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Vellera per sudum ; mox arva nemusque virescens
Cernere erat propiùs, classisque appulsa secundo
Remige quæsitis paulatim allabitur oris.
Ergò cui primùm nostras sensisse carinas
Contigit, advectosque sinu excepisse Britannos,
Insula, testis eris, nec Te ullo deseret ævo
Nomen ab inventâ ductum memorabile terrâ.

Quin cursûs inceptum adeò servare tenorem
Non illis Fortuna dedit; neque tanta secuti
Auspicia, instabant pelagus penetrare carina
Ignotum ulterius, partisve insidere regnis.

Quippe exardenti lustrare latentia nautæ
Littora, principio malè parci ingloria regis
Segnities, mox Bella alio sub sole gerenda,
Juraque Romanæ detrectans subdola Mitræ
Obstabat Pietas—hinc tot seclusa per annos
Angliaca Hesperio jacuerunt littora ponto.

Quin verò immemori tandem lux inclyta seclo
Additur ; atque aperire novi commercia mundi,
Mente movens majora, suoque adjungere regno
Fæmina deductis arva Americana colonis
Constituit, misitque rates, et manibus urbem
Clausit, et aggestā Britonum signa extulit arce.
Quanquam etenim sociâ nondum virtute

neque

arnis
Fraterni potuêre duces, aut nomen Elisa
Securam positâ præstare in sede salutem ;
Ne verò intereà tot iniquå nocte labores
Nequicquam inceptos premat invidiosa Vetustas':
Quippe quòd illa memor vel nunc ostendere gaudet
Arva viatori, Virgo queis indidit olim
Virginiæ nomen Regina, vetusque colonus
Principium jactat, sacroque tuetur honore.

4 Nascitur intereà rerum felicior ordo,
Tempore quo largitus opes trans æquor ituris
Hesperium Princeps, duplicisque immunia Chartæ
Jura, quibus terræ ditio concessa colenti
Libera, et unde sibi geminæ primordia quondam
Traxerunt propriis stabilitæ legibus urbes.
Nimirum ante alias famæ notissima gentes
Hinc posuisse suam Nova dicitur Anglia sedeni,

3

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· The obstacles, which at that period prevented the prosecution of British discoveries in America, seem to have been the inactivity and parsimony of Henry VII-Foreign wars, Reformation.

2 Queen Elizabeth.
3 Sir Humphrey Gilbert and Sir Walter Raleigh.

4 James I. granted two charters, under the sanction of which, Virginia was re-established, and New England founded.

1

3

Hospitium profugæ pietatis, et, unde bipenni
Quondain decisas arexerat Incola sylvas,
Nunc et arundineis flaventia messibus arva
Miratur, positasque domos, parvumque senatum.
Necnon auspiciis iterum sub talibus arcem
Dispectam, potuitque ædes renovare labantes
Virginia, et dudum desertos navita gaudet
(Ille? diu tardum assuetus deflectere cursum
Maurus ubi apricæ prospectat littora’ Cernes)
Visere devexus breviori tramite portus.

Salve igitur, gens nostra, adeò fausto omine rursus
Seribus instaurata tuis-.si noi fuit auro
Finibus his rutilam volvens Plata dives arenam,
Si non pestifero pallens sub fornice servus
Incumbit madidis æternâ nocte fodinis,
Seminaque effossi cogit pretiosa metalli ;
At tibi concessit fæcundos ubere campos
Sol propior, tibi pampineo nam palmite colles
Dulce virent; bis Morus agris mollesque leguntur
Castaneæ, tibi nec candentes invidet haustus
Rugosâ nuce trita 4 Juglans, et olentia Cedrus
Invexa umbrosâ diffundit brachia pinu :
Quid quos ornat agros proceræ forma Coacæ,
Aut quæsita procul memorem folia arida Pæti;
Quid quo more petens pretiosi muneras Vermis
Concussâ auratos Indus legat arbore flores.

