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FORMATION of the buman F ETUS. Feb. doubtful, and all the features of the afferts, that the motions of the female face are now distinguishable : The body is do not become sensible before the end delineated, the hips and the belly elevated, of the 4th month. Nevertheless, fome the members are formed, the toes and women have said that they have begun the fingers are separated from one an- to be sensible of the motions of their other, the fkin is extremely thin and child from the beginning of the second transparent, the bowels are already point- month, but upon this head it is very difed out by a bundle of fibres, the vessels A ficult to arrive at any certainty, the senare as small as threads, the membranes sations which the motions of the fætus extremely loose, the bones are as yet excite, depending at first, perhaps, more soft, it being only in some parts that upon the sensibility of the mother, than they have began to be a little rolid, upon the strength of the foetus. the vessels which are to compose the Four months and a half after concepmavel-string are as yet in a right line tion, the length of the foetus is from fix along side of one another, and the pla- to seven inches: All the parts of the centa covers no more than a third of the
body are then so much increased, that whole mass, whercas at first it covered B
we may easily diftinguith them from one a half; from whence it appears that the another, and the nails appear both upon increase of its superficies has not been the fingers and toes. The testicles of the to great as that of the feetus and the rest male are inclosed in the belly just above of the mass, but it has greatly increased the kidneys : The stomach is full of a in its solidity, its thickness being become thickish liquor, pretty like to that which much greater in proportion than that is inclosed in the amnium : In the small which wraps up the feetus, and we may guts we find a milky substance, and in already diftinguish the two membranes C the large a subitance which is black and of which this wrapper is composed. liquid. There is a little bile in the gall,
According to Hippocrates the male and a little urine in the bladder. As the foetus grows faster than the female: He fætus floats freely in the liquor that sur. pretends, that at the end of 30 days rounds it, there is every where a distance all the parts of the body of the male between its body and the membranes in are apparent, but that those of the female which it is wrapt up: These wrappers are not so until after the 420 day.
at first grow faster than the foetus, but In fix weeks the foetus is near two
The to be perfected, only the head is bigger than the wrappers, so that it may touch in proportion than the other parts of the them with the extremities of its membody, and about the same time the heart bers, from whence it may be thought, that may be perceived to move : It has been it is forced to draw or fold up the memseen to beat in a fætus of 50 days old, bers of its body. and even continue to beat for a pretty before the end of the third month while after the fætus has been taken out the head is bent forewards, the chin of the womb of the mother.
E resting upon the breast; the knees are in two months clie foetus is above two raised, the legs foided backwards and inches in length, and the offification at often croiled, and the point of the foot the middle of the bones of the arms, turned upwards and close to the thighs, thighs and legs is become sensible, as in such a manner that the two heels are also at the point of the lower jaw, which very near one another. Sometimes the is then extended a good deal farther knces are raised so high as almost to than the upper jaw. These oflifications touch the cheeks, the legs are folded unmay as yet be said to be but points of der the thighs, and the role of the foot bone; but by the effect of a more quick
is always turned backwards : The arms growth the breast bones are entirely of- hang downwards and are folded upon the rified, the navel-string is formed, and the breast, and one of the hands, sometimes veftels of which it is composed begin both, touch the face : They are someto turn and twist themselves almost in times Mut; and also the arms are somethe same manner as the threads of which times hanging down at full length by the a rope is composed; but this string is fides of the body. as yet very mort in comparison of what The fotus puts itself afterwards in it comes to be afterwards.
G posures different from these : When it In three months the foetus is three is near its birth, and even a long while inches long, and about three ounces in before, it has usually the head downweight. Hippocrates says, that about wards, and its face turned towards its this time the mother begins to be sensible mother's back; but it is natural to supof the motions of a male fætus, and he pore, that it often changes its posture.
