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2 VII N.LOCO SAN CT I•P AR EN TIS•H A BERETVR
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H.M.P.CC

APPENDIX To the Rev. Mr. PATRICK'S Essay on the

CHINA OF THE CLASSICS, Inserted in No. VI.

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Extract from a Letter addressed to the Rev. Dr. VINCENT.

Trin, Coll. Can. July 22. 1811. The whole of this article is extracted from Mr. BARKER's Classical Re

creations. “ My dear Sir,

With respect to tlie quotation from Pausanias, which you call strange, Mr. Patrick's object seems to have been to prove that the classical

1

account of the Seres agrees with the 'inodern account of the Chinese ; for he has in p. 303. cited a passage from Ramusio, in which we are actually told that the Chinese are of a swarthy, complexion : whence this motion arose will be shown, as I proceed. Pausanias in that passage also informs us that, in the opinion of some geographers, the Seres were Indoos mingled with Scythians; and Mr. P. proceeds to show from Sir W. Jones that even in this instance th classical account may be correct: and does not this fact sufficiently account for the traces of the Tartar form in the Chinese, of which you speak? The supposition of the Indian origin of the Chinese is not, in my humble opinion, which I submit with all due deference to your superior judgment, affected by the acknowledged fact that they are of a whiter complexion than the Indoos : it seems to be allowed by every traveller that the complexion of the' people in the southern provinces approaches very near to the Indoo complexion, while the people in the northern provinces are fairer: the southern pro-, vinces are, as I conceive, more analogous to the native country of the Chinese, that is, as I believe, India. I may reply to your argument that the brown tint of the people in the southern provinces is caused from labor in the sun' by observing that the white tint of the people in the northern provinces

may be presumed, upon the same principle, to have been occasioned by the cold. I beg leave to make the following quotation from the Travels of J. Albert De Mandelsloe, in the collection of Dr. Harris, Vol. 1. p. 795.: “ The whole empire is of so vast an extent, thut the inhabitants of the province of Quantung lying on the torrid zone are as black as the African Moors; whereas those of Pekin, which is most northerly, are as white as the Germans; which difference is also observable in their fruits, the southern provinces producing all such fruits, as the Indies afford, whereas the more northerly parts have plenty of European fruits.” Now we may fairly conclude that the province of Quantung, the most fertile of all the provinces, in which the city of Canton lies, at this day the greatest port in the Chinese empire, was the part of China, which was best known to the Greeks and the Romans, through the merchants, who travelled thither; just as Canton is better known to Europeans even at this day than any other part of the Chinese empire: these merchants, on their return to their native country, would naturally report that the Seres, or Chinese, were a black race: hence, then, they were supposed, as Pausanias himself believed, to be related to the Ethiopians: hence their country was called the oriental Ethiopia, au appellation as ancient, Herodotus, whose words are cited by Mr. P. in p. 297.: hence they are called Ethiopians in a passage, cited from the History of the Life of Aurelian, by Mr. P. in p. 300.: hence Ovid in his Amor. B. 1. El.

6.
says,

Vela COLORATI qualia SERES habent :
hence Virgil says in his Georgics,

Usque COLORATIS amnis dererus ab INDIS: so well was the fact known, that the poet has periphrastically alluded to th nation of the Seres under the term of Indi colorati, as I shall hereafter prove: I hope also to be able to prove that Lucan meant the Eastern Ethiopians, when he says in B. x. V. 290.

XIV. V.

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Cursus in occasus flexu torquetur, et ortus,
Nunc Arabum populis, Libycis nunc æquus arenis ;
Teque vident primi, quærunt tumen hi quoque Seres,

Æthiopumque feris alieno gurgite campos : Pomponius Mela says in B. iii. c. 7. “ Oras tenent ab Indo ad Gangen Palibotri, a Gange ad Colida (nisi ubi magis quam ut habitetur exæstuat) atræ gentes, et quodammodo Æthiopes.” It is 10 be remarked, however, that Pausanias, after having stated that the Séres are Ethiopians, adds that, according to some, they were not Ethiopians : now the reason of this difference is obvious : Quantong, where the inhabitants, as I have intimated above, are more black, was better known to the Greeks and the Romans than any other part of China ; but there can be no doubt that they had also penetrated the more northern provinces : now those merchants, who had merely visited the province of Quantong, wouldnaturally represent the Seres as a black race, while other merchants would say that they were not so black, as had been supposed : the first conve hem into an Ethiopian race, while second represented them as a mixed race of Indians and Scythians : in both cases the analogy was, probably, founded upon the complexion of the people.

