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[JOHN LILLY OF LYLY, probably the earliest regular dramatist after Lord Buckhurst, was born in Kent about 1553. He became a student of Magdalen College, Oxford, in 1569; took his degree of Bachelor of Arts in 1573, and his Master's degree in 1575. According to Anthony á Wood, he appears not to have been a very hard student, but always averse to the crabbed studies of logic and philosophy.' There is extant among the Lansdowne manuscripts a letter, in very good Latin, dated 1574, written by Lilly to Lord Burghley, desiring his Lordship's patronage and assistance; with what result is not known. Burghley, however, seems afterwards to have conferred upon him some office connected with his own household. From two letters extant, written by Lilly to Queen Elizabeth, it is inferred that he was a candidate for the office of Master of the Revels, probably with no success. After leaving college, he appears to have spent most of his time in London, supporting himself by his pen. When he died is unknown, probably somewhere about the beginning of the seventeenth century. Mr. Fairholt, editor of Lilly's dramatic works, infers from certain allusions in a work of Nash's, that our author 'was a little man, was married, and fond of tobacco.' The works by which Lilly is now best known are his two prose works, entitled Euphues; or, the Anatomy of Wit, and Euphues and his England, which gave rise to the term and the affected style of writing known as Euphuism. However tedious and trifling these works may appear to modern readers, there can be no doubt that Lilly's contemporaries admired and imitated them to an incredible extent. Euphuism became the rage, even Shakspeare being smitten by the fever. Blount, the editor of an edition of his plays published in 1632, says that beauty in court which could not parley Euphuisme, was as little regarded as she which now there speaks not French;' and Anthony á Wood tells us that 'in these books of Euphues, 'tis said that our nation is indebted for a new English in them, which the flower of the youth thereof learned.' By most of his contemporaries he seems to have been held in great estimation. The chief characteristic of his style,' says Mr. Collier, besides its smoothness, is the employment of a species of fabulous or unnatural natural philosophy, in which the existence of certain animals, vegetables, and minerals with peculiar properties is presumed, in order to afford similes and illustrations.' As far as the dramatic style allows, Lilly's dramas are to a great extent disfigured by this painfully unnatural fine writing, although there is comparatively little of it in the work we have selected. Campaspe, or Alexander and Campaspe, as it is sometimes entitled, has some claim to be considered a historical play, in that the dramatis persona are mostly historical characters. The incident on which the play is founded is mentioned by Pliny; and the plot, though slight, is, on the whole, well wrought out by the author. Although the scene is laid in Athens, in the time of Alexander the Great, the persons of the drama are, in character and manners, Englishmen of Lilly's own time. It is one of the best and most interesting of the author's plays, some of the characters, such as Diogenes and his servant Manes, being drawn with considerable force and distinctness; and the wit is sometimes clever, amusing, and original. Hazlitt says of it: "This play is a very pleasing transcript of old manners and sentiment. It is full of sweetness, and point, of Attic salt and the honey of Hymettus.' Although, when compared with many of his contemporaries, Lilly cannot be ranked very high as a dramatist, still he affords a not unpalatable foretaste of the rich feast of wit and wisdom which immediately followed. As we learn from the pro


logues and epilogues, this play was written in haste, for representation at court, after which it made its appearance at Blackfriars theatre.

Besides Campaspe, first printed in 1584, Lilly wrote the following dramas :-Sapho and Phao (1584); Endymion (1591); Galathea (1592); Midas (1592); Mother Bombie (1594); The Maid's Metamorphosis (1600); Love's Metamorphosis (1601). It is doubtful whether Lilly was the author of the last two.]

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Imprinted at London for Thomas Cadman, 1584.