1753. Account of the Genil, a new Entertainment. 69 Experienced midwives have pretended to be certain, that it changes its posture
An Account of obe new Entertainmen!, callmuch oftener than is commonly thought.
ed the Genil, now acting at ibe TbeatreThis may be proved by several observa- Royal in Drury. Lane. tions; as, r. We often find the navelstring twisted and turned round the body curtain discovers the scene of a grove, and limbs of the child, in such a man- supposed to be formed by enchantment : ner as necessarily implies, that the fætus A It consists of leafy wings, intermixed has moved every manner of way, and with flowers forming arches, and termin that it has successively put itself in por. nates with an extensive continuation ; tures very different from one another, the top of the same composition with 2. The mothers feel the motions of the the sides ; four spirits in Arabian dresses fætus sometimes upon one side of the lean against the wings, from the lower womb, and sometimes upon the other, end enters Harlequin in the dress of an and perceive it to strike with equal force Arabian prince, the outside of the same against several different parts; from party-coloured stuff, as usual, and lined whence we must suppore, that it puts
with friver tissue ; a turban, richly fanciitself into different fituations. 3. As it ed, adorns his head, and, his hand swims in a liquid with which it is on guiding a wand, he walks melancholy to every side surrounded, it may very easily the front of the stage ; a little winged turn or extend itself, or bend itself, by genius, cloathed in blue and silver, enits own proper strength ; and also it must deavours by persuasions to dispel his be in different situations, according to gloom, and for a means recommends the different attitudes of the body of beauty.-At a wave of his little wand, the mother ; for example, when the lies, C four genii, who had been in search of a the fætus must be in a different situa- proper object for their master's love, fly tion from that in which it is, when the down with pictures ; he addresses himself Nands.
to them, and selects one ; the genii then The greatest part of anatomists have fly up, and his particular genius advises thought, that the focus is forced to bend him, in search of that fair one, to mix its body, and to fold its limbs, because among mankind, and exert his magick it is too much confined in its wrapper ; power ; a dance of these four spirits is but to me this opinion seems to be with:
then introduced as to divert his melanchoout foundation, for there is, especially ly, and Mons. Ferrere representing anoduring the first five or six months, a great ther joins them ; Harlequin appears dideal of more room than is necessary for vested of his state, and in his usual form the fætus to extend itself, and yet in this dismisses his sprites. very time it is bent and folded : We like- A scene of a sumptuous street presents; wife see that a chick is bent in the liquor the genius brings in Harlequin, and points contained in the Amnium, even at the to him the house his fair one inhabits ; time when that membrane is large enough, Harlequin knocks; the servant enters, reand that liquor plentiful enough, for E fuses him admittance ; a post-man brings containing a body of five or fix times letters to the house, and, while the ferthe bigners of the chicken. Therefore vant is reading the superscription, Har!ewe may believe, that this bended and quin, who ftands behind the post-man, folded posture into which the fetus puts disrobes himself, and, fastening his cloaths its body is natural, and not at all con- to him, the post-man finks, and leaves strained; and I am inclined to be of Harlequin in his habit, who as such is adthe same opinion with Harvey, who con- mitted. tends, that the only reason for the foetus's
We next see a hall; two tables coverbeing in this attitude, is because it is moft ed with trunks and cloaths ; the beauty convenient for rest and sleep; for all ani. enters attended with a servant, and premals put themselves in this position, in sently her father ; from their dresses we order to repose themselves and go to Neep; may conclude them Polanders. The faand as the foetus is almost always asleep ther, who is a kind of Pantaloon, wears in the womb of its mother, it naturally purple fattin, edged with sable fur ; the puts itself into the moft convenient por. daughter (whom for the future we call ture for that purpose.