I am, my dear Sir,
With every sentiment of respect,

EDMUND HENRY BARKER."

“ Dear Sir,

“ I should be sorry that either Mr. Patrick, or yourself, should ever be induced to believe that I have any wish to defend any position I may have advanced, contrary to evidence: my proofs are open to you, and to the public: I may be mistaken in many, but I have always been persuaded myself, before I have proposed them to others. I have referred to Pausanias 2. Eliac. in fine; whence the quotation is drawn), that represents the Seres as black: it is a question, which does not concern my work; but the ignorance of the author in regard to Seria, which he describes as an island, surrounded by a river, must convince every one that he knew as little of the people, as their silk.

By Ethiopians the classical writers frequently mean blacks in general, and not merely the Ethiopians of Meroe; and the degrees of this blackness vary in the Egyptian, Nubian, Abyssinian, Indian, and Negro; I have never seen in any Chinese drawing a black, or even bazanne: the common people always appear tanned, something between yellow and brown; the Mandarins, women, and children, white; the effect of the sun in different countries is different; but the original tint to judge a nation by must be that less exposed to the sun: I have no interest in this question, and shall never say a word more about it.

“ With respect to the position of the Chinese in, or near, Bactria, it is explained in my account of the sequel to the Periplus : while Tartary was a safe country to travel in, caravans passed, north of the Himmaloo mountains, from Bactria to China : Shah Rock's Embassy in Astley, and Benedick Goez, went by this route; but the distance I have specified,

and it is prodigious: in early times, perhaps, all the Tartar nations between Russia and China were considered as Cathaians, and, as the Chinese were Tartars, or of Tartar race, they were easily mixed and confounded.

“I do not like Mr. P.'s remarks upon the names of the sources of the Indus: they are spelt fifty ways differently, and more than I could enumerate; but there is not one of them in any author, but which may be traced both to the ancient, and modern name I have assigned: see a Journal through the Panjeab in the last Asiatic Annual Register, and Forster's Travels. In regard to Chintz, Nearchus notices the cotton webs ɛvdybels, and the best modern account is in the Lettres Edifiantes ; you flatter me by assuring me that you are reading my commentary on Ancient Commerce : the second edition, which is in your library, is far the most correct, It contains a dissertation on Ceylon, which I persuade myself will answer all your inquiries : a young man, as you profess yourself (with neuch learning, as you have), will conceive many doubts in commencing his researches on these subjects, and think he has made many discoveries: I had the same ideas, but twenty years' labor has made me retract ten times twenty of my first conceptions; and I still find mistakes to recal, or correct. Both in your appendix, and your letter, I find a variety of matter, for which I could refer you to my work; and, if at any time you have any particular inquiry to make, I will most cordially and candidly tell you all I know : I refer you particularly to the latter part of the second volume, as most likely to afford you satisfaction in the objects of your curiosity.— With every kind wish for success in your pursuits, which are all honorable, zealous, and ardent, believe me,

Your most obedient Servant,

W. VINCENT.” Deanry, Westminster,

Oct. 16th, 1811. “P. S. If you write to Mr. P., thank him for his honorable mention of me, and that I respect every man, whose researches are congenial to my own.

Upon looking again at Mr. P.'s letter, I see that he desires permission to copy some of my remarks; they are perfecıly at his service, or yours, or that of the learned altogether.”.

Admiralty, 22d October, 1811. “ Dear Sir,

“ I feel much Aattered and obliged by your communications, and the notice, which Mr. Patrick, and yourself have been pleased to take of my very humble labors, which, I can with great truth assure you, it is now my wish, had never appeared before the public; I mean my account of the Chinese, which was written, without books to refer to of any kind, on a passage home, and sent to the press with all its imperfections on its head: had I taken time to consult authorities, and to consider well the various points therein touched upon, I am vain enough to think that I inight have been able to set the matter completely at rest as far as regards

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