THEY that fear the stinging of wasps make fans of peacocks' tails, whose spots are like eyes; and Lepidus, which could not sleep for the chattering of birds, set up a beast, whose head was like a dragon; and we, which stand in awe of report, are compelled to set before our owl Pallas's shield, thinking by her virtue to cover the other's deformity. It was a sign of famine to Egypt when Nylus flowed less than twelve cubits, or more than eighteen; and it may threaten despair unto us, if we be less courteous than you look for, or more cumbersome. But as Theseus, being promised to be brought to an eagle's nest, and travelling all the day, found but a wren in a hedge, yet said, This is a bird; so we hope, if the shower of our swelling mountain seem to bring forth some elephant, perform but a mouse, you will gently say, This is a beast! Basil softly touched yieldeth a sweet scent, but chafed in the hand, a rank savour. We fear, even so, that our labours, slily1 glanced on, will breed some content, but examined to the proof, small commendation. The haste in performing shall be our excuse.2 There went two nights to the begetting of Hercules. Feathers appear not on the Phoenix under seven months, and the mulberry is twelve in budding; but our travails are like the hare's, who at one time bringeth forth, nourisheth, and engendereth again; or like the brood of Trochilus, whose eggs in the same moment that they are laid become birds. But howsoever we finish our work, we crave pardon if we offend in matter, and patience if we transgress in manners. We have mixed mirth with counsel, and discipline with

1 Sli'y glanced on-read superficially.

2 It was, as we have said, written in haste for performance at court.

But we

delight, thinking it not amiss in the same garden to sow pot-herbs that we set flowers. hope, as harts that cast their horns, snakes their skins, eagles their bills, become more fresh for any other labour; so our charge being shaken off, we shall be fit for greater matters. But lest, like the Myndians, we make our gates greater than our towns, and that our play runs out at the preface, we here conclude, wishing that although there be in your precise judgments an universal mislike, yet we may enjoy by your wonted courtesies a general silence.

THE PROLOGUE AT THE COURT. WE are ashamed that our bird, which fluttereth by twilight, seeming a swan, should be proved a bat set against the sun. But as Jupiter placed Silenus's ass among the stars, and Alcibiades covered his pictures, being owls and apes, with a curtain embroidered with lions and eagles, so are we enforced upon a rough discourse to draw on a smooth excuse, resembling lapidaries, who think to hide the crack in a stone by setting it deep in gold. The gods supped once with poor Baucis, the Persian kings sometimes shaved sticks: our hope is your Highness will at this time lend an ear to an idle pastime. Appion, raising Homer from hell, demanded only who was his father; and we, calling Alexander from his grave, seek only who was his love. Whatsoever we present, we wish it may be thought the dancing of Agrippa his shadows, who, in the moment they were seen, were of any shape one would conceive; or Lynces, who having a quick sight to discern, have a short memory to forget. With us it is like to fare as with these torches which, giving light to others, consume themselves; and we, showing delight to others, shamo ourselves.

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Clytus. Parmenio, I cannot tell whether I should more commend in Alexander's victories courage or courtesy; in the one being a resolution without fear, in the other a liberality above custom: Thebes is razed, the people not racked, towers thrown down, bodies not thrust aside, a conquest without conflict, and a cruel war in a mild peace.

Par. Clytus, it becometh the son of Philip to be none other than Alexander is; therefore seeing in the father a full perfection, who could have doubted in the son an excellency? For as the moon can borrow nothing else of the sun but light; so of a sire, in whom nothing but virtue was, what could the child receive but singular ? It is for turkies to stain each other, not for diamonds; in the one to be made a difference in goodness, in the other no comparison.

Clytus. You mistake me, Parmenio, if, whilst I commend Alexander, you imagine I call Philip into question; unless happily you conjecture (which none of judgment will conceive) that, because I like the fruit, therefore I heave at the tree; or coveting to kiss the child, I therefore go about to poison the teat.

Par. Ay, but Clytus, I perceive you are born in the east, and never laugh but at the sun rising; which argueth though a duty where you ought, yet no great devotion where you might.

Clytus. We will make no controversy of that of which there ought to be no question; only this shall be the opinion of us both, that none was worthy to be the father of Alexander but Philip, nor any meet to be the son of Philip but Alexander.

Par. Soft, Clytus, behold the spoils and prisoners!-a pleasant sight to us, because profit is joined with honour; not much painful to them, because their captivity is eased by mercy.

Timo. Fortune, thou didst never yet deceive virtue, because virtue never yet did trust fortune. Sword and fire will never get spoil, where wisdom and fortitude bear sway. O Thebes, thy walls were raised by the sweetness of the harp, but razed by the shrillness of the trumpet. Alexander had never come so near the walls, had

1 singular-what is singular, rare, or excellent. 2 Turquoises.

happily-haply, perhaps; from hap-chance.