Nec tamen has inter sedes feliciaque arva
Perstitit intereà posito Fortuna colono
Inconcussa ; modò ignarum Discordia vulgus
Sollicitat, modò neglectis spatiatur in arvis
Ægra fames, sive abstrusi spes vana

na“ metalli
Credita nequicquam et fulvæ fallacia lymphæ
Luserit immemorem venturæ messis agrestem,
Sive expectatas vastaverit hostis aristas.
Namque hìc compositis ultro discordibus armis,
Debellare novos communi Marte colonos
Ira olim indigenas erepta ob pascua vindex
Impulit; ergò aderat quæ gens procul accolit agris
Stagnanti latè quà gurgite panditur ingens
Ontarius, seu quà præceps Niagara sonantes
Devolvit fluctus ; aderant instructa furentes

4

6

2

1 The English Puritans, who had at first taken refuge in Holland, afterwards settled in New England, under the sanction of one of the above charters.

Discovery of the direct passage to America, by Gosnold, in 1602. 3 Madeira.

4 A milk pressed from the wall-nut is a favorite beverage among the Indians.« Purchas his Pilgrimes.”

5 Cochineal.
6 Robertson's Hist. Posthumous Vol. book ix. p. 189.

2

Fuste manus, cultroque, et lævi è cortice parma,
Agmina, solennem belli instaurantia saltum,
Et ritè inter se concussis dissona telis
Bacchantur, partosque canunt ante arma triumphos.
Dicitur' has animorum iras, bellique tumultum,
Quem neque longa dies, neque viribus addita virtus,
Aut pugnæ adjutrix donuit Fortuna, domandi
Dulcis amor docuisse viain, cùm Regia Virgo,
Quam fors dura suis captivam avulserat Indis,
Mutatas conquesta vices, et pulchrior ipsis
Queis oppressa malis, raptos lugebat honores.
Anglicus hanc juvenis miserans amat, ipsa vicissim
Conceptam agnoscit flammam, et respondit amori.
Ergò bellantes initi flexêre Hymenei,
Infensæque novo sociantur fædere gentes.

Tempore non alio maria Atlantæa ? Colonus
Transiit, advertens tibi, Pensylvania, proram.
Non illuin Mars sanguineus, non pompa triumphi
Picta supervacui raptos deducit in agros, ,
Sed placida innocui posuit sine crimine regni
Concessos intrà fines fundamina, vitæ
Integer, et morum simplex, habituque severus ;
Tum leges et jura dabat, parvâque suorum
Et Pater et Judex idem regnabat in aula.
Hospitis, ut fama est, placidis virtutibus æqui
Indigena adductus, sylvas atque abdita lustra
Deseruit, vacuamque gerens post terga pharetram
Ipsumque et nudos trepidâ cum conjuge natos
Imperio facili lætus submisit, et ultro
Gestiit excultæ rationem agposcere vitæ,
Et data jurato sancivit pignora balteo
Ipse fidem firmans, et non violabile foedus.

Parte aliâ intereà fines auxêre Coloni; Suadet enim diuturna quies, atque otia rebus Addita ; sic quondam Regina Terra-Mariæ, Sic geminum, Carolina, tibi, Rege auspice, regnum Crevit, et Eboracum, extremisque Georgia campis, Et Nova cultori cessit Jerseia Britanno. Id verò intereà, quòd parvas Anglicus hospes Dilectis olim titulis signaverit urbes, Ne vanum reputa; quoniam sæpe illa tuenti Mænia continud veteris prædulce recursat Hinc desiderium Patriæ, et divinitùs orta Mnemosyne solitos animo revocabit amores. Talis in Epiro quondam capta Hectoris Uxor Gaudebat simulata fovens nova Pergama veris :

* Robertson's Hist. America, Post. Vol. p. 204. ? The emigration of William Penn,

Quippe obversa oculos quoties simulacra lacessunt,
Seu priscam referunt formam, seu nomina rerum,
Implicuit cordi quarum prior usus amorem,
Spectantum toties animus dulcedine quadam
Illudi, et tacito furtim sub pectore fictis
Gaudet imaginibus, subtilemque arripit umbram.

His adeò auspiciis multos stabilita per annos
Dives opum, geminique tenens commercia mundi,
Creverat abscissis Columbia tutior oris.
Felix! sub patriò firmans tutamine vires,
Si tandem Britonum non immemor esset avorum,
Nec falsâ egisset deceptam nominis umbra
Improba libertas materna in viscera ferrum
Vertere, et æternas Naturæ abrumpere leges.

