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hasta discriminare crines, est ferro ornatum capitis præferre, ut robur etiam in capillo vigeret, et virtus capitis esset in arce; sanguine illa gladiatoris præstabat occisi, fortasse ut contentiones ac jurgia antequam inirent sponsalia mulier litigiosa jugularet, utpote conjugio indigna: sanguis in ferro parit æruginem ferrumque debilitat, et contentiones mulierum viros fortissimos domi militiæque enervant, ut hebetes ac fatui delirent, quod ut scirent, capiti hastam apponebant ærugine infectam : HASTA MARTIS EST INSIGNE, REGIUMQUE APUD ROMANOS SCEPTRUM, EAMQUE MULIER PRÆFEREBAT IN CAPITE, UT VIRI DOMINIUM AGNOSCERET : crines deinde cogitationes referunt, uti Euthymius docet, ideo mulier recogitet dominum esse virum, illumque eximia veneratione prosequatur.”

6 Acus ad illa comæ discrimina, seu, quod hic dicitur, dis jeté Onxe xóunv, bis_comam disposuit, hasta nomine alibi ab eodem Nasone dicta, Fast. L. 3. v. 350:quæ, ut ibidem adnotarunt viri docti, celibaris hasta ap. Festum, Copátio autem ap. Plutarch, in Quæst. Roman. dicitur,” E. Spanhemii Obs. in Hymn. in Pall. on v. 22. Gesner in his Thes. Ling. Lat. cites the passage of Festus Pompeius, and of Ovid under Cælibaris, and adds : “ Arnob. 2. p. 91.

Nubentium crinem cælibari hasta mulcetis : vid. Brisson. de Ritu Ņuptial. p. 218.” « Omnes quidem mulieres crinem a fronte dividebant discriminali acu, etiam illæ, quæ operosius ornabantur ; et hoc discrimine mulieres a virginibus distinguebantur ; nam virgines cirratæ, mulieres cum crinibus erant, iisque a fronte divisis : Tertullian. de Virginibus Velandis, Simulque se mulieres intellexerunt, vertunt capillum, et acu lasciviore comam sibi inserunt, crinibus a fronte divisis, apertam professæ mulieritatem,Salmasius's Plin. Exer. in C. J. Sol. Polyh. p. 534. Hence then I consider the words, εξουσίαν έχειν επί της κεφαλής, not to allude to veils, ας α badge of subjection (and I must confess that, if courlar can mean a covering at all, I greatly doubt whether the words ovo lav čxel ÉTà tñs xedaañs can possibly mean to wear a veil, which was not worn upon the head, and I think that we are to understand a cap, a bonnet, or the hair upon the head), but to allude to this spear (hasta recurva, or cælibaris), which was worn upon the head of the married woman (and let it be recollected that St. Paul is speaking of the WIFE), as a badge of submission. If we are to understand, by the words εξουσίαν έχειν επί της κεφαλής, the hair upon the head, my interpretation accords precisely with this remark; for the Apostle says, in fact, that as woman is inferior to man, she ought to bear upon her head the mark of her inferiority to her husband in wearing her hair, which he has beautifully expressed by an allusion to the spear, which bound the hair of the Roman brides, and to the principle, which it was intended to inculcate.

A writer in the CLASSICAL JOURNAL, No. 1. p. 100. (who, however, understands this verse in a different sense) has appealed to the Germ. of Tac. c. 39. for an analogous instance, Est et alia luco reverentia : nemd, nisi vinculo ligatus, ingreditur, ut minor et potestatem numinis præ se ferens : si forte prolapsus est, attolli et insurgere haud licitum: per humum evolvuntur, eoque omnis superstitio respicit, tanquam inde initia gentis, ibi regnator omnium deus, cetera subjecta atque parentia. In the 3d No. of the Class. JOURN. I made some remarks upon this mention of a rope as an emblem of submission, and cited the following passage, (relative to the Catti) from the 32d c. of the same treatise, Fortissimus quisque ferreum insuper anulum (ignominiosum id genti) velut vinculum gestat, donec se cæde hostis absolvat. As Lord Woodhouselee justly observed to me in a letter, “ it might have been remarked, from the proofs given of the ring being accounted a badge of slavery, that the custom of marrying with a ring originated among nations in that state of rude manners, where the wife was considered in the same light as a slave, the absolute property and bondswoman of the husband.”

E. H. BARKER.
Tooke's Court.

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Sequel to Sir William Drummond's Essay on the Inscriptions

found at Saguntum.

NO. II.

