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Sweet-flavored. Then again they turned the soil,
Eager to find the deep-traced furrow's end.
The ground though golden, wrought with wondrous art,
Appeared to blacken from behind the shares. The seventh month of the old, and the first month of the new Attie year, was called Hecatomibaon, and more anciently Kronion. According to Theophrastus, the Greeks were accustomed to plough in opposite seasons-after the Summer Solstice, in Metageitnion--and after the Winter Solstice, in Gamelion. But it is obvious, that Gamelion is improperly contrasted with Metageitnion. The Summer Solstice took place in Hecatombeon by the consent not only of Aristotle, already cited, but of Theophrastus himself;? and if we revert to the passage quoted from Dionysius, we shall find, that the Summer tropic accorded with the tenth day of the month. But twenty days of this month remained; and if the Greeks ploughed after each Solstice, as Theophrastus says, they must have ploughed in Gamelion and in Hecatombæon. The seventh picture represents people ploughing, and probably indicates the labors of the people in the seventh month of the old year. 8. Let us now consider the eighth picture. V. 550. Next in the shield he placed a field of corn,
Where with sharp sickles armed the peasants reaped.
Here sheaves in rows had fallen on the ground;
And there the binders girted the loose swarths.
Three binders came behind; and yet behind
The youthful gleaners of the field were seen,
Bearing their burdens in their out-stretched arms.
But in the midst the King in silence stood,
Holding his sceptre ; o'er the well-piled sheaves
Rejoicing in his heart. The Heralds here
Prepared a feast apart, under an oak,
And bound withal an ox for sacrifice ;
The reapers' supper there the women made,
White meal of many kinds, with water mixed. The eighth month of the old year was called Metageitnion. If the Greeks began to plough and to sow immediately after the tenth of Hecatombæon, they might reap before the end of Metageitnion. This will not appear extraordinary, when we consider the quickness of vegetation in Greece. Besides, the Greeks in the early ages, as Goguet has remarked, cut down the corn while yet green. But there are authorities of more consequence to our purpose. Fifteen days after the termination of the month Metageitnion, the Eleusinian Mysteries commenced:It seems reasonable to suppose, that the greater part of the corn would be cut down, in most seasons, a fortnight before the celebration of the mysteries drew the people from all quarters of Greece to Eleusis, for the purpose of adoring the Goddess of the harvest. But this will bring the time of the harvest withiu the mouth Metageitnion. It, therefore, appears to me, that the eighth picture was emblematical of the eighth month.
9. We now come to the ninth division.
V. 561. Here he engraved a vineyard fair of gold,
With grapes well laden. Silver props sustained
The black vine-branches; and a copper trench,
And palisade of tin, compassed the whole.
One single path there was, by which they passed,
Who in the vineyard at the vintage toiled.
There girls and boys, light-hearted, the sweet fruit
In woven baskets carried : in the midst
A youth on his sbrill lyre played pleasingly,
And charmed them as he sang with his soft voice
Most sweetly to the strings ; while beating time,
And all in unison, the circle round
Joined in the song, and followed in the dance. The ninth month of the old Attic year was Boedromion. It included part of August with part of September; and that it was the season for gathering grapes is consequently evident. On the twentieth day of Boedromion the image of Iacchus, or Bacchus, was borne in procession to Eleusis ;' and the God of wine was adored together with the parent of fruitful harvests. It was at this season, that the people carried green branches in honor of Bacchus ; that singing, and dancing, and sounding their cymbals, they followed the statue
of the God from Athens to Eleusis by the sacred way; and that at night, with flaming torches in their hands, they invited Jacchus to descend upon the plain, and to join them in the mystic dance.” I may now, perhaps, be permitted to say, that the ninth picture was descriptive of the ninth month. 10. The tenth partition is thus represented. V. 573. A herd of oxen next the artist framed
With horns erect; of gold and tin inlaid ;
But from their stalls the lowing cattle rushed,
And sought their place of pasture by a stream,
That murmuring ran, impetuous, through the reeds.