MILO, Sons to Sylvius.

GRANICHUS, Servant to Plato.
MANES, Servant to Diogenes.
PSYLLUS, Servant to Apelles.
Page to Alexander.
Citizens of Athens.
CAMPASPE, Theban Captives.

LAIS, a Courtezan.

Epaminondas1 walked about the walls; and yet might the Thebans have been merry in their streets, if he had been to watch their towers. But destiny is seldom foreseen, never prevented. We are here now captives, whose necks are yoked by force, but whose hearts cannot yield by death. Come, Campaspe and the rest, let us not be ashamed to cast our eyes on him, on whom we feared not to cast our darts.

Par. Madam, you need not doubt; it is Alexander that is the conqueror.

Timo. Alexander hath overcome, not conquered.

Par. To bring all under his subjection is to conquer.

Timo. He cannot subdue that which is divine.
Par. Thebes was not.
Timo. Virtue is.


Clytus. Alexander, as he tendreth virtue, so he will you; he drinketh not blood, but thirsteth after honour; he is greedy of victory, but never satisfied with mercy; in fight terrible, as becometh a captain; in conquest mild, as beseemeth a king. In all things, than which nothing can be greater, he is Alexander.

Camp. Then, if it be such a thing to be Alexander, I hope it shall be no miserable thing to be a virgin; for if he save our honours, it is more than to restore our goods. And rather do I wish he preserve our fame than our lives; which, if he do, we will confess there can be no greater thing than to be Alexander.

Alex. Clytus, are these prisoners? of whence these spoils?

Clytus. Like your Majesty, they are prisoners, and of Thebes.

Alex. Of what calling or reputation ?^ Clytus. I know not, but they seem to be ladies of honour.

Alex. I will know.-Madam, of whence you are I know, but who, I cannot tell.

Timo. Alexander, I am the sister of Theagines, who fought a battle with thy father before the city of Chieronte, where he died, I say, which none can gainsay, valiantly.

Alex. Lady, there seem in your words sparks of your brother's deeds, but worser fortune in your life than his death. But fear not, for you shall live without violence, enemies, or necessity."

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-But what are you, fair lady-another sister to Theagines?

Camp. No sister to Theagines, but an humble handmaid to Alexander, born of a mean parentage, but to extreme fortune.

Alex. Well, ladies (for so your virtues show you), whatsoever your births be, you shall be honourably entreated.' Athens shall be your Thebes, and you shall not be as abjects2 of war, but as subjects to Alexander. Parmenio, conduct these honourable ladies into the city, charge the soldiers not so much as in words to offer them any offence, and let all wants be supplied so far forth as shall be necessary for such persons and my prisoners. [Exeunt Parmenio and captives.] Hephestion, it resteth now that we have as great care to govern in peace as conquer in war; that, whilst arms cease, arts may flourish, and, joining letters with lances, we endeavour to be as good philosophers as soldiers, knowing it no less praise to be wise than commendable to be valiant.

Hep. Your Majesty therein showeth that you have as great desire to rule as to subdue; and needs must that commonwealth be fortunate whose captain is a philosopher, and whose philosopher a captain. [Exeunt.]



Manes. I serve instead of a master, a mouse, whose house is a tub, whose dinner is a crust, and whose bed is a board.

Psyllus. Then art thou in a state of life which philosophers commend. A crumb for thy supper, an hand for thy cup, and thy clothes for thy sheets. For natura paucis contenta.

Gran. Manes, it is pity so proper a man should be cast away upon a philosopher: but that Diogenes, that dog, should have Manes, that dog-bolt, it grieveth nature and spiteth art: the one having found thee so dissolute, absolute, I would say, in body, the other so single, singular in mind.

Manes. Are you merry? It is a sign by the trip of your tongue, and the toss of your head, that you have done that to-day which I have not done these three days.

Psyllus. What's that? Manes. Dined.

Gran. I think Diogenes keeps but cold cheer. Manes. I would it were so, but he keepeth neither hot nor cold.

Gran. What then, lukewarm? That made Manes run from his master the last day.

