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On the Date of the Clouds of Aristophanes.

Βλέπε νύν δευρί προς την Πάρνηθ'. ήδη γαρ ορώ κατιούσας

ήσυχη αυτάς. The second Clouds are twice quoted by Athenæus (pp. 229. B. 345. F.) The distinctness of these quotations, as well as his quotation from the first Clouds, render it probable that both editions were preserved in his time.

As the time when the second Clouds were acted cannot be determined, and as the difference between the first and second editions appears to have consisted chiefly in additions made to the second edition, I advise those persons who read the plays of Aristophanes in chronological order, as they ought to be read, to read the Clouds immediately after the Acharnians and the Knights, and immediately before the Wasps. This would be the proper place of the first Clouds, if they had descended to our days. I hope that a future editor of Aristophanes will arrange

all the plays in the order in which they were written, instead of retaining the order of the original manuscript, in which the last play is placed at the beginning.

When I stated, at the beginning of this paper, that each of the ten tribes, into which the citizens of Athens were divided, chose a competitor for the three prizes of Comedy, I must be understood to speak only of the prosperous days of Athens. Towards the conclusion of the Peloponnesian war, it was found that private as well as public wealth was so much diminished, that each tribe could no longer supply the proper number of opulent citizens, as tragic and comic X enroi at each of the feasts of Bacchus. Accordingly, in the magistracy of Callias, about one year before the fatal battle of Αιγός Ποταμοί, the number of competitors was reduced from ten to five, and the expense of each Chorus was divided between two Xognyol, instead of being borne entirely by one, as had hitherto been the practice. For this information we are indebted to the Scholiast on Aristophanes (Ran. 406.), in a passage which has been neglected by the writers on Attic chronology. This reduction of the number of competitors appears to have been accompanied by some alteration in the number of the prizes and the form of the darxaniu or Register. In the arguments of most of the earlier plays of Aristophanes, the names of the poets to whom the three prizes were awarded, are inserted, without any mention of the unsuccessful competitors. In the argument of the Plutus, which was acted seventeen years after the magistracy of Callias, all the five competitors are named, without any mention of the prizes. The only other play of Aristophanes, which was written after the diminution of the number of the competitors, is the 'Exxanoiálouonn, from the conclusion of which (vv. 1146_1154.) it appears that at least one prize was still retained.

P. E.

L. ANNAEVS
SENECA

A
M. ANTONIO. MVRETO
CORRECTVS. ET. NOTIS

ILLVSTRATVS
AD. MATTHAEVM. CONTARELLVM
TT. S. STEPHANI. IN. MONTE. CAELIO
S. R. E. PRESB. CARDINALEM

CVM PRIVILEGIO.

SVPERIORVM PERMISSV.
ROMAE, Apud Bartholomaeum Grassium.

DIC. 15. XXCV.

FRANCISCVS: BENCIVS !

SACERDOS. SOCIETATIS IESV
MATTHAEO.CONTARELLO

CARDINALI AMPLISS:

S. P. D

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M: ANTONIVS MVRETVS, cujus morte incredibilem sane

plagam acceperunt studia litterarum : qui erat acerrimo judicio in deligendis scriptoribus, qui erant legendi ; ac studio, in assidue peruolutandis iis, quos semel delegerat : L. Annaeum Senecam tanti

vt eum nõ modo vt sapientissimum, quod omnes fatentur, verumetiam vt disertissimum, quod negant nonnulli, laudaret auctorem. Ab hoc enim ille non tantum praecepta viuendi, sed etiam Ornamenta eloquendi peti posse dicebat. Nimirum ejus orationem pressam quidem esse ac subtilem, sed concinnam, ac splendidam, plenissimamque gravitatis : sententias enim ipsas ita frequentes, ut aequent prope numerum verborum ; verba autem ita inter sese apta et cohaerentia, ut nullum movere loco possis, substituendi alterius gratia, quin corrumpatur; nullum tollere, quin concidat oratio. Ex quo, idem profitebatur, ab ejus se lectione meliorem quidem semper, et ad humana despicienda paratiorem ; sed tamen ornatiorem etiam, et ad dicendum, scribendumque instructiorem discedere. Hinc saepe illum in manibus habebat, sedulo euoluebat, et cupiebat, eumdem vt fructum ex eo perciperent homines eruditi, quam emendatissimum ipsorum in manus pervenire. Multas enim insedisse intelligebat in Seneca maculas, et librariorum incuria, et temporum longinquitate; multa subesse menda, ut ad perfecte eum intelligendum, et illae eluendae, et haec corrigenda esse viderentur. Et noverat sane aliquot

Scholia in Senecam non ex Editione Romana, Mureto mortuo, per Franciscum Bencium curata, quam in ipsa Itulia rariorem esse, testis est Checcotius in Praefat. p. 102. sed ex Parisina a. 1607, sumsimus. Romanae si facultas nobis fuisset, non neglexissemus ejusdem Bencii Praefationem addere ; quae quin scite docteque scripta sit, dubitare non sinit reliqua hominis eleguntia. D. R. PRÆF. ad Muret. XX[~-14.