Mariana's Account of the Biscayan Tongue. Todos

odos los Espanoles en este tiempo, y usan de una lengua comun, que llamamos Castellana, compuesta de avenida de muchas lenguas, en particular de la Latina corrupta: de que es argumento el nombre que tiene, porque tambien se llama Romance, y la afinidad con ella tan grande, que lo que no es dado aun a la lengua Italiana juntamente, y con las mismas palabras, y contexto se puede hablar Latin

у
Castellano, assi en prosa, como en verso.

Los Portugueses tienen su particular lengua, mezclada de la Francesa y Castellana, gustoso para el oydo y elegante. Los Valencianos otrosi y Catalanes usan de su lengua, que es muy semejante a la de Lenguadoc en Francia, o lenguaje Narbonense, de donde aquella nation y gente tuvo su origen : y es assi, que ordinaria mente de los lugares comarcanos, y de los con quien se tiene comercio, se pegan algunos vocablos y algunas costumbres. Solos

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los Viscaynos conservan hasta oy su lenguaje grosero y barbaro, y que no recibe elegancia, y es muy diferente de los demas, y es mas antiguo de Espana, y comun antiguamente de todo ella, segun algunos lo sienten : y se dize que toda Espana usò de la lengua Vizcayna, antes que en estas Provincias entrassen las armas de los Romanos, y con ellas se les pegasse su lengua, Anaden, que como era aquella gente de suo grosera, feroz y agreste, la qual trasplantada a manera de arboles, con la bondad de la tierra se ablanda y mejora, y por ser inaccessibles los montes donde mora, ò nunca recibiò del todo el yugo del imperio estrangero, ò le sacudiò muy presto. Ni carece de provabilidad, que con la antigua libertad se aya alli conservado la lengua Antigua, y comun de toda la Provincia de Espana. Otros sienten de otra manera, y al contrario dizen, que la lengua Vizcayna siempre fue particular de aquella parte, y no comun de todo Espana. Muevense a dezir esto por testimonio de autores antiguos que dizen los vocablos Vizcaynos, especialmente de los lugares y pueblos, eran mas duros y barbaros

que

los demas de Espana, y que no se podian reduzir a declinacion Latina. En particular Estrabon testifica, que no un genero de letras, ni una lengua era comun a toda Espana. Confirman esto mismo los nombres briga, pueblo; cetra, escudo ; falarica, lança; gurdus, gordo; cusculia, coscoja; lancia, lança ; vepio, caida; buteo, cierta ave de rapina ; necy por el dios Marte ; con otras muchas dicciones, que fueron antiguamente proprias de la lengua de los Espanoles, segun que se prueva por la autoridad y testimonio de autores gravissimos, y aun algunas dellas passaron sin duda de la Espanola a la lengua Latina: de las quales dicciones todas no se halla rastro alguno en la lengua Vizcayna : lo qual muestra que la lengua Vizcayna no fue la que usava communmente Espana. No negamos empero aya sido una de las muchas lenguas que en Espana se usavan antiguamente, y tenian. Solo pretendemos, que no era comuna toda ella. La qual opinion no queremos ni confirmarla mas a la larga, ni seria a proposito del intento que llevamos, detenernos mas en esto.

If the cautious reader contest the assertions of Bochart, a mere modern, as to the identity of the Punic, Hebrew, and the earliest Chaldee, he will, I hope, yield to the express and the authoritative, testimony of a St. Jerome, and a St. Austin, the former a translator of the Hebrew Scriptures, and the latter a bishop of Hippo, near Carthage. Jerome asserts in the seventh chapter of Isaiah, in the 25th of Jeremiah, in the Galatians at the end, and in the 36th of Genesis : “ Lingua Punica ab Hebræis fontibus manavit : Hebrææ magnâ ex parte confinis est: penè omnia Hebræa Punicæ linguæ consona : Punica Hebrææ contermina est.”

Št. Austin repeats the assertion : « Istæ linguæ non multùm inter se differunt: permulta Hebræa, et penè omnia, Punicæ consonæ linguæ; cognatæ quippe sunt linguæ istæ et vicinæ : istæ

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peo

enim linguæ sibi significationis quâdam vicinitate sociantur : in Punicâ multa invenimus'Hebræis consonantia verbis.” Priscian also in the fifth book confirms their similarity : “ Lingua Poenorum Chaldææ vel Hebrææ similis.” Adelung adds: “ The first ple known in Europe were the Iberians, or Cantabrians, who established themselves in the south of Gaul, in a portion of Italy, and particularly in a portion of the two Spains. The Basque, which is a mixture of Latin, Mäso Goth, German, [and I add Celtic,] contains the remains of the Ibernian language.

