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τότε σύστασιν και κοινωνίαν αυτών έλεγεν, ώσπερ ορνίθων σπερμολόγων συνδρομην, 'EN λίθω και ψόφω συνδιαταράξειν.

Josephus. Antiq. &c. lib. vi. cap. 9. pag. 250. ed. Hudsoni. où uey επέρχη μοι 'EN ρομφαία, και 'ΕΝ δόρατα, και εν θώρακι. S. Lucas Cap. 22. ν. 49. πατάξομεν 'ΕΝ μαχαίρα; vid. S. Matth. 26. 52.-

Dial. Mortuor. XXVII. p. 439. In edit. Salmur. legitur ο δε 'Αρσάκης, γηραιός γαρ ήδη, και νη Δί' ουκ άσεμνος την όψιν ες το βαρβαρικόν, ήχθετο και ήγανάκτει πεζός βαδίζων, και ήξίου τον ίππον αυτω προσαχθήναι. Reitzius, ad prescriptum Grevi, edidit ο δε Αρσάκης, γηραιός γαρ ήδη, και νη Δί' ουκ άσεμνος την όψιν, εις το βαρβαρικών 7x0eto--barbaro more ferebat ægre, și diis placet. Sincera lectio videtur-γηραιός γαρ ήδη, και νη Δ' ουκ άσεμνος την όψιν ΩΣ το βαρβαρικόν, ήχθετο-χ. τ. λ. Significat Crates, in Arsace, ut in homine barbaro, dignitatem multam apparuisse. Sic Thucydides lib. 4. , .

. 4. pag. 148. edit. H. Stepliani, ήν δε ουδε αδύνατος, ΩΣ ΛΑΚΕΔΑΙΜΟΝΙΟΣ, είπείν. Ιle was not ineloquent FOR A LACED EMONIAN.

Dial. Mortuor. ΧΧVΙΙ. p. 440. ο μεν γαρ επήλαυνεν, εικοσάπηχών τινα κοντόν προβεβλημένος, ο θραξ δε, επειδή τη πέλτη απεκρούσατο την προσβολήν, και παρήλθεν αυτόν ή ακωχή, ές γόνυ όκλάσας, δέχεται τη σαρίσση την επέλασιν, και τιτρώσκει τον ίππον υπό στέρνον, υπό θυμού και σφοδρότητος εαυτόν διαπείραντα. Forte ΠΡΟΒΟΛΗΝ. i. e. Ipsum contum prætentum.

Dial. Mortuor. ΧΧVΙΙ. p. 440. Αη διελαύνεται δε και ο Αρσάκης ές τον βουβώνα διαμπαξ άχρις 'ΕΠΙ την πυγήν ?

Dial. Mortuor. XXX. p. 454. ουκούν οράς πώς άδικα ποιείς κολάζων ημάς, υπηρέτας γενομένους ών η Κλωθώ προσέταττε;

Quanquam videor mihi particulam hanc trôs alibi similiter usurpatam notasse, tamen Lucianum scripsisse arbitror ούκουν οράς, ΩΣ άδικα ποιείς-κ. τ. λ.

Menippus, seu Neevomantia. ώ χαίρε, μέλαθρον, πρόπυλα θ' εστίας εμής. ως άσμενός σ' εσείδον, ες φάος μολών. Ηec tralaticia Euripidis Herculi furenti debemus.

Menippus, seu Necyomantia. p. 457. Quum Menippus familiarem suum Philonidem versibus Homeri et Euripidis obruisset, ita a Philonide correptus est, ούτος, αλλ' ή παραπαίεις. ου γαρ αν ούτως εμμέτρως ερραψώδεις προς άνδρας φίλους. Αrgumentum delirationis prorsus novum, Carmina MODULATE recitare.

Ocius reponamus ου γαρ αν ούτως 'ΑΜΕΤΡΩΣ ερραβώδεις προς άνδρας φίλους. Sime fine modoque.