Colombine) appears in yellow; her cloak, Our author adds a great deal more for G and each of the falls of her petticoat, explaining the manner and the causes of are edged with white fur, the maid blue the birth; but as this would be tedious, edged with black. The Pantaloon, packand is proper only for midwives, I fhall ing up his cloaths, seems to have forgot add no more, but that
something, and exits for it; mean wbile, I am, &c the servant brings in Harlequin as the
Account of the Genit, a new Entertainment. Feb. post-man, he gives letters, looks with furies, who bringing in four female partTapture on Colombine, who goes out, and ners form in a dance ; monfieur Devise is followed by Harlequin.
and madam Auguste, as the two princiA fine chamber with a large looking-' pal, join them in dresses richly adorned ; glass and pictures seeming in the same che genius goes out with Harlequin to house ; Colombinc enters, followed by try some means of gaining her. her lover in his own dress
The seems Pantaloon is seen crossing the stage as thy, and rejects his suit, till musick play- A going to another house, in the inade of ing in the air engages her attention, which is discovered a new chamber scene ; which is yet heightened by the voice of an old man, an old woman, their son and the genius, who from above urges her to daughter, are drinking of cofíce, a feray with Harlequin ; which as they do, vant waiting ; the young one in scarlet the genius cries “ too late." Pantaloon edged with fur, making a fop, even in entering forces Harlequin to run through that country, seems to be designed to the wainscot, which now appears full of marry Colombine ; her father enters, they books ; Pantaloon gives Colombine to the care of her mother.—The next scene
all seem to agree and go out to execute
the writings, leaving Blakes and his man ; is a street, through which Hariequin is after some display of foppery, a case is pursued, who, to avoid his pursuers, en- brought, from whence is drawn out an ters a beautiful garden ; an arbour fronts enormous muff, and through the case irthe stage, covered with flowers, and fues a figure dressed just like the fop, among which a multitude of fun-flowers though in miniature ; and from the black ftrike the eye. Harlequin being forced face, we may suppose it to be either into the arbour, it turns into an elegant Harlequin contracted to the Atature of a fithmonger's shop, and he appears the C child, or else his faithful genius ; the fop master. Pantaloon, missing Harlequin, fees him, is frighted, and, after behold. comes to buy fish ; many real ones are ing each other they draw and engage, the produced, some of which he buys; and, little fop eluding all his pares ; Pantagoing out, his servant follows, after hava loon enters, and cannot see the little one, ing been sufficiently bit by the nose by the who still terrifies the fop; they exit and lobster's claw, and made almost drunk cross the street, and enter Colombine's in recompence by the fishmonger, who, chamber ; Colombine and her intended putting thie marketing in a tray: folie Dophich, when he would address her, the
spouse are reated on each fide a table, on is locked in by her mother, Pantaloon is little fop appears and frightens him : followed by the clown and filmonger ; Pantaloon entering, he absconds behind Colombine seeing his habit under his apron Colombine's petticoats, and, as the fop rejoices, and, while the father goes for would kiss her, ftill ftares in his face, his purse to pay for the fish, escapes and at length runs off with her.-Next, with him ; Pantaloon returns, and, ex- a pursuit ; then behold a brick-kiln, brickprefing great disorder, follows ; after makers at work ; Harlequin and Colomcalling the maid and other little incidents, E bine enter and bribe the men, who, on another pursuit of both Harlequin and Co- the entry of the pursuers, besmear them lombine, who cross the street and enter with the clay, to elude their search. Hara tavern built of marble, designed and lequin, pulling off his dress, appears in executed in an extraordinary manner ; that of a reaper, and the brick-kiln turns a sumptuous fide board of china, &c. to a field of real barley, the flat scene and, on a table, an elegant entertainment continuing the view ; rome reapers are is fet, for some of which Harlequin bar- at work, who reap and gather into real gains, and sends the mistress out, but Theaves, and Colombine, quite like a rural me returning informs them of the fa- F maid, gleans after them; they all exit, ther just entering ; the tavern is here- and in a street the pursuers enquire of a wpon transformed into a water-mill with carpenter carrying a deal ; he points them real water ; Harlequin comes in like the out. Now drops a scene, containing a rumiller ; Colombine, looking inadvertently ral prospect, which exceeds any landskip out of the window, is seized and carried yet shewn on the stage, a leather bottle off.
hung out, the scene rises and leaves The street is next, and Colombine is them in a field, where they all dance, tin forced along, and put safe into the house, G Pantaloon and the rest crossing put then
We next behold a scene of cragged in disorder. After some pursuits, we rocks, Harlequin, now despairing for his see a wood.yard, piles of deals, and a mistress, lies on the ground ; his faithful wharf with water running by Pantagenius heartens him, reminds him of his locn spies them there, comes to them ; magick power, and, to amuse, raises four and by the help of Harlequin, the wood!