An excellent Spanish scholar, long a resident in Catalonia, concludes, in his letter to me, upon Llarramedi's Grammar, Lloyd's Basque words, and upon the above very imperfect Essay: « It will be expedient, first to discover the analogy between Welsh and Biscayan words, previous to examining their mutual conjugations and declensions, (which, obviously to a Hebrew scholar, and to a philologist, betray a similarity in the two grammars.] A few words, nouns, and verbs, may certainly be traced in Celtic and in the Basque. Yet I conceive the Basque to be as far asunder from , the Celtic, as the modern Persian from the modern English: (and from a similar cause, the ancient juxta-position of the two tribes, and their distance for the past 3000 years.] The old Persian was the old Gothic."

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CONCERNING THE SHIELD OF ACHILLES.

TO THE EDITOR OF THE CLASSICAL JOURNAL.

1

Sir, It has been remarked by Mr. Bryant, that the central part of the Shield of Achilles, as it is described by Homer in the Eighteenth Book of the Iliad, was a map of the earth and of the celestial appearances; and that the poet copied his description of it from models which he had seen in Egypt.' There can be no doubt, that representations of the celestial bodies, the earth, and the ocean, were frequently exhibited in Egypt and in Asia, not only on painted and sculptured walls, but on the dress and ornaments both of Deities and mortals. Besides the remarkable examples cited by Mr. Bryant, a few others may be mentioned. The image of Amon with the head and horns of a ram, and with the horns of a goat also, surmounted by a disk, and with a blue robe over the shoulders, was nothing else than an astronomical symbol.? On the garment and dress of Isis the celestial bodies were represented ; 3 and the twelve signs of the zodiac were

3

2 Panth. Ægypt.

* Anc. Mythol. Vol. ii.

3 Apul. Met. L, xi,

depicted on the robe of the Syrian Goddess. Even the dress of the High Priest of the Jews seems to have been formed with a reference to the universal system; since the elements, the sun, the moon and the constellations, were typified by the materials of which it was composed, and by the ornaments with which it was adorned.”

The objects, which Vulcan engraved in the central part of the Shield of Achilles, are described by Homer—II. £. v. 483. The learned reader will of course consult the original ; and the English reader will, perhaps, excuse the following translation, since it is necessary for my purpose, that the sense be given as truly, if not as literally, as possible.

In it he formed the earth, the heavens, the sea,
The sun unwearied, and the moon at full,
And all the starry signs that crown the sky,
The Pleiades, the Hyades, the strong
Orion, and the Bear, else called the Wain,
That round its centre in its sphere revolves,
That still observes Orion in his course,
And is the sole of all the circling signs,

That never in the waves of ocean bathes. It is evident, then, as Mr. Bryant says, that the central part of the shield represented a map of the earth, and of the celestial appearances; and I shall have occasion to show, that it was probably copied from an Egyptian model.

From the time of Aristotle to the present, the critics have asked, how Homer could assert, that the Wain was the only constellation which never bathed itself in the ocean, or in other words, which never descended below the horizon ? Aristotle says, that the poet put the Wain, by a figure of Speech, for all the constellations which never set, as being the most remarkable.3 Crates reads ojos for oin; but Strabo vindicates the text, and understands, that by the Bear Homer meant the whole Arctic circle. I confess, that these explanations do not appear to me to be very satisfactory.

The constellations, which never set, even in part, in the latitude of Troy, are Cepheus, Draco, Ursa Minor, and the seven stars of Ursa Major, which properly form the Wain, and which alone the poet appears to have indicated in the passage cited above. These constellations likewise never set in Attica, or in the Peloponnesus, with the exception, perhaps, of the star , in the Wain. How, then, could Homer tell the Greeks, that the Wain is the only constellation which never sinks below the horizon ?

One method of solving this difficulty is generally proposed and followed. It is pretended, that the Great Bear was the only Arctic constellation, with which the Greeks were acquainted in the days of Homer. But the Greeks were no strangers to the celestial signs in the time of the Argonauts. Some say that they were instructed in the knowledge of the sphere by Hercules ;' and others hold, that they

1 Bellor. De Deæ Syr. imag. &c.
2 Clem. Alex. Strom. L. v. Joseph. Antiq. Jud. L. iii.
3 Poëtic. L. i.

4 L, i.

5 Diodor. Sicul.

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