Menippus, seu Necyonm. p. 469. ο δε μάγος εν τοσούτω, δάδα καιομένην έχων, ουκ έτ' ήρεμαία τη φωνή, παμμέγεθες δε ως οδός τε ήν ανακραγών, δαίμονάς τε ομού πάντας επεβοάτο, Ποινας, και 'Εριννύας, και νυχίαν Εκάτην, και έπαινήν Περσεφόνειαν, παραμιγνύς άμα βαρβαρικά τινα και άσημα ονόματα και πολυσύλλαβα. Probabilius δαίμονας ΟΜΟΥ ΤΙ πάντας επεβο άτο,

Menippus seu Necyom. p. 474. τω δε Μίνωϊ μία τις και προς χάριν εδικάσθη δίκη. τον γάρ τοι Σικελιώτης Διονύσιον, πολλά και ανόσια υπό τε Δίωνος κατηγορηθέντα, και υπό της σκιάς καταμαρτυρηθέντα, παρελθων 'Αρίστιππος, ο Κυρηναίος, άγουσι δ' αυτόν εν τιμή, και δύναται μέγιστον εν τοις κάτω) μικρού δείν τη Χιμαίρα προσδεθέντα, παρέλυσε της καταδίκης, λέγων πολλοίς αυτών των πεπαιδευμένων προς αργύριον γενέσθαι δεξίον.

Conjecit Solanus τη Χιμαίρα παραδοθέντα. Μalim, quod propius, TIPOTEO ENTA. Eodem sensu, forma autem activa, occurrit hoc verbum apud Sophoclem, Aj. v. 1294.

Ουκ οίσθα, σου πατρός μέν δς προύφυ πατήρ,
αρχαίον όντα Πέλοπα, βάρβαρον φρύγα και
'Ατρέα δ', δς αν σ' έσπειρε, δυσσεβέστατον,

ΠΡΟΘΕΝΤ' αδελφώ δείπνον οικείων τέκνων ; Menippus seu Nervon. p. 476. διελθόντες δε και τούτους, ές το πεδίον έσβάλλομεν το 'Αχερούσιον. ευρίσκομέν τε αυτόθι τους ημιθέους τε, και τας ηρωΐνας, και τον άλλον όμιλον των νεκρών, κατά έθνη και φύλα διαιτωμένους, τους μεν παλαιούς τινας, και ευρωτιώντας, και, ώς φησιν "Ομηρος, αμένηνούς τους δε νεαλείς και συνεστηκότας, και μάλιστα τους Αιγυπτίων αυτούς, διά το πολυαρχές της ταριχείας. Ιn locum του Αυτους 11iale substituit Hemsterhusius αλύτους, pejus Solanus αύους. Re; onedui και μάλιστα τους ΑΙΓΥΠΤΙΟΥΣ ΑΥΤΩΝ, δια το πολυαρχές της ταριχείας.

Chain, sive Contenaplantes p. 491. ήν με συ αφής, ουδέν των τυφλών διοίσω. καθάπερ γαρ εκείνοι σφάλλονται διολισθαίνοντες εν τω σκότω, ούτω δη καγώ σοι πάλιν άμβλυώττω προς το φώς. Legit Ηemsterhusius πάλαι αμβλυώττω. Veri similitus, καθάπερ γαρ εκείνοι σφαλλονται διολισθαίνοντες εν τω σκότω, ούτω δή κάγώ σοι EMΠΑΛΙΝ αμβλυώττω προς το φώς.

Charon, sive Contempl. p. 500. Mercurius : Μίλων ούτος, ο εκ Κρότωνος αθλητής. επικροτούσι δ' αυτώ οι Ελληνες, ότι τον ταύρον αράμενος φέρει δια του σταδίου μέσου. Charon: και πόσα δικαιότερον αν έμε, ώ Ερμή, έπαινοιεν, δς αυτόν σοι τον Μίλωνα μετ' ολίγον ξυλλαβών ενθήσομαι ες το σκαφίδιον, οπόταν ήκη προς ημάς, υπό του άμαχωτάτου των ανταγωνιστών καταπαλαισθείς, του θανάτου, μηδέ ξυνεις όπως αυτόν υποσκελίζει.