in eo perpurgando atque illustrando, viros doctos, nec sine labore, et cum laude, versatos : quibus etiam gratias agebat : sed, vt in agro multis vndique dumetis, ac vepribus septo, non mirum esse addebat, si superessent aliqua, in quibus ipse euellendis operam poneret ; non ignarus, fore vt multa etiam posterorum industriae relinquerentur. Ergo quantum sollertia, doctrinaque poterat (erat enim is, quod constat inter omnes, vt et de locis auctorum corruptis recte iudicaret, et de emendandis acute conjiceret,) qua ingenio auctore, qua adiutoribus codicibus perantiquis, quibus vtebatur plurimis, conabatur afferre lucem rebus obscurioribus : vt videlicet Senecae amatores suo vel adiuuaret labore, vel incitaret exemplo. Cum igitur non paucos annos in eo opere, studioque consumpsisset, idque percrebuisset' multorum sermonibus, non defuerunt, qui agerent, et coram, et per litteras, cum viro humanissimo, vt proferret tandem aliquando, quod tulerat diu ; nec tamdiu pergeret, et sibi, et aliis inuidere: sibi quidem gloriam, aliis verò vtilitatem permagnam, cum pari voluptate coniunctam : quamquam illud ipsum, qu dicebant de gloria, hominē minime permovebat, vel quod contentus ea esset, quă erat antea consecutus, vel quòd aetate ingrauescente, vir Christianus, et pius, vtpote iā sacerdotio praeditus, quod diligenter colebat, de 'aeterna illa ac solida cogitans, quam exspectabat a Deo, brevem hāc, et inanem, quae tribuitur ab hominibus, gloriam, despiciendam putaret. Plus ponderis habebat sperata aliorum vtilitas, cui pro virili parte consulebat : etsi hanc etiam aperte praedicebat (si velles credere homini res suas extenuanti) aut nullam omnino, aut paruam certe, atque exiguam futuram. Sed vicerunt tamen iteratae ac justae mul. torum preces. Plurimum etiam tua apud eum potuit, Cardinalis illustrissime, auctoritas, cui Senecam ipsum ope sua correctum, et scholiis illustratum, multis jam annis ante desponderat, quod differre diutius non debuit. Quippe non solum ob veterem beneuolentiam, et integritatem morum tuorum, quibus eum tibi perpetuo deuinxisti

, id est, ob virtutem tuam, sed ob multa etiam beneficia, quae abs te accepisse praedicabat, tantum se tibi debere gloriabatur, nullum vt tibi honorem tribuere non debitum posset. Cuius rei vtriusque, etsi domi

suae, quam emerat honestissimam, extat testimonium, in geminis quae poni jussit Amplitudinis tuae insignibus ; curandum etiam putauit, vt publice appararet, ac posteritas omnis intelligeret, eum maximis tuis muneribus cumulatum, illud habuisse semper in animo, vt quandoquidem tibi referre gratiam quantam vellet, non poterat, haberet saltem quantam maximam posset. Ita, Senecae emendationem, jam pridem, vt dicebam, inchoatam, et paene perfectam proferre coepit in lucē, vt in tuo nomine appararet. Cui emendationi, vt hoc interea no omittam, addidit quidem breves notas, et paucas ad finem librorum singulorum, quae videbuntur tum magis illustres, tum etiam necessariae : sed multa, quae nemo negabit, si hanc editionem contulerit cum aliis, conjecta verissime, propterea praetermisit, quòd ea tum leuia esse ac minuta, tum vero aperta, et rata omnibus futura, iudicaret. Neque enim, vt praemonui, hac in re honori velificabatur suo, sed commodo aliorum. Utinam vir summus, quod erat exorsus,

