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Observations on Mr. Patrick's Chart of Numerals.'



You will not impute the observations which I am about to make to a desire of detracting from your indefatigable correspondent, as I am fully sensible of the labor, which his Chart must have 'caused him, and of the thanks which he deserves, but to a wish of making some general animadversions on the barbarous manner, in which oriental words are rendered in Roman characters. Indeed I am acquainted with very few of the languages in question, and the few errors which I have discovered in some of these, I suppose to have been caused chiefly by words misplaced, which may be expected to be the case with so great a number. To pronounce some of Mr. Patrick's Arabic numerals were impossible; and here I will not contend for the origin of the diacritic vowels, but maintain, that without their aid, neither Arabic, Persic, nor Turkish can be pronounced. Many, nay most, MSS. it is true, have not them, but whether they are used or not, the acquisition of a correct pronunciation will be by no means impeded: for where -- occur, they are to be pronounced as long vowels,

and where they do not, and the es called istu by the Turks, is not used, a diacritic vowel is introduced, which vowel has nearly the same sound, whether we express it by a, e, i, o, or u; and for this reason, that the sound given to it is obscure, and not so full as that ofwngel wherefore orientalists most generally use the u, but whether lo be written mărā, měrä, mira, mõrā, můra, if that diacritic vowel be articulated indistinctly, the sound will be the same : hence it is that

fatha expresses either a ore, kesra either e or i, dhemma either o oru: No difficulty would therefore arise, if certain points were placed under those letters, which had a somewhat similar sound, if aa represented

and the long vowel were marked accordingly, and the

a E diacritic with the short sign. Iu rendering the Arabic character into the Roman, there is scarcely a more difficult task than to convert into the original letters, . what has been expressed in our characters. The Arabic night be more clearly written dol' āhhud for wegd, hn is a

athnān in his second specimen, as is hlth for evi thàlātă: rhbo is also the same as but the feminine of kumsa, which should be written khåmsăt, sheds and såttă are the same : hlsebo and såbbaa, mhnh and äritols thāmānēēt, tshgh and

j tåsaa, oshrand juis aashra, mhbh and Qulo māеēt are but the same words erroneously written ; in these I have conjectured, which gender would best suit Mr. Patrick's orthography, and many such observations might be made against the Hebrew and

dsly will perhaps approach the nearest to Mr. Patrick's word.

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and a

اثنان vitiated pronunciation for

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Arbaa, chems is اربع




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Observations on Mr. Patrick's Chart of Numerals. 219 the Chaldee. There is likewise a vast difference between the specimens of Æthiopic and those in Ludolf's grammar :

According to Ludolf, the following are the Æthiopic numerals of: åhhădu 1. 1087: kylyetu and 172: kylye 2. want: sálásytu and WAN: sylysy 3. Anot: arybāyytu and ናብዕ፡ rybyġġ 4. 700gt: klímysytu and 47001: khymysy 5. ስድስቱ: sydysytu and ስድስ፡ sydysy 6. ዕብOቱ፡ säbyati and ብዕ፡ sybbý,y 7. ht: samanytu and 11003: symyny 8. trot: tasyaštu and too: tysyy 9. OWG+: aasārytu and OXUS: yysyry 10. Cost: myyty 100. OWST: Cit::=:: 1000. Mr. Patrick also ምስቱ ፡ O፡ ሥስት = makes a mistake, when he writes ashoora as the Persian for ten, for it is the very Arabic word guis, which he has called ashra and oshr: sjes hăzār is the Persian for one thousand: vinsăti is the Sanskrita for 20, sătă for 100 and săhăsră for 1000: wil, is the Malāyoo for 100 or more usually cmölgun saratus and w, rēēbů for a thousand. The disagreement in the Chinese between Du Halde and Mr. Patrick is extraordinary, e. g. According to Du Halde, I 1,

eul 2, san 3, tsë 4, où 5, lû 6, isc 7, pa 8, kyew. 9, shê 10, pân 100, I-tsyen 1000 :