Merito ultima Hemsterhusio videntur non accommodatissime ad intégram, quæ præcessit, sententiam respondere. Vix dubium est, quin scripserit Lucianus ΥΠΟΣΚΕΛΙΣΕΙ. numinativus τω ήκη (ο Μίλων scilicet) ante το υποσκελίσει etiain subauditur, αυτόν vero τον θάνατον significat: Liuctator ilie celeberrimus, victis omnibus aliis, Mortem supplantare frustra studuisset.

On the Date of the Clouds of Aristophanes.

a

It is well known, that the comedy of Aristophanes, called the Clouds, was altered by the author from a former comedy, which bore the same name, and which is now lost. The first edition of the Clouds was represented in the first year of the eighty-ninth Olympiad, Isarchus being Archon. On that occasion, the first prize was gained by Cratinus, the second by Amipsias, and the third by Aristophanes. As each of the ten tribes, into which the citizens of Athens were divided, chose a competitor for the three prizes of Comedy in each contest, seven poets out of ten obtained no prize at all. Aristophanes, however, appears to have been much less gratified by the preference which he obtained over seven of his rivals, than mortified by being compelled to yield the first and second prizes to Cratinus and Amipsias. - Of Cratinus, in particular, he had spoken with the utmost contempt, in the Knights (vv. 523-533. ed. Kuster.), which were acted the preceding year, as of a superannuated drunkard, who was intitled to respect merely on account of his former merit. In the Wasps, which were acted the year after the first edition of the Clouds, Aristophanes complains very bitterly of the ill success of that play. (vv. 1010–1045.)

In those days, there was no permanent theatre at Athens, and tragedies and comedies were acted only twice a year, at the feasts of Bacchus. It was usual for those poets, who obtained no prize at all, or a prize inferior to their expectation, to alter and correct their plays, and to produce them again on the stage on a subsequent occasion, when they frequently met with a better reception than at first. Aristophanes adopted this practice with respect to the Clouds, the second edition, or 4100 xeur' of which play, has descended to modern times. We learn from the author of the Argument, that this second attempt was so far from proving successful, that the poet did not obtain any one of the three prizes.

According to the same author, the second Clouds were represented one year after the first, in the magistracy of Amynias. This assertion of the writer of the Argument has occasioned much perplexity to the learned men, who have endeavoured to ascertain the date of each of the plays of Aristophanes. In the second Clouds (v. 550.) Cleon is spoken of as dead, who is well known to have been killed at the battle of Amphipolis, in the magistracy of Alcæus, who was the next Archon after Amynias. The Maricas of Eupolis is mentioned in the same passage. The Maricas of Eupolis, as we are informed by the Scholiast on the authority of Callimachus, in a passage which I shall hereafter have occasion to produce, was acted two years (Tgítw frei) after the first Clouds, and of course one year after the date assigned to the second.

In order to solve this difficulty, Samuel Petit supposes that there were three editions of the Clouds, and that the edition, which has been preserved, is the third. This hypothesis is embraced by Corsini (Fast. Att. III. p. 240.) I apprehend that an easier solution of the difficulty may be given.

In all probability, Aristotle, Callimachus, and Eratosthenes, who endeavoured to settle the chronology of the Attic stage, had no means in general of ascertaining the year in which each piece was represented, except the consultation of the lidarxaríai, or public register in which the names of the victors were recorded. There is no reason to suppose, that

any

mention was made in the Διδασ. xania of the unsuccessful competitors. So that, except from internal evidence, it must have been impossible to ascertain the exact date of more than three-tenths of the plays which were acted. As the second Clouds of Aristophanes were unsuccessful, the date which is affixed to them seems not to be derived from the Register, but to be founded entirely on the supposition, that a poet, the first edition of whose play is condemned by the judges, will take the earliest opportunity of producing it again in an improved state. But this supposition appears to me to be very erroneous. Modern writers for the stage generally give the public time to forget their unsuccessful pieces, before they venture to reproduce them with alterations and improvements. It may be presumed that ancient poets were equally discreet. In one instance, indeed, we know that an interval of twenty years was suffered to elapse between the first and second editions of à Greek comedy. I allude to the Plutus of Aristophanes, which was acted in the fourth year of the ninety-seventh Olympiad, and which

is the A1&txeun of a former play bearing the same name, which was acted in the fourth year of the ninety-second Olympiad. See the Scholiast on vv. 173. 179.