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ac prope ad exitum perduxerat, conficere totum, et pertexere potuisset: perpauca in Seneca desiderarentur. Verum vixdum absoluerat Naturales quaestiones, cū à Deo, vt speramus, euocatus ad diuina contemplanda, humana deseruit. Sed nolo augere dolorem retractando. 'Muretus quidem ipse talis fuit, ac tantus in omni genere humanitatis, vt ejus eruditionem et eloquentiam, magis iam sint intellecturi homines carendo, vt fit in rebus bonis, quam antea intelligebant, fruendo. In Naturalibus igitur quaestionibus defecit Muretus. Quod tamen cum fateor, nolim censeat quispiam actum penitus fuisse in hoc volumine, de iis, quae sequuntur, id est de Seneca rhetore, quem philosophi patrem constat fuisse : itemque de ludo illo admodum festiuo, quem Cassius Dio, joculari sane nomine, étoxodoxúrowow appellat. Nam complures lacunas, quae erant in Controuersiis, etsi non omnes, (quis enim hoc mortalium praestet ?) expleuit ex codice multae aetatis et fidei, de bibliotheca Vaticāna, quē vt deferret domū, eoque commode uteretur, interprete Sirleto Cardinali optimo, sanctissimus permisit Pontifex GREGORIUS: qui etiam cū ab eo, anno superiore, multis precibus Muretus jam affecta vale. tudine, et publice docendo fessus (annos enim vnum et viginti Romae docuit) missionem impetrasset, quòd iam sibi viuere diceret velle, et perpolire quae habebat informata, ut Senecam ; et gestu, et voce ostendit, Senecae sibi edendi consilium mirifice probari. Ludus verò tametsi multo melior exisset viuente Mureto, tamen et propter operis breuitatem, et propter multa, quae inter versus interjecta, et ad ex. tremam libri oram adscripta invenisse se affirmant ij, quibus mandatum est, ut exhiberent operis, quae erant excudenda ; non magnam admodum jacturam factam existimo : ita accipientes quod datum est, gratiam, opinor, habebimus, quod fecit; quod omisit, ignoscemus : et in altero quidem non minus eum fecisse arbitrabimur, quam fecerunt alii; in altero verò non plus potuisse facere, quàm vita pateretur. Certe quidquid est, in hoc quoque intelligent aequi rerum existimatores, quaecumque vmquam litteris mandavit Muretus, commendari eruditorum omnium lectioni debere.

Huic quidem operi summa accedet auctoritas, tum quòd prodiit extremum à magnitudine illius ingenii immortalis, tum quòd cum tibi destinatum nuncupetur ab ejus herede fratris filio, exit ornatum amplitudine nominis tui. Et cupiebat sane adolescentulus eximia indole virtutis, atque ingenii, vt ad se intelligit non magis hereditatem patrui, et similitudinem nominis, quàm factorum imitationem pertinere, ab hoc officio ducere commendationem ineuntis aetatis : sed quoniam nec tuae nescius dignitatis, et conscius imbecillitatis suae, recusabat tollere onus, quod perferre non posset, suo quasi jure, hoc est, patrui nomine, à

quo mihi fuit moriente commēdatus, rogavit me, atque obsecravit, suas vt partes susciperem, atque hoc tibi a patruo quidem debitum, à se vero munus, offerrem: quamquam ab vtroque debitum: cum quae abs te in Muretum majorem profecta sunt officia, plaeraque' in minorē redundarint. Quod equidem praestiti non inuitus, quoniam eadem opera et obsequebar iusta postulanti; et meis etiam Superioribus, Patribus Societatis IESV, qui plurimum se tibi debere profitentur,

! (sic.)

me rem gratam facturum omnibus arbitrabar. Accipe igitur à Mureto iuniore, praestantissimum, gravissimumque scriptorem Senecam, summi illius Mureti opera castigatum, CONTARELLE Car. dinalis: quem etsi cum leges, recordaberis, Mureto Seniori Senecam prope necem attulisse, illud tamen erit solatium, quod cum in omni aetate teretur manibus omnium, et tuae erga Muretos humanitatis fama numquam consenescet; et ipsorum erga Amplitudinem tuam pietatis nec commemoratio intermittetur, nec memoria delebitur. Vale.

PRIZE POEM.

THE BELVIDERE APOLLO.
HEARD

EARD ye the arrow hurtle in the sky?
Heard ye the dragon monster's deathful cry ?
In settled majesty of fierce disdain,
Proud of his might, yet scornful of the slain,
The heav'nly Archer stands-no human birth,
No perishable denizen of earth;
Youth blooms immortal in his beardless face,
A God in strength, with more than godlike grace;
All, all divine--no struggling muscle glows,
Through heaving vein no mantling life-blood flows,
But animate with deity alone,
In deathless glory lives the breathing stone.

Bright-kindling with a conqueror's stern delight,
His keen eye tracks the arrow's fateful flight;
Burns his indignant cheek with vengeful fire,
And his lip quivers with insulting ire:
Firm-fix'd his tread, yet light, as when on high
He walks th' impalpable and pathless sky:
The rich luxuriance of his hair, confin'd
In graceful ringlets, wantons on the wind,
That lifts in sport his mantle's drooping fold,
Proud to display that form of faultless mould.

Mighty Ephesian!' with an eagle's fligtit
Thy proud soul mounted through the fields of light,
View'd the bright conclave of Heav'n's blest abode,
And the cold marble leapt to life a God :
Contagious awe through breathless myriads ran,
And nations bow'd before the work of man.
For mild'he seem'd, as in Elysian bowers,
Wasting in careless ease the joyous hours;
Haughty, as bards have sung, with princely sway
Curbing the fierce flame-breathing steeds of day;
Beauteous as vision seen in dreamy sleep
By holy maid on Delphi's haunted steep,

Note. The Apollo is in the act of watching the arrow with which he slew the serpent Python.

Agasias of Ephesus,

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