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so far from contradicting one another, they all, except Wood, who follows Strabo, agree in their description of the most remarkable places in the Troad, and in placing the site of Troy, near the spot where Chevalier and Morritt found its remains. Sandys, Pococke, and Dr. Chandler, at once hail the appearance of the tombs of Patroclus, Achilles, and Ajax. They were not able to examine the plain very minutely, but they supposed the ancient city to have been situated in the plain before them. Subsequent travellers, Dr. Sibthorpe and Mr. Hawkins, have stated Chevalier's theory to be plausible, and, upon the whole, think his' topography correct. They also perceived the tumuli and vestiges of ancient Troy. This “farrago of contradiction, misrepresentation, and inaccuracy then proves to be, that these accounts differ in a few slight points, of no importance, such as the beds of the Simois and Scamander, &c. and agree in all the great leading features, which establish the truth of the general system.
I have already, Sir, occupied your Journal to so great à length, that I cannot enter into all the arguments brought forward to prove that the Trojan war was an Egyptian story. I shall therefore make only this observation : Brent says, the system which he defends, is founded on an old tradition. If traditions, therefore, are to be received as good evidence on the one side, they ought also to be received on the other. And, in almost every nation, there has been found some tradition connected with the Trojan war. In Greece there were many, in Asia, in Egypt, in Carthage, in Rome, and in Britain.2 The names of the Grecian chieftains may also be derived from Egyptian dialects, without in the least aiding Mr. Bryant's hypothesis : for as we know that great part of Greece was colonised by Egyptians, we may very naturally suppose they brought their names along with them.
Considering then, upon the whole, the strong presumptive evidence in favor of Homer's veracity, the connection of the war of 'Troy with the earliest history of Greece, the various traditions which exist concerning it, and the present state of the Troad, I have no hesitation in pronouncing Mr. Bryant's liypothesis to be just as improbable and extraordinary as Dr. Bentley's theory mentioned by Brent. And although there are many other arguments which I might have used with advantage, yet I have already drawn this paper to so great .' a length, that I should be inexcusable if I occupied the time of your readers longer, and I therefore sign myself
Your most obedient, &c.
1 The names of Dr. Dallaway and Mr. Liston, our ambassador at the Porte, may also be added. Mr. Liston not only observed the tumuli mentioned by Chevalier, but also discovered a hollow which went round the supposed site.
? In a late Number of the Classical Journal, mention is made of an account found in some Oriental Manuscript, anterior in date to the supposed time of Homer, of the Trojan war.
Vol. VI. No. XI.
'TO THE EDITOR OF THE CLASSICAL JOURNAL. SIR, OBSERVING in the Classical JOURNAL, No. vir. p. 125. some inquiries concerning the difficult text of Scripture, Gen. xxxvi. 24. I have anxiously looked for some observations on this subject from some of your learned correspondents; and I hope I shall not long be disappointed. In the mean time, I beg leave to send you a few cursory remarks, which may, in some small degree, be acceptable to your correspondent, J. H.M.S. Gen. xxxvi. 24.
הוּא עֲכָה אֲשֶׁר מָצָא אֶת־הַיָּמִם בַּמִּדְבָּר בַּרְעתוֹ אֶת הַחֲמֹרִים לְצִבְעוֹן אָבִיו.
which is thus rendered by Montanus and Pagninus ; “ hic Hanah, qui invenit mulos in deserto, in pascendo illum (cum pasceret. Pag.), asinos Siblon patris sui ;” or, this (is) Hanah, who found the mules in the wilderness, as he fed (or, when he fed) the asses of Sibhon his father. But, considering gh to be the true power of y, and ts that of 3; and the 3. prefixed to Tyy, as indicative of the genitive, and not of the dative case ; the most literal rendering of the Hebrew, according to the more common received opinion of the signification of the word op', would then be, He is that) Ghanah, who found (ha-yemim, or Jemim,) the mules, in the wilderness, as he fed the asses of Tsibghon his father.