Four golden herdsmen with the oxen went,
Followed by nine swift dogs. But on a bull,
The prime among the herds, that moaned the while,
Two savage lions seized ; and he was dragged
Loud-bellowing along. The men and dogs
Ran to his rescue ; but the lions tore
His entrails out, and drank his purple blood.
In vain the herdsmen cheered and urged their dogs,
That at the lions barked, but stood aloof,
Nor in close combat dared to meet the foe.
11. The eleventh picture may be considered with the tenth.
In the next space th’ illustrious Vulcan formed
An ample range of pasture for white sheep,
Within the bosom of a pleasant vale ;
And sheds, and sheltered folds, and covered pens.
The tenth and eleventh months of the old Greek
year, Maimacterion and Pyanepsion, comprehended part of September, with the whole of October, and part of November. Then the harvest was already
over, the grapes were gathered, and the herds and flocks were spread over the country.
This statement suffices to show, that the representations in the tenth and eleventh divisions of the shield corresponded with the season of the
12. The twelfth and last picture is not the least pleasing.
V. 590. Now in the shield the skilful God designed,
A dance perplexed, and intricate, and like
To that which Dædalus of old composed
For fair-hair'd Ariadne in the plains
Of Gnossus. There together knit, the youths,
And virgins just betrothed, danced hand in hand.
These in fine linen garments were attired;
But those well-woven woollen tunics wore,
That glossy seemed, as if imbued with oil.
The maidens with their flowery crowns were dight;
The youths had golden swords from silver belts
Depending Now they turned, with practised feet,
Quite lightly in the ring-some potter thus,
When sitting at the wheel placed to his hand,
Essays, if it will run-and now in rows
*Upon each other's steps they quickly trod,
Advancing, or retreating. But the crowd
Stood round, rejoicing in the pleasing dance.
And there two tumblers vaulted in the midst,
What time the circle sang the choral lay. The twelfth month of the old year was called Posideon, in honor of Neptune, In this month was celebrated a very ancient festival called Haloa,' otherwise Thalysia. As it was held for the purpose of returning thanks to the Gods for the fruits of the earth, and as it was probably the last which was celebrated in the old year, it seems not unlikely, that Homer may have alluded to it in the last of his rural pictures. The dance, which is introduced, was said to have been taught to the Greeks by Theseus, when he returned from Crete.
his landing in the island of Delos, that he erected a statue, which had been the gift of Ariadne, to Venus; and that, with the young men who were with him, he danced round the altars of the Goddess to the music of the lyre. In this dance they turned and moved in various directions, to imitate the windings of the Cretan Labyrinth.
But it is time, Sir, that I close this letter, and that I ask pardon of you and your readers, for having so long trespassed on your attention,
I am, Sir, your humble servant, Logie Almond, 1812.
'Εγγυάσομαι Μή μιν, ω Μούσαι, φυγόξενον στρατόν,
, Μηδ' απείρατον καλών, 'Ακρόσοφον δε και αιχματάν αφίξεσθαι· το γαρ 'Εμφυές, ούτ' αίθων αλώπηξ Ούτ' ερίδρομοι λέοντες, Διαλλάξαιντο ήθος.
Pindar. Olymp. 11th.
Belligeri laudes populi, palmamque recentem,
Parta triumphantům præstanti præmia ferro
Et fusas Gallorum acies, ereptaque tandem
Monia servili dudum defessa catena
Aggredior; memorare ausus, quo turbine duras
Moverit in campis ardens Hispania vires,
Et quanta irruerint animis sociata Britannûm
Agnina, et instructæ exierint in prælia turmæ.
