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Viserat, aut gelidas Ponus superaverat Alpes.
Ille per extremos casus, per mille pericla,
Per superas cautes, et saxa minantia cælo
Usque operâ infractus vigili, exsomnique labore
Duxerat oppressas armis studiisque catervas,
Spe famæ obfirmans, palmæque instantis honorum
Ingentes animos, oblitaque pectora curæ.

Senserat hujus opem, et morenti dulce levamen,
Præsentemque

malis sibi Lusitania dextram ; Senserat hunc, socium curarum, heu ! non ita quondam Pressa gravi fato, et duris exercita rebus, Nunc tamen et solio penitùs concussa vetusto Informemque humili prolapsa in pulvere vultum.

Quid memorem, Angliacis quantas stipata carinis
Unda Tagi, aurifero turmas exceperit alveo;
Quid, grave subsidium armorum, et ductore Britanno
Vim populi accensam, et dubii certaminis usu
Firmatam assiduo, et certâ sub lege coactam?
Quid, toties fædâ in latis hostilia campis
Terga fugâ conversa, et multo undantia tabo
Flumina, et effusos socio sub milite Gallos ?

Nec minimos felix victoria fudit honores,
Cùm firmo Augustæ nuper sub menia gressu
(Mania Cæsareis olim lustrata trophæis)
Grande propinquabat conjunctis viribus agmen
Magna sonans ventura ; hîc crebris turgida nimbis
Flumina volvit Anas, et turbine fervet aquarum.
Hic opera obsidii positis acerrima castris
Instituunt, vallisque parant, atque aggere facto
Claudere, et ignivomis muros diffringere telis.
Ipse inter primas acies, ingentia cauto
Bella parans studio, ante alios solertior omnes,
Dux Britonum assiduis variisque laboribus instat:
Et vires adhibet, firmatque animosa piorum
Pectora: fervet opus, furit excitus ardor in hostes.

Eheu! ter miseri, quos intra moenia septos
Ista coarctabat constricto limite sedes !
Nam neque quà fugerent data porta, neque ulla salutis
Spes fuit, at passim hostili circumdata turma
Limina, vi densâ armorum, ferroque minaci
Exagitant animos, et ineluctabile fatum
Desuper horrificis pendens immurmurat iris.

Quid facerent ? quà tanto ausint discrimine rerum. Vertier? binc premit ægra fames, hinc ferrea cuspis Stat minitans mortem, cædis præsaga

futuræ. Plurima tum lethi ante oculos feralis imago Transvolitat miserorum, et pallida volvit Erinnys Purpuream frontem, et foedatos sanguine crines.

Jamque dies horrenda aderat: tormenta parari, Magnaque vis armorum et plurima machina Martis.

:

Continuò effusi telis rutilantibus ignes,
Et totam immensis quassantia molibus urbem
Ingruere, et fracto subvecta tonitrua cælo.
Nec mora, vi rumpunt aditus, avidique domorum
Tecta tenent; alii insiliunt, et cuspide nudâ
Limina ubique premunt, alii devolvere portas
Acriter, et mediam properant irrumpere in arcem.
Audiri hinc lacrymæ, gemitusque et pluríma circùm
Lamenta, et queruli patientûm extrema dolores.
Undique clarescunt sonitus, et crebra labantûm
Murmura tectorum, cælumque et turbidus æther
Ingemit, et reboant humiles sub montibus umbræ ;
Nec graviora sonans latrantibus Ætna cavernis
Sulphureo eructat liquefactas gurgite flammas
Cum gemitu agglomerans ; neque tu magis horrida quondam
Attonito, Calpe, dederas spectacula mundo.

Acta fragore novo, et tristi concussa tumultu
Littora Panorum misceri, et maximus Atlas
Piniferum caput, et nenorosa cacumina nutat:
Flamma Ægyptiacas ardens illuminat oras,
Et fluitant agitata sono trepida ostia Nili.
Sola cavos montes, desertaque longa peragrans
Insolitum audierat mirans lupa sæva fragorem;
Audierat speluncam intrà, nemorumque recessus
Acrior, et catulis admoverat ubera tigris.
Nec frustra hic tantus telorum increbuit imber,
Nec patriæ Hesperiis leges tutantibus armis
Gloriam et emeritos victoria læta triumphos
Invidet, at duplici nectit florentia serto
Tempora, et æquali victores laude coronat.