In the versions of Mont. and Pag. the g of y, and the t of 3, being omitted, they read Hanah and Sibhon, rendering the y of the last name by h. The English Translators give the same sense as the above; but, rendering the y by A, say Anah ; and the 3 by Z, considering its power to be tz, as in the 119th Psalm, and dropping the t, say Zibeon, translating the y in this last word by e.
The Septuagint renders ούτός έστιν 'Aνα δς εύρε τον Ιαμείν εν τη ερήμω ότε ένεμε τα υποζύγια Σεβεγων του πατρός αυτού-or, this is Ana who found Tòv 'Icepein in the wilderness when he fed the asses of Sebegon his father : rendering y by A, in Anah; and by g in Tsibghon; and omitting the t of y; therefore, for D?', Jemim,
1; the Hebrew word more commonly rendered mules, with its prefixed 7, the LXX. have to 'Iapeiv, considering it as a proper name, in the masculine gender, and accusative singular; which, if the genuine reading of these interpreters, and if a mule was 60 named in their days, would read the Iamein, (or Jamein,) or, the mule : importing that this Anah found a male mule in the wilderness, and, most probably, the son of a horse by a she-ass. And it is probable, that this is the true meaning of this passage, and that this was the first mule ever seen, and that he was found by him by accident, according to the generally received sense of the word '89, matsa, rendered found.
As the word 'Ieper is given by them as a proper name, it may be believed to be undeclinable in Greek, as other foreign proper names ; as Axßio, ’laxwß, &c. And, it may be here observed,
in the word 'Iaxwß, in the 6th verse of this chapter, the la is the rendering of the Hebrew jod, so also may the la of 'Ixuelv be that of the jod of O'; and the pa might be very naturally translated usiv, 'preferring the final , instead of y, as being more
M expressive of a singular noun, and agreeing with the termination of some Greek nouns in their accusative cases, which case the LXX. seem to have wished to express in this place, as seems probable from the masculine article here used being in the accu
Is not the Hebrew word, ba', a compound word, forming a
name for the first creature of this kind produced, as at its first appearance ? And may not the following etymology be adopted? Or, is it not thus formed, namely: of', jod, as either formative of the proper name, or as the representative of 78', formavit, &c.; or rather of its derivative D'is', Jetsurim, linea
or features ; of the particle a, ab, or from ; and of ON, mater, or mother ;-importing that the mule, or new animal, found by Anah; being most probably the offspring of a she-ass from the junction of a horse, and who would, therefore, more particularly bear the lineaments of his mother, was thus remarkably distinguished as the son of his mother; or as exhibiting the most striking resemblance of the asinine species ; and he had no legitimate father, according to the original appointment of God, and his laws afterwards communicated to the Jews; it having been always considered as confusion and abomination to join animals of different kinds. And the Jews were not even permitted to yoke two animals together of different kinds for common labor.
That it was considered as one animal, and a male, by the LXX. is evident from the Greek article being in the singular number and masculine gender ; and, that it was not a contrivance of Anah, may be believed, if
, according to many learned interpreters, you allow that sa means simply the direct finding of a thing existing, without study or contrivance to invent or produce it. “ pyp notat reperire quod jam est, non invenire ac excogitare id quod nondum est.”
Though the above opinion, that the mother was a she-ass, be
very generally entertained, and it is the most probable opinion, as they were asses which Anah fed,) it has been believed by some, that Anah only fed he-asses, and that, therefore, the new animals, or mules, were first produced from the junction of the ass and mare; but this opinion is alone supported by that of bán, chamor, being a masculine noun; which is not always the case, though it be more commonly of the masculine gender. The learned De la Haye observes, “ verum est in asinum et asinam significare, nomina enim generum et specierum animalium utrique sexui apud Hebræos conveniunt.” Anah, therefore, no doubt, fed his father's asses, male and female, and one of the latter might have strayed, without his knowledge, and accidentally met with a horse ; in which case, Anah might know nothing of the matter, until by chance he found a mule, a Jemim or Jamein, or a ýurovov, already produced.