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Manes. You may see how dull a fasting wit is; therefore, Psyllus, let us go to supper with Granichus: Plato is the best fellow of all philosophers. Give me him that reads in the morning in the school, and at noon in the kitchen. Psyllus. And me.

Gran. Ah! sirs, my master is a king in his parlour for the body, and a god in his study for the soul. Among all his men, he commendeth one that is an excellent musician; then stand I by, and clap another on the shoulder, and say, this is a passing good cook.

Manes. It is well done, Granichus; for, give me pleasure that goes in at the mouth, not the ear; I had rather fill my guts than my brains.

Psyllus. I serve Apelles, who feedeth me, as Diogenes doth Manes; for at dinner, the one preacheth abstinence, the other commendeth counterfeiting." When I would eat meat, he paints a spit; and when I thirst, 'Oh,' saith he, is not this a fair pot?' and points to a table which contains the banquet of the gods, where are many dishes to feed the eye, but not to fill the gut.

Gran. What doest thou then?

Psyllus. This doth he then, bring in many examples that some have lived by savours, and proveth that much easier it is to fat by colours, and tells of birds that have been fatted by painted grapes in winter; and how many have so fed their eyes with their mistress's picture, that they never desired to take food, being glutted with the delight in their favours. Then doth he show me counterfeits, such as have surfeited with their filthy and loathsome vomits, and with the riotous bacchanals of the god Bacchus, and his disorderly crew, which are painted all to the life in his shop. To conclude, I fare hardly, though I go richly, which maketh me, when I should begin to sha

Psyllus. Manes had reason; for his name fore- dow a lady's face, to draw a lamb's head, and told as much.

sometime to set to the body of a maid a shoulder of mutton; for semper animus meus est in pa

Manes. My name? how so, sir boy?
Psyllus. You know that it is called Mons à tinis.
Movendo,' because it stands still.

Manes. Good.

1 entreated-treated.

2 captives or slaves.

3 It is a curious inconsistency that Diogenes, the cynic and despiser of luxury, should here be made to keep a servant in his tub.

4Nature is content with a few things.'

5 dog-bolt-evidently a term of reproach, nearly synonymous with dog, only perhaps more contemptuous. Butler uses it as an adj., in the sense of base.-NARES. 6 Dodsley reads what here.

7 Mountain from moving,' on the lucus a non lucendo principle. Lilly here, in jest or earnest, makes Psyllus derive mons (mountain) from Lat. moveo, to move. Following out the principle, Psyllus tries to make a wretched joke, and raise the laugh against Manes, by deriving his name from Lat. manco, to remain.

Manes. Thou art a god to me; for, could I see but a cook's shop painted, I would make mine eyes fat as butter. For I have nought but sentences to fill my maw: as, plures occidit crapula quam gladius; musa jejunantibus amica; repletion killeth delicately; and an old saw of

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abstinence by Socrates, The belly is the head's grave. Thus with sayings, not with meat, he maketh a gallimafray.

Gran. But how dost thou then live? Manes. With fine jests, sweet air, and the dogs' alms.

Gran. Well, for this time I will stanch thy gut, and, among pots and platters, thou shalt see what it is to serve Plato.

Psyllus. For joy of it, Granichus, let's sing. Manes. My voice is as clear in the evening as in the morning.

Gran. Another commodity of emptiness.


Gran. O for a bowl of fat canary,
Rich Palermo, sparkling sherry,
Some nectar else, from Juno's dairy,
O these draughts would make us merry.

Psyllus. O for a wench (I deal in faces,
And in other daintier things);
Tickled am I with her embraces,
Fine dancing in such fairy rings.

Manes. O for a plump fat leg of mutton,
Veal, lamb, capon, pig, and coney;3
None is happy but a glutton,

None an ass but who wants money.

Chor. Wines (indeed) and girls are good,
But brave victuals feast the blood;
For wenches, wine, and lusty cheer,
Jove would leap down to surfeit here.



under a tub. But I must be gone, the philosophers are coming. [Exit.]

Plato. It is a difficult controversy, Aristotle, and rather to be wondered at than believed, how natural causes should work supernatural effects.