jo yuz is the 'Turkish for 100, and stars been for 1000. I do not observe here many of the dialects of the Sanskrita, but they may well be spared, on account of their affinity: however, the learned collector has fallen into one more error concerning the Hindoostānee, when he calls his specimen “Moors, Gipsey, or Hindustani ;” now it happens that the Moorrh is perfectly distinct from the Hindoostānee, and is vulgarly spoken in Bengal; sometimes indeed Mahratta MSS. are written in the Moorrh character, but as yet there are no types it. The Hindoostānee abounds with Arabic, Persian, and Sanskrita words, the numerals of which are various, and as I suppose that there are no Hindoostānee types in this country, Gilchrist's orthography will be adopted : 1 ek, yuk, wahid ; 2 dooa; 3 teen tree, sí, tiya trik, sulasu; 4 char, chuhar, urbu, chuok, chuoa, chutoor, chuoh, chutooh, gunda; 5 panch, punj, punju, punjree, gahee, ban, khums; 6 chhu, khut, shish, chhukka, chhuk; 7 sat, huft, subu; 8 ath, utha, husht; 9 nuo, nooh, tisou, nuoa; 10 dus, dih, ushur; 20 bees, bist, koree; 100 suo, sue, sud, suekhra, sut; 1000 huzar, ulf, suhusr. For a similar reason the English character will be used to contrast the Bengalee with those in the JOURNAL, 1 ek, 2 duhe, 3 tina, 4 thari, 5 pantha, 6 chhaya, 7 sata, 8 äta, 9 naya, 10 dasha, 20 bisha or visha, 100 sbata.



* There are other Æthiopic numerals e. g. POLT: kahhydy one, tih sýsn six, and 109: ylyfy ten thousand. Mr. Patrick mistook : sapuui second for a cardinal: not having an Amharic Lexicon, I am unable to give specimens in that dialect.


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The time that has intervened since the death of Dr. Raine, may enable us to appreciate his character more impartially, and less influenced by those poignant feelings, which so unexpected an event had called forth; but can scarcely have diminished the calm regret of his friends, or the interest of the public concerning him.

The temper of the present times is, perhaps, unfavorable for estimating properly the merits of such a man. The long period of war, and party conflict, has turned our attention so exclusively to military glory and political talent, that we neglect those unostentatious qualities, that dispense their utility in a less conspicuous sphere. Yet, surely, few stations are more important in society, than that to which is entrusted, on an extensive scale, the formation of the future statesman, warrior, and scholar. How Dr. Raine discharged this office, the testimony of all who were so fortunate as to be his pupils, will proclaim. His clear and comprehensive method of explaining every subject of instructions his attention to the peculiar disposition of every youth, and adaptation of the means most likely to influence it, have peshaps rarely been equalled, and can' scarcely be excelled. His manner united in a singular degree the alluring mildness of persuasion, with the imposing authority of instruction. The conduct of his scholars, and the literary distinctions they acquired at the universities, numerous in proportion to the size of the school, show the success that attended his exertions. But his care and attention to their welfare ceased not when they quitted his control, and he continued to be the friend, the adviser, and, where he could be, the patron, of all, who in maturer life sought and deserved it. His uniform and ardent attachment to civil and religious liberty never tempted him to influence the sentiments, or make the slightest allusion to those topics, in the presence of those entrusted to his care. But where there was no motive of delicacy to restrain, he seemed anxious to urge his younger friends, by the strongest arguments and exhortations, to political integrity and consistence. Even in the most unfavorable and disastrous periods he never shrunk from the manly and independent avowal of his opinions. Perhaps this might be attended by some sacrifice of interest and preferment; yet he was amply repaid by the satisfaction of an upright and independent mind; and has declared he knew no part of his own conduct, which, in declining life, he could view with more complacency than his uniform adherence to those tenets, which he considered most conducive to the preservą. tion of the constitution, and the welfare of his country,


In the intercourse of social life, he was cheerful, entertaining, and innocently convivial. It has been said, his conversation was somewhat tinged with the manner of the school-master. Perhaps this was the unavoidable effect of long habit; but there was nothing in it overbearing, pedantic, or dogmatical. His benevolence was conspicuous in the candor and kindness with which he spoke of the failings of others. Whenever he was heard to censure, or condemn, it was evidently the effect, not of hostility to the individual, but of virtuous indignation, bearing its dignified and fearless testimony against the faults or the vices it wished to discoun

No man that ever knew him was his enemy; some, indeed, who violently opposed his political or religious principles, might feel emotions of dislike or rancor ; but if ever they met in the intercourse of life, his urbanity and amiable qualities disarmed their enmity, and softened it into regret, that with such a man they could differ so widely.

His acquirements in Classical Literature were of the first rank. Though he has given nothing to the world, yet he devoted a part of his little leisure to the foundation of some works, which, if perfected in the retirement he was just on the point of enjoying, might materially have enriched the stores of Greek erudition and criticism.

This faint and inadequate outline has been delayed, in hope that some one better qualified for the task might have rendered its publication unnecessary.