1753 Of the Art of refining SILVER, 70 yard Thews you Westminster-bridge, with understood by those who practise the lake all the prospect through the arches ; they ter ; I shall call in what little knowledge cross it several times, and, not succeeding, the experiments I have made in metallur. they come to the house of a cenjurer, gick chemistry may have given me, to whom he employs to aid them, but all the affiftance of one of them in our own in vain. Colombine is discovered with kingdom, which is undoubtedly at this Harlequin, me languishing falls on the time better practised by others. ground, the genius enters to them, and A It is not without pleasure I see a new tells them danger is near ; they exit, set of refiners attempting improvements and the pursuers entering are led by aerial in the profession. Their attempt seems to musick caused by the genius, till they come have succeeded so far as to produce filto the scene of rocks ; there Harlequin ver of a better colour than the ordinary and Colombine are seated on a pile of kind, but more harih : It is not difficulo them, but foon ascend in a sofa, that perhaps to discern from this, what is the was before hid by the craggy rocks; the process by which there artists have made scene is hereupon changed to the palace the improvement ; but if they lose ducof Harlequin, who now appears in all B tility while they gain colour, they throw his grandeur, dismisses his rival with a away on one hand what they get on the frown, hut retains Pantaloon with great other. Perhaps what I Mall add on this courtesy ; they seat themselves and are
occasion, may point them out a remedy entertained with a dance of spirits, mon- to this objection, and they are not to be fieur Ferrere at their head ; and Panta- displeased if, in return, their fecret be ac. loon, giving bis consent, closes the enter- cidentally thrown open, among the metainment.
thods I shall name for the improvement I must here reconsider the last scene, C of the art of refining in England. Let which beggars all description ; the most us once lay down the method of renderromantick Eastern account of sumptuous ing silver absolutely pure, and the French palaces are but faint to this display of will not long excel us in their metal; por beauty, this glow of light, this profusion will our own refiners any more complain of glittering gems, which adorn the of the uncertainty of their processes, or whole, and much exceeds all expectation. that they are not able at any time to make
two bars exactly of the same colour. The INSPECTOR, in bis Paper of
I am perfectly uninformed of the meJan. 30, pursues bis Subject relating to D thod which they use at present ; it is ibe Gold and Silver Lace Trade, (see pe
probably a secret of their art, which they 35.) and trears of rbe Art of refining Silver.
keep to themselves : What I shall advance F it be enquired, says he, whether is from experiments, which have been
there is a possibility of rendering fil- made with my own hands, in small quanver, from whatsoever ore, perfetly pure, tities, but they may be calily extended to I am most certain that there is. if it be larger : And if those gentlemen will make farther asked, whether the French obtain a trial of such as are new to them, they the advantage they have over us, from e will probably find the advantage. the use of the Indian filver only, or from With regard to the production of filver their possessing this secret of refining in a from its several ores, che method varies greater degree of perfection ; it is not easy according to their diiferent nature : That to speak with so much certainty, but which is naturally pure, and in large flakes most probably it is from the latter cause ; and threads, requires only melting to rethey are in general better chemists than
parate any quantity of stony or other the English ; and there is this farther sup. matter about it : This is effected by the port of that opinion, that we know they same degree of fire which melts gold; and have often bought of our own refiners, F the metal thus produced is perfečtly white, that very filver, of which they have made soft, and ductile. When the same pure those laces, so superior in quality. I make native metal is scattered in the ore in lesser no question but there is a possibility of particles, quicksilver is put to it ; this rendering any Glver pure ; of refining it takes up the filver, and is afterwards disso perfectly as to take off all false tinges, tilled off, and the remaining metal purifiand all accidental occasions of tarnish, or ed by fire. There are the methods of in properer words, of ruft ; even that obtaining the Indian filver. Where the blue cast, to which the English filver ex.G ore is loaded with stony and other subtracted from lead has always hitherto been Itances, and arsenick and sulphur have liable, not excepted ; and as the sciences, penetrated the metal and changed its apaltho' they have been the foundation of pearance, it is powdered, and lead is addthe arts, have not been properly applied ed; it is then put into the fire ; the fulto their improvement, nor are in general phur and arsonick burn away, and the