That the true date of the second Clouds was unknown, might easily have been collected from the words of the Scholiast on V. 549. επεί ου φέρονται αι διδασκαλίαι των δύο Νεφελών. Read, των β' Νεφελών, that is to say, των δευτέρων Νεφελών.

The Scholiast communicates the following information in his note on v. 552.

'Ερατοσθένης δέ φησι, Καλλίμαχον εγκαλεϊν ταϊς Διδασκαλίαις, ότι φέρουσιν ύστερον τρίτο έτει τον Μαρικών των Νεφελών, σαφώς ενταύθα ειρημένου, ότι πρότερον καθείται. λανθαίνει δ' αυτόν, φησίν, ότι εν μέν ταϊς διδαχθείσαις ουδέν τοιούτον είρηκεν. εν δε ταϊς ύστερον διασκευασθείσαις εί λέγεται, ουδέν άτοπον. αι διδασκαλ αι δε δήλον ότι τας διδαχθείσας φέρoυσι.

If the Scholiast has given a faithful representation of the words of Eratosthenes, it is evident that Eratosthenes believed that the

second Clouds had never been acted at all. It does not seem probable to me, that Aristophanes would take the trouble of altering a play, of the merit of which he entertained so high an opinion, without trying whether a second set of Kpital did not possess a little more taste than those, who assigned the last prize to the play in its original form.

We have seen that Eratosthenes distinguished the two editions of the Clouds by the names of tais didazleloals, those which were acted, and this ÚCTEQOY diarxeuur Belous, those which were afterwards altered. The learned Henry Dodwell, in his Annales Thucydidei, (pp. 161, 162.) has entirely mistaken the meaning of these appellations. Instead of perceiving that they relate to the comedy of the Clouds, he applies them to the Aiddoxaríai, or Register, as if there had been two sorts of Registers, the Διδασκαλίαι διδαχθείσαι and the Διδασκαλίαι διασκευασθείσαι. He pursues this blunder through a whole quarto page, and distinguishes the contents of the two sets of Registers as accurately as if he had seen them. That learned man possessed in an eminent degree the talent of constructing fair and spacious edifices with the slightest and scantiest materials.

We are informed by the author of the Argument, that the principal difference between the first and second editions of the Clouds, consisted in the Parabasis (vv. 411-437.), the dialogue between the Δίκαιος Λόγος and the "Αδικος Λόγος (νν. 886--1102.), and the last scene, in which Strepsiades sets fire to the school of Socrates. All these passages were added in the second edition.

I am not aware that the first edition of the Clouds is ever quoted by name, except once by Athenæus. (p. 171. C.) The five verses which are produced by Athenæus, may be found in that edition of the Clouds which we now possess (vv. 1198—1202.) Brunck has referred to the first edition two fragments, which are said to be taken from the Clouds, and which do not occur in the second edition. It may be reasonably suspected, however, that the ancient authors who have preserved these two fragments, have attributed them to a wrong play. Such mistakes are extremely common in the quotations both of the ancients and the moderns. Bentley, for instance, in his Exediaoua de Metris Terentianis, quotes the first verse of the Hecuba of Euripides, as the first verse of the Orestes. The following verse of the Clouds is produced by Photius v. ITápuns :

Πάρνης :

Εις την Πάρνηθοργισθείσαι Φρούδαι κατά τον Λυκαβηττόν. This verse, which is produced by Photius to prove that 17 épins is feminine, and which does not occur in the present edition of the Clouds, may probably be attributed to the first edition on internal evidence. Photius, or rather the author of the Comic Lexicon, from whom Photius has borrowed the best part of his Vocabulary, might have found an example of Irápums in the feminine gender, in the play which now remains (v. 322.):

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