Quin verò hæc inter felicis gaudia palmæ,
Et tantis meritò præcordia debita factis,
Non sileam, quos ista dies extrema cruento
Funere, dum primo sub vere nitesceret ætas,
Abstulerit, claudens lethali lumina somno.
Atque utinam aut lacrymæ lamentaque sacra piorum,
Aut patriæ gemitus tacito sub funere sensus
Mulceat, atque animas quadam dulcedine tangat.
Namque omnes requiem mærentes voce precamur
Unanimi, et placidâ compôstos sede sepulcri
Flemus adhuc, magnæ menores virtutis, et ultrò
Projectæ ob patriam, et domitæ per vulnera vitæ.

Sic homini abripitur spes omnis, et inscia vanis
Pectora lactantur studiis ; sic mista cupresso
Laurea crebra dolet, sic toto quicquid in orbe est
Volvitur in præceps, et cæco turbine nutat.
Sed vestrum nomenque ingens, et splendida vivent
Facta nepotum animo, et proles ventura parentûm
Subvectam ediscet meritis super

æthera famam. Tuque adeò, tantà de cæde egressa superstes,

Et patriæ testata decus, laudemque tuorum,
Macte esto virtute animi, macte inclyta semper
Armorum studiis belloque invicta juventus.
Egregia, ut quondam, veterisque haud immemor ævi,
Exoriare iterùm, solitasque resumere vires
Usque juvet, cinctamque novis incedere palmis.
Ergò tuâ excultus curâ sub vomere campus.
Assiduo ridebit adhuc, et pinguis aristâ
Flaventi, et gravido messis cadet aurea culmo.
Ergò iterùm dulci turgens vindemia fætu
Autumni roseos redolebit sole racemos;
Et tutas placidi secura per otia ruris
Pastor aget pecudes, lætoque incumbet ovili
Gaudens, et tenerâ renovabit arundine carmen.
Ergò et fida tibi, et præsens socialibus armis
Anglia perpetuam sese.conjunget amicam,
Consilio et potiore vigens, et vindice dextrâ,
Jura negata diu, et veteres renovabit honores.

REMARKS ON THE EXISTENCE OF TROY.

TO THE EDITOR OF THE CLASSICAL JOURNAL.

SIR, INROLLED mder the banners of Bryant, and protected, as he seems to think, by that name, your correspondent Brent has attempted to rekindle that controversy which once inflamed the literary world. The task Mr. Bryant had undertaken was difficult, and new. To persuade men, that they had for ages given credence to what was a mere poetical fiction; to induce them at once to shake off those prejudices, endeared to them by early associations ; and without endangering their reliance on historical testimony, to prove, what had all along been considered as a historical event, immortalised by the poet, who records it, untrue ; was an attempt fit only for the ingenuity, the learning, and the authority of Bryant.—But able men often indulge in idle speculations, of which their very genius is the cause: it leads them to despise the common road, to find out a path untrod before, and when they perceive the semblance of reality, to pursue it with so much eagerness and vigor, that at last they think they have found the substance, when in fact they have only got the shadow.

Dat inania verba ; Dat sine mente sonum, gressusque effingit euntis. Such, without meaning to detract from Mr. Bryant's merit, is my opinion of his share in this controversy, and, although Brent has roundly asserted, that his arguments remain unanswered, there are few besides himself, I am convinced, who after reading Mr. Morritt's paper would join him in that assertion; a paper, which displays as much research and learning, as ingenuity and ability in argument.

I am far from wishing to prevent inquiry into any subject, the legitimate discussion of which might tend to improvement in science, or to farther discovery: but I disapprove that restlessness of mind, which seizes with avidity every new theory, and will rather rake up the embers of expiring controversy, and fill the world anew with useless contention, than for a moment allow itself to remain inactive. With how much more advantage to mankind, and to himself, might that learning and time have been employed, that Mr. Bryant devoted to the consideration and discussion of a question, which, however curious in itself, as ascertaining the degree of credit to be bestowed on early writers, is of no more consequence to the elucidation of history, than if he had attempted to prove that the Myrmidons of Achilles were not in reality sprung from ants. As it was brought before the public, it would have been no small reproach to the classical lovers of antiquity, if they had allowed such an attack upon their choicest veteran to pass unnoticed and unanswered. Mr. Morritt accordingly appeared, in “ vindication of Homer, and of the ancient poets, and historians, who have recorded the siege and fall of Troy.” Mr. Bryant replied, and from that time the controversy slept, till Brent in your last number again brought it forward. On the arguments which he has used, I now beg leave to make the following observations.