72 OBSERVATIONS on the Pruflian MEMORIAL. Feb.
SIR, of the silver is separated from the Euro- S the stoppage of paynient of the
A pean ores. They are therefore all, more emperor's loan by his Pruffian maor less, under the same disadvantage with jesty is a publick concern, and may be that from the English lead ores ; and they attended with very bad consequences, it prove in effect all bad in colour. Hence B will not be amirs to consider his Pruthian the reason appears why the Indian filver majesty's reasons for fo doing ; and how is preferable.
far it has the colour of justice, and where This is the original difference of silver it is inconfiftent with reason. from its several ores, but this might be all His Pruffian majesty says, “ It is a rule set aside in the refining : We are therefore founded both on rearon and upon the to enquire how this is done, and how it law of nations, that when a sovereign de. may be done. The common method is nies the subjects of another sovereign that by a strong fire encreased by a continual C juftice which he is required and solicited blowing, and by the addition of lead. to render them, or when he does not do This is an easy way, and it refines a great them due justice ; as well that sovereign, deal at a time ; but instead of mending, a: his subjects, are answerable for it in jt encreases the disadvantage with regard their own special and personal name. to the lace trade ; for lead is the thing of Grot, de Jur. Bell. & Pac. This princiall others to be avoided.
ple of the law of nations is founded on Silver will be excellently refined by on- natural reason, because the subjects are ly melting it with a fourth pacide premis D reign, and subscribe to his judgment :
held to approve of the acts of their lovepurifies it from every thing but gold : If Whence it naturally follows, that they are there should have been any of this metal answerable for it ; and that when all other in it, it is easy to separate afterwards. incans are wanting, recourse must be had The filver refined by this method will be to their private properties.”—Now if we of a perfect white colour, but harsh. can possibly suppore, that a British court This fault however is to be remedied by of admiralty have unjustly, and contrary only melting again in an open crucible, to the law of nations, condemned all the sprinkling a little more nitre over it. & goods and merchandize of his Prussian Thus it becomes tough and mellow, as majesty's subjects, as complained of, then well as white, If this be judiciously the reasons of his Pruffian majesty do ro done, all the tinge of the lead is burnt far seem to be right ; for it is both jus. off, and will be found at the top in a tice, and the common method of probluish glossy dross.
ceeding of all powers, to make reprisals I shall close this paper with one method on the subjects of each other, whenever more, which I have found to produce a the subjects of one are injured by those of lilver so perfectly pure, that no defect can another : And therefore, if the seizures be charged upon it ; and by which the F complained of were illegal, there is no metal, from whatsoever ore, will be the doubt but his Prussian majesty has a right fame. Silver, after it has been refined in to make reprisals. But then, what his the common way, is to be dissolved in Prussian majesty asserts, that he may make aqua fortis : Some common fal armoniack such reprisals, by stopping the payment is to be melted in water, and this must be of the loan on Silefia, without breaking poured on the diffolution. The aqua for- the treaties of Brellau and Dresden, is not tis on this loses its power, and the silver only contrary to common sense, but is falls to the bottom in form of powder. Geven, by his own arguments, fully con. This powder is to be boiled in water re- futed, veral times ; then dried and put into a His majesty says, “ It is difficolt to crucibie ; half its weight of powdered comprehend the meaning of the English salt of tartar is to be put over it: As soon ministry, when they pretend, that Engas the whole is well melted, the process land will think herself disengaged from