Indeed, the junction of an ass with a mare would have also produced a mule, though the asinine features would not, most probably, have been so strongly marked ; and they were asses which Anah fed, among which he perhaps found the mule. And though it may not be believed, with Michaelis,' that no horses then existed in that country; yet, it is very probable, very few were kept there at that early period; but the fewer in number, the more likely was it such an improper junction should take place.
That the Hebrew word as (without a second ") now found in the text, is genuine, seems highly probable ; or, perhaps it was pronounced Jamem, or Jameim, originally, and in the days of the LXX., and afterwards, or until the Jewish Targumists, Jonathan, and others, had settled it as their opinion, that it was a plural word, and its correct reading Jemim ; and it then followed, that a second jod was either to be understood or inserted. And hence, probably, the wavering of Aquila, who seems to have at first considered it as a singular word, after the Septuagint ; and afterwards as a plural. And, as the Jewish opinion was very generally followed, it may
be thus accounted for why the restorers of the text of Aquila prefer the latter; and also, why so many MSS. found with a second jod inserted, as in Kennicott, De Rossi, &c.
De Rossi, after mentioning that many MSS. of Kennicott, and of his own, almost all the German, with Sonc. Bibl. read the word fully with the second jod, though all these may have thus followed the Jews, observes, « Meorum unus legit præterea per patach D24T Ajamim,” &c.; and further, “ Jamim per patach legerunt LXX. Aquila, Symmachus, Theodotion in Hexaplis, et Hieronymus. At vero apud Hieronymum Aq. et Sym. 'Euiu,"
i See Sup. ad Lex. Heb.
&c. And he says, that two of his codices of the Targums read 1977) mulos ; that R. Parchon rendered mules, then Kimhi, and from him most Lexicographers. De Rossi renders, “ thermas," .vid. App. x. Vol. iv.
According to Drusius, in Crit. Sacr. Aquila at first rendered Où tu ciuelu.' rendering the Hebrew particle nx by own, with, and do in the singular number, and no doubt with the masculine article, and according to the most usual regimen of the Greek preposition ; and had he considered the Hebrew particle only as the sign of the accusative, he would doubtless have followed the Septuagint by rendering in the accusative singular, and with the masculine article ; he afterwards, according to Hieron. as quoted by the same learned man, rendered toùs iapeise in the plur. accus. mas.; and was followed by Symmachus, who also rendered Toùç iausiu. and Theodotion afterwards restored the reading of the LXX. rendering toy izuzlu with them, as thus witnessed by Hieronymus : “ Septuaginta vero et Theodotio æqualiter transtulerunt τον ιαμείν.”
It has been believed by many, that the LXX. endeavoured to retain the Hebrew word in Greek. And this they seem to have done, and with as little deviation as might be expected; which is a presumptive proof that the Hebrew word op was then considered as a proper name. And Hieronymus having mentioned the opinion of some, that Anah had admitted wild asses to the others, &c. “ut velocissimi ex his asini nascerentur,” adds, “ qui vocantur Jamim,” ib. So that mules, thus begotten, were called Jamim in the days of Jerome. And as he is now speaking in the plural number, and conceived the Hebrew word to be plural also, the name thus expressed must be considered as plural; and it may have been differently pronounced in the singular ; and probably, as the LXX. wrote it. Or, may it be considered as an indeclinable word, and as being the same in the singular and plural? If so, still the gender, number, and case of the Greek article, clearly point out those of the Hebrew word, according to the opinion of the Greek translators.
This was a new animal, unknown before, and therefore required a name, and a name descriptive of his origin would, most probably, be, providentially, given to him; as it was intended to be mentioned in the canon of Scripture, and therefore to be afterwards understood by the Jewish nation. And what name could more significantly point out to them the irregularity of his geniture, so contrary to the divine law communicated to them in the same, than ba', according to the etymology above given ?
That the Hebrew word op', Jemim, (without a second jod) now found in the text, is genuine ; and that the rendering of the LXX. is so also, and even more correct than their general manner
1 An erroneous r.