Aris. I do not so much stand upon the apparition is seen in the moon, neither the Demonium of Socrates, as that I cannot by natural reason give any reason of the ebbing and flowing of the sea; which makes me, in the depth of my studies, to cry out, O ens entium miserere mei.'2"

Plate. Cleanthes, and you attribute so much to nature, by searching for things which are not to be found, that, whilst you study a cause of your own, you omit the occasion itself. There is no man so savage, in whom resteth not this divine particle, that there is an omnipotent, eternal, and divine mover, which may be called God.

Cleant. I am of this mind, that that first mover, which you term God, is the instrument of all the movings which we attribute to nature. The earth, which is mass, swimmeth on the sea, seasons divided in themselves, fruits growing in themselves, the majesty of the sky, the whole firmament of the world, and whatsoever else appeareth miraculous, what man, almost of mean capacity, but can prove it natural?

Anax. These causes shall be debated at our philosophers' feast, in which controversy I will take part with Aristotle, that there is Natura naturans, and yet not God.

Cra. And I with Plato, that there is Deus optimus maximus, and not nature.

Aris. Here cometh Alexander.

Alex. I see, Hephestion, that these philosophers are here attending for us.

Hep. They are not philosophers if they know not their duties.

Alex. But I much marvel Diogenes should be so dogged.

better than Melippus' message.
Hep. I do not think but his excuse will be

Alex. I will go see him, Hephestion, because I long to see him that would command Alexander to come, to whom all the world is like to come. Aristotle and the rest, sithence my coming from Thebes to Athens, from a place of conquest to a palace of quiet, I have resolved with myself in my court to have as many philosophers as I had in my camp soldiers. My court shall be a school, wherein I will have used as great doctrine in peace as I did in war discipline.

Melip. I had never such ado to warn scholars to come before a king. First, I came to Crisippus, a tall, lean, old mad man, willing him presently to appear before Alexander. He stood staring on my face, neither moving his eyes nor his body. I urging him to give some answer, he took up a book, sat down, and said nothing. Melissa, his maid, told me it was his manner, and that oftentimes she was fain to thrust meat into his mouth, for that he would rather starve than cease study. Well, thought I, seeing bookish men are so blockish, and great clerks such simple courtiers, I will neither be partaker of their commons nor their commendations. From thence I came to Plato and to Aristotle, and to divers other; none refusing to come, saving an old obscure fellow, who, sitting in a tub turned towards the sun, read Greek to a young boy. Him, when I willed to appear before Alexander, he answered, If Alexander would fain see me, let him come to Alex. It is so, Aristotle; but yet there is me; if learn of me, let him come to me; whatsoever it be, let him come to me.' 'Why,' said I, sought to destroy Alexander: Calistenes, Arisamong you, yea, and of your bringing up, that he is a king. He answered, Why, I am a philo-totle, whose treasons against his prince shall not sopher. Why, but he is Alexander.' 'Ay, but be borne out with the reasons of his philosophy. I am Diogenes.' I was half angry to see one so Aris. If ever mischief entered into the heart crooked in his shape, to be so crabbed in his of Calistenes, let Calistenes suffer for it; but sayings. So, going my way, I said, "Thou shalt that Aristotle ever imagined any such thing of repent it, if thou comest not to Alexander.' 'Nay, Calistenes, Aristotle doth deny. smiling, answered he, Alexander may repent it if he come not to Diogenes: virtue must be sought, not offered.' And so, turning himself to his cell, he grunted I know not what, like a pig

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1 gallimafray-hash, or hodge-podge, a mixture of many ingredients; used also metaphorically. 2 commodity-advantage, or convenience. 3 coney-rabbit; pronounced here kun'e. willing-desiring.

Aris. We are all here ready to be commanded, and glad we are that we are commanded, for that nothing better becometh kings than literature, which maketh them come as near to the gods in wisdom as they do in dignity.


1 Probably which should be inserted before is.
20 Being of beings, pity me.'

3Somewhat equivalent to the Force of certain modern philosophers.

4 God, the Best and Greatest.'

5 sithence-since.

6 Callisthenes was a pupil and relation of Aristotle, and rendered himself so obnoxious to Alexander by his arrogance and independence, that he was accused of being privy to a plot to assassinate the king.

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