Illustres heroüm animæ, quos terra fideli
Foverit amplexu genitrix Tartessia natos,
Intrepidis et freta animis, quibus ipsa salutem
Crediderit regnique decus, curamque suorum ;
O quondam natale solum et sacrata tueri
Jura armis, Libycumque ducem, Penasque phalanges
Exagitare avidæ, longoque lacessere bello,
Adspirate operi, et faciles succurrite coeptis
Quæ memorent, quantâ et vestri cum laude nepotes
Arma ferant, ductique patrum virtute priorum
Splendida collustrent generosæ nomina genti.
Gallia jamdudum victricia signa per orbem
Vexerat extremum, et sceptro-subjecerat uni
Europam languentem animis, et cæde trementem
Sanguinea, et validos frænarat compede reges.
Nequicquam Arctos per duros agmina montes
Imperii, instructis hostes exquirere telis
Ausa iterùm, et belli positum renovare fragoren
Nequicquam quos grandis alit Germanicus Ister
Induere arma parant, et inane accingere ferrum.
Ipsa amens animi, et magnis elata triumphis
Pergit ubique omnes domitare furentibus armis,
Et populos agitare manu : neque pristina tangunt
Fædera amicitiæ, et toties connexa periclis
Pacta fides sociis, et consita dextera dextræ.
Scilicet Hesperias fædo speraverat oras
Submisisse jugo, turpique gravasse catena
Conjunctam stabili pacis sibi fædere terram.
At non ignavis tantas Hispanica pubes
Insidias, fraudesque animis, contemtaque jura
Passa jacet; vincli indocilis, malesana furore
Surgit, et infenso ferro satiarier ardens
Suscitat indomiti flagrantes pectoris iras.
Ocyus armati coëunt in prælia cives,
Quos pietas movit patriæ, et commune periclum,
Seu temerata fides, spretæque injuria famæ.
Dat sese et belli sociam, comitemque laborum
Non aliis permota odiis, non inscia sævi
Gallorum imperii, fortesque Britannia natos
Convocat, et properans acri se immittere campo
Instituitque rates, et Iberi allabitur oras.
Idem omnes simul ardor agit, vi turpia collo
Vincula, probrosumque jugum, manicasque recentes
Abjicere, atque uno intrepidos exposcere ferro
Jura animis potiora, et libertate cadenti
Concidere, extremamque arnis effundere vitam.
Ac veluti in sylvis, tenuis spiramine venti
Flamma micat sufflata, levesque per aëra fumos
Invehit, et parvo jam primum immurmurat igne;
Mox gravior, sensimque alti sub sidera cæli
Fertur ubique fremens, latè et loca frondea circùm
Stridula sulphureo sternit vehementior æstu;
Haud aliter per ubique animos, per pectora gentis
Cæcùm ibat furor, et rabies acerrima, fræni
Gallorum impatiens, sceptrumque exosa tyranni.
Nec solùm hanc proceres inter, summosque furentis,
Crede, duces populi, accensam fervescere flammam:
En! rudis, et victum per inhospita culmina montis
Rusticus exquirens, cuidam se jungere parti
Ipse ardet tantorum operum, et magalia linquens
Nota diù, caramque domum, adsuetosque Penates,
Insolito invehitur per devia rura labori.
Quin sæpe, ut referunt, per operta silentia noctis
Agmine cum socio descendit montibus, et quod
Rura sibi dederint, vicinaque viscera terræ
Telum infert, somnoque gravem detorquet in hostem.
Inde domum illæsus repetit, spoliisque potitus
Ridet ovans animo, et prædâ lætatur inultà.
Usque adeò per gentem, etiam per sordida vulgi
Pectora, fervet amor patriæ, veterumque domorum
Insita cura animis, nec laudum inhonesta cupido.
Atque ea diversa penitùs dum parte geruntur,
Dum tacita armorum rabies, et fervidus ardor,
Per fines cæcos, et dissita littora terræ,
Arcanum ducebat iter, magis inclyta longè
Angliacus virtute animi insignissimus heros
Ingenïque audax, studio certaminis acer
Capta agitat: quo major erat non Julius armis,
Clarior haud Gangis juvenis Pellæus arenam