As this has not been the case, the writer has only to regret, that the delineation of such a character has fallen to the lot of one, who never was his pupil, and but lately was honored with his friendship. Trin. Coll. Camb.

G. P.



The following observations on a passage in Æschylus, and two passages in Aristophanes, which are adduced by Mr. Porson in his Preface to the Hecuba, are much at your service, if you

think them worthy of being inserted in your Journal. Aug. 1. 1812.

P. E. I.Esch. ChoÉph, 654.

Είπες φιλόξενός έστιν Αιγίσθου βία. Cum Aldus et Robortellus ediderint Qinóžey" écriv, levi mutatione legendum Pinogim 'otiv. Fatendum est quidem Atticos hujusmodi nomina φιλοξένη . plerumque generum duorum communia facere. Non semper tamen hanc regulam servant veteres. PORSON. (p. ix.) None of the examples, which are produced by Mr. Porson, in this passage, and in his note oz

Med. 822. are sufficient to justify the use of notin in a tragic iambic, The feminine termination is peculiarly inadmissible in the present instance, as the Pret, by virtue of the σχήμα προς το σημαινόμενον, has taken the liberty of joining the words aicistou Biz, to a masculine adjecive in the same play. V. 893. Οι 'γω, τέθνηκας, Φίλτατ' Αιγίσθουν βία.

I venture to propose the following emendation of the verse in, question : Είπες φιλόξενος τις Αίγισθον βία.

This use of 715 is by no means uncommon, although it is not noticed, to the best of my knowledge, by the commentators on the Attic poets. I subjoin a few examples of it.

Esch. Prom. 695. Πρό γε στενάζεις, και φόβου πλία τις εί.
Soph. Αj. 1266. Φεύ, του θανόντος ως ταχεία τις βροτοίς.

Χάρις διαρρεϊ, και προδούσαλίσκεται.
There is some authority for rois Borois, but the common reading
appears to me to be preferable on every account.
Phil. 519.

“Ορα συ, μή νύν μέν τις ευχερής παρής. Eurip. Ιph. Aul. 1012. Κακός τις εστί, καί λίαν ταρβεί στρατόν. Ηel. 91.

Εατέος δ' ο πλούτος, έκδικός τις ών. Aristoph. Av. 924. 'Αλλά τις ωκεία μουσάων φάτις. Ibid. 1328.

Πάνυ γαρ βραδύς εστί τις, ώσπερ όνος.
II. Aristoph. Eq. 319.

Και νή Δία, καμέ τούτ' έδρασε ταυτόν, ώστε κατάγελων
Πάμπολυν τους δημόταισι και τους φίλοις παρασχέθει».

Πρίν γάρ είναι Περγασίσιν, ένεoν εν ταϊς εμβάσιν. This is the common reading. Kuster, in his notes, proposes the following emendation of the first verse :

Κάμε, νή Δία, τούτ' έδρασε ταυτόν, ώστε κατάγελων. Notwithstanding the dactyl in the second place, Brunck pronounces this emendation to be most certain, and has admitted it into his text. The Ravenna MS. reads :

Νή Δία, κάμε τούτ' έδρασε ταυτόν, ώστε κατάγελων.
Mr. Porson silently exhibits the following reading, p. xlix.

Καμε τούτ' έδρασε ταυτό, νή Δί', ώστε κατάγελων. In the second verse, Kuster reads, in his text, τοϊς δημόταις και τους φίλοις, which reading is adopted by Brunck. Kuster proposes, in his ποtes, τοϊς δημόταισι και φίλους. This reading is confirmed by the Ravenna MS. I suspect, that the true reading of these two verses is as follows : Κάμε, νή Δί', αυτό τούτ' έδρασεν, ώστε και γέλων

Πάμπολυν τους δημόταισι και φίλοις παρασχεθείν. In the first place, it appears to me, that αυτό τούτο, this very thing, agrees better with the preceding verses than TAUTÒ TOŪTo, the very same thing. Secondly, I have not been able to find any authority for the expression κατάγελων παρέχειν, to afford matter of laughter. In this sense, if I am not mistaken, the Attics always use γέλωτα or γέλων. On the other hand, ώστε και occurs frequently. So Ach. 143.

Υμών τ' εραστής ήν αληθώς, ώστε και

εν τoίσι τοίχοις έγραφ', 'Αθηναίοι καλοί. Νub. 613. "Ωστε και λέγειν άπαντας, έξιόντας εσπέρας,

Μή πείη, παϊ, δαδ', επειδή φώς σεληναίης καλόν.

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