At verò scelerum tantorum exquirere causas
Mens refugit, neque jura velim perpendere belli
Mutua fraterni:---sat erit flevisse diremtain
Sanguine amicitiam et sua regna avulsa Britannis.

HENRICUS LATHAM. E Coll. Æn. Nas. Junii 10. 1812.

On the Hebrew Numerals, and different Modes of Notation.

Extracted from Mr. Hewlett's Bible.

NO. II.

Even all they that were numbered were six hundred thousand and three thousand

and five hundred and fifty.—[Numbers, Chap. i. v. 46. It has been remarked, that all the sums, as they stand in this chapter, (except one) end in even hundreds, or with two ciphers. This is next to an impossibility, and commentators have said, that Moses only gave round numbers ; but if there was really a numbering of the people, (which will not be denied) it was as easy to express the right number as the wrong. It should be remembered, also, that accuracy was in a great measure required, in order to the just administration of certain laws respecting the Levites, the first-born, the offering to the Lord,' &c. Exod. xxx. 14. ; but to talk of this, and to omit, in the summation of a series of numbers, all that were under 100, will be deemed preposterous. Such a notation does not at all agree with the exactness observed in Gen. v. nor with the numbers in Ezra, ch. ii. and Nehemiah, ch. vii. where the reader will not find sums ending with a cipher oftener than with any other figure.

A more general cause of the alteration and confusion of the numbers in the Bible was the adoption of numerals, instead of writing sums in words at length. This practice, we know, was very

ancient ;

and many of those numeral letters were so similar, that they might easily

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have been mistaken for each other.See Dr. Kennicott, vol. i.

P.

209. 212. 215.

Thus, the 3 (2) may be easily taken for the 3 (20), the ) (3) for 3 (50), the 7 (4) for 7 (200), or for the 7 (500, the D (60) for the (600), the T (8) for the m (400), &c. Besides, as Buxtorf observes (Thesaur. Gram.) in the notation used by the Masoretes, "X, the aleph, with two small dashes over it, instead of an unit, stood for a thousand, and y's, which in the ordinary mode of numeration, is 71, they thus made 1070. Farther, by placing a dot, or a virgule, over any common numeral, they increased it in a ten-fold proportion. Now, we know that a propensity to the marvellous is natural to man; and no one can open any of the Talmudic writings, without being convinced that it was never indulged by any people to greater excess than by the Jews. Whenever the Rabbins were in the least doubt, therefore, or whenever they might suppose there was a dot, or a dash over a letter, which would multiply it by ten, they were likely to insert the larger number in preference to the less.

Besides, the ancient Hebrew MSS. were written in characters that very much resembled the old Samaritan; and there were some of these which were easily confounded, though, from inspecting our printed copies of the Bible, we should not now perceive any resemblance. Indeed, so very different are the characters of some of the MSS. now in existence from those in the printed copies, that Dr. Kennicott says, there is in the Bodleian library a MS. of the book of Job, which few Hebrew scholars can read, though written in the Hebrew character.

But it deserves particular notice, that there was a mode of notation used in Palestine, about the time of Christ, the knowledge of which had been lost for many ages. It was at last restored by the labors of the late learned Mr. Swinton, from an attentive examination of the Palmyrene inscriptions, and some old Sidonian coins. From the valuable communications which he made to the Royal Society (see vols. 48 and 50.) we learn some important facts : -1. That the Palmyrene dialect was, in almost every respect, like the Syriac. 2. That there is a surprising affinity between the Chaldee letters and the Palmyrene. 3. That the Chaldee characters were used at Tadmor, and in all the neighbouring parts of Syria, during the first, second, and third centuries of the Christian Æra. And 4. That the Palmyrene inscriptions may be considered as manuscripts in the Chaldee, or Hebrew character, from fifteen to seventeen hundred years old. But, in comparing the Palmyrene alphabet with the present Hebrew, it appears that the gimel is extremely different. The vau, that im. portant numeral, has, at least, four distinct forms; and so likewise has the yod. One form of the samech is precisely the same as the final mem.

The pe is exactly one form of the vau. The resch is, in general, either like the oin, or the tzad. One form of the oin is very like one of the samech; and the thau and nun are extremely similar. Now, though the sense may, in general language, serve to determine which letter is intended, yet what sagacity could discriminate them with any certainty, when used, above a thousand years after, merely as numerals ?

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