Brent begins, following the footsteps of Mr. Bryant, by urging "the strong improbability that the states of Greece, in that rude and helpless state of society, should have been able to collect, equip, transport, and maintain abroad, for so many years, an armament exceeding in force any that they could draw together several centuries afterwards, on far more momentous occasions.”—It is impossible to reason speculatively on such a subject: as, at first view, this argument appears almost convincing. Its plausibility, however, is materially lessened upon

a closer inspection, and when tried by the test of historical experience, it is totally overthrown. For we have many instances in later periods, of barbarians far more rude and savage, than we have any reason to believe the Grecians were at the time of the Trojan war, emanating from the Northern regions, and pouring down in multitudes which astonished mankind, upon the more fertile countries in the South. Nor are we to be told, that these swarms issued from territories more extensive, or from states more populous than Greece; the fact being, in a certain degree, directly the reverse. For that part of Northern Germany, and of Gaul, possessed by the tribes who at different times attacked the Roman Empire, was overrun with forests and morasses so immense, that their remains are visible even at the present day : the extent of habitable land must therefore necessarily have been very small ;'and, if the Cimbri and Teutones, single tribes of Germany, could, whilst in that state of barbarity, collect such numerous armies; why are we to think that Greece, one of the most fertile and luxuriant countries in the world, was not able, by her greatest efforts, to bring into the field 100,000 men ? Besides, the increase of population in countries as far south as Greece, is in a degree of nearly six to one, greater than that in the north of Europe; and allowing a little for poetical licence, it is neither incredible nor improbable, that at a period, when every man's profession was arms, such an army might be collected. Thucydides, on whose authority great reliance may be placed, tells us, that it was within the bounds of probability, though he adds, a poet would go to the utmost of current reports.—Lib. I. cap. 10.

The equipment of this armament will not, upon consideration, appear to have been so great an exertion of national prosperity as Brent thinks it. The fleet consisted of about 1200 open vessels, containing from 50 to 120 men each,' and every vessel must have been in requisition, to transport the army. The Grecians were, from their situation, naturally obliged to turn their attention to naval affairs, as well to protect themselves from the attacks of foreign foes, as to carry on the commerce they had with the Phænician' and other nations; and the constant piratical expeditions which they undertook against one another, and against the islands in the Ægean Sea, a mode of warfare as honorable then, as it was common, were all circumstances, which conspired to render the equipment of this force a most easy task, perfectly reconcileable with our information as to the early ages of Greece. This would account for the size of the armament; but Brent does not conceive it possible, that a fleet of 1200 ships should, " at that period of civilization, have been procured," as "several centuries afterwards, when the Greeks were exposed to inevitable destruction, unless averted by the most vigorous resistance, their whole united fleet, after a long preparation, amounted only to 378 ships.Now this is not at all a fair statement, for although there is a great numerical difference, yet when the size of the ships, and the number of men they contained, is considered, the difference in value will scarcely appear. The ships used at the Trojan war were of every description collected to serve as transports, and held very few men. But in the other case, they were ships of war, gallies used only in battle, all of which had' as their complement 160 rowers, and from 40 to 50 soldiers :3 taking therefore, at an average, each ship to hold 200 men, which is less than the real number, the numbers of men at the battle of Salamis, to which Mr. Brent alludes, will stand thus :

378 gallies
200

men each

a

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75,600

There was also a land army whishe fought} -- 110,000 men

a

Making in all, an armed force of -- 185,600 men.

And this immense force, it must be remembered, was drawn not from the whole of Greece, but from parts of it only; For Herodotus says, Lib. XI. cap. 31. that there were about 50,000 Greeks or Macedon

i Homer. Iliad. Lib. II. 2 Thucydides. Lib. I. cap. 8.

3 Herodotus. Lib. VIII. Cap. 13.

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