pouring hot water upon a tubful elevated above the ground, but almost al- of yarn, interningled with several strata ways firm on the trunk, and the entrance of fine ashes of the ash tree. See BLEACHto it is always from the east. This bird is, in some places, called the bird of BUCKLER, a piece of defensive ardestiny.
mour used by the ancients. It was worn BUCIDA, in botany, a genus of the Do- on the left arm, and composed of wickers decandria Monogynia class and order. woven together, or wood of the lightest Natural order of Holoraceæ. Elæagni, sort, but most commonly of hides, fortifiJussieu. Essential character; calyx five- ed with plates of brass or other metal, toothed, superior; corolla none; berry The figure was sometimes round, some. one-sceded." There is but one species; times oval, and sometimes almost square.
Most of the bucklers were curiously the calyx. B. occidentalis ; spear-leaved adorned with all sorts of figures of birds buddlea ; this plant is much taller than and beasts, as eagles, lions : nor of these the first, and divides into a greater numonly, but of the gods, of the celestial bo- ber of slender branches, which are coverdies, and all the works of nature; which ed with a russet hairy bark, with long custom was derived from the heroic spear-shaped leaves, ending in sharp times, and from them communicated to points; these grow opposite at every the Grecians, Romans, and Barbarians. joint ; at the end of the branches are pro
BUCKLERS, votive. Those consecrated duced spikes of white flowers, growing to the gods, and hung up in their tem- in whoris round the stalks. It grows in ples, either in commemoration of some sheltered places in the West Indies, behero, or as a thanksgiving for a victory ing too tender to resist the force of strong obtained over an enemy; whose buck. winds. lers, taken in war, were offered as a tro. BUDDING, in gardening, is a method phy.
of propagation, practised for various sorts BUCKRAM, in commerce, a sort of of trees, bui particularly those of the coarse cloth, made of hemp, gummed, ca- fruit kinds. It is the only method which lendered, and dyed several colours. can be had recourse to, with certainty, for is put into those places of the lining of a continuing and multiplying the approved garment, which one would have stiff and varieties of many sorts of fruit and other to keep their forms. It is also used in trees; as, although their seeds readily the bodies of women's gowns; and it grow, and become trees, not one out of a often serves to make wrappers to cover hundred, so raised, produces any thing cloths, serges, and such other merchan- like the original; and but very few that dises, in order to preserve them and keep are good. But trees or stocks raised in them from the dust, and their colours this manner, or being budded with the from fading:
proper sorts, the buds produce invariably BUCOLIC, in ancient poetry, a kind of the same kind of tree, fruit, flower, &c. poem relating to shepherds and country continuing unalterably the same afterattairs, which, according to the most ge
wards. nerally received opinion, took its rise in The stocks for this use are commonly Sicily. Bucolics, says Vossius, have some raised from seed, as the kernels or stones conformity with comedy. Like it, they of these different sorts of fruit, &c. sown are pictures and imitations of ordinary in autumn or spring in beds, in the nur. life; with this difference, however, that sery, an inch or two deep, which, when comedy represents the manners of the a year or two old, should be transplanted inhabitants of cities; and bucolics, the into nursery rows, two feet asunder, and occupations of country people. Some- fifteen or eighteen inches distant in the times, continues he, this last poem is in rows, to stand for budding upon, keeping form of a monologue, and sometimes of a them to one stem, and suffering their dialogue. Sometimes there is action in tops to run up entire; wlien of two or it, and sometimes only narration; and three years growth, or about the size of sometimes it is composed both of action the little finger at bottom, or a little and narration. The hexameter verse is more, they arc of a due size for budding the most proper for bucolics in the Greek upon. and Latin tongues. Moschus, Bion, The- Stocks raised from suckers arising from ucritus, and Virgil, are the most renown. the roots of the trees of these different ed of the ancient bucolic poets.
sorts, lavers, and cuttings of them, are BUDDLEA, in botany, so named in also made use of, but they are not so good honour of Adam Budulle, a genus of the for the purpose. Budding may likewise Tetranária Monogynia class and order. be performed occasionally upon trees Natural order of Personatæ. Scrophu. that already bear fruit, when intended to fariæ, Jussieu. Essential character: ca- change the sorts, or have different sorts lyx four cleft; corol four cleft; stamens on the same tree, or to renew any parfrom the divisions; capsules two furrow- ticular branch of a tree; the operation ed, two-celled, many-secded. There are being performed on the young shoots of eight species, of which B. americana, long the year, or of one or two year's growth spiked buddlea, is a shrub the height of only. The most proper height to bud a man ; leaves ovate.lanceolate ; flowers stocks varies according to the intention, in long slender spikes, axillary, and ter- but from about three or four inches to six minating; composed of little, opposite, feet or more from the ground is pracmany-flowered, crowded racemes ; co- tised. To have dwarf trees for walls, and rolla coriaceous, scarcely longer than espaliers, &c. they must be budded from
within, about three to six inches from wet may pass off, and not enter into the