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1753. PROCEEDINGS of the POLITICAL CLUB, &c. the electors to chufe that prince for alone as little able to withstand the emperor, who will be least under the influence of France in time of peace, guidance of France, and most at- as her power in time of war. We tached to the interest of this king- muft give them our aftanee in time dom; and at the same time to for- of peace as well as war, if we are tify that majority, so as to render resolved to preserve a balance of any forcible opposition to their choice A power in Europe, and consequently of the most dangerous consequence our own independency. How are to the undertakers,

we to do this? Is there any other I think, Sir, it is unanimously way than that of persuading as agreed not only in this house, but many of the electoral and other by all the princes of Europe who princes of Germany as we can, that are friends to a balance of power, it is there interest as well as ours to that in case the prefent emperor B continue the imperial diadem in the Ihould die before the election of a house of Austria ; and to enable king of the Romans, the only me- such of thein as yield to our reasons, thod for preserving the peace and to have always such a body of se. a balance of power in Europe, would gular troops on foot, as joined with be to chuse his son the present arch- The armies of Austria, may preduke Joseph to be emperor, even vent them or any prince in Gera, tho' he mould be at that time under C many from being forced by their age. This choice, I am sure, it would powerful neighbours to act against be the interest of this nation to re- the true interest of their country? commend and support; and I am as In this light, Sir, I conlider the sure, that France will leave no stone treaty and the subsidy now under unturned for the preventing this consideration, and in this light I choice. As I am no way acquaint. must look upon it as a most prudent ed with the secrets of the cabinet, Dstep, whether we succeed or not I cannot positively fay, but I in the design of getting the arch. Threwdly suspect, that she is already duke Joseph cholen king of the taking 'mealures for this purpose. Romans during the life of his father, Perhaps the has already a prince in the present emperor. I should be her eye, who by her influence, and glad that a balance of power could under her support, is to declare be preserved in Europe without our himself a candidate for the imperial e intermeddling in the affair, or bediadem. This may be the cause ing at any expence upon that acthat she is already doling out her count; but whilst France is at a subsidies so bountifully to the princes great expence in time of peace as of Germauy; and we know, that well as war, for carrying on her unless the three ecclefiaftical elec- ambitious design of overturoing that tors be secure of an immediate and balance, and rendering herself the powersul aslistance, they must either


sole arbitress of all the affairs of fly their respective territories, or Europe, we must be at fome ex vote at the next election according pence in time of peace as well as to the orders sent them by the court war, in order to defeat chat deliga. of Versailles. When we know As her design is contrary to the real this, or at least when we have great and remote interest of all the princes reason to fufpe&t such secret prac- of Europe, however much some of rices, would is not be madness in


them may be blinded by an imaus to think of no previous measures ginary and immediate intere'l, fie for defeating thein. The house must carry it on with great ari, and of Auftria will certainly do all they her expence must always valtiyexceed can; but they are by themselves any expence we may have occalioa

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PROCEEDINGS of the POLITICAL CLUB, &c. Feb. to be at; but still we must be at some, out of our power to defend ourselves otherwise when her design comes either by sea or land. to be ripe for execution, the may For this reason, Sir, whilst the have such a number of the princes several branches of the house of of Europe pre engaged to assist her, Bourbon continue to be lo united as that it will be impossible for us and they seem to be at present, and whilst the few allies we have left, to op- A the two chief branches of that house pose, much less to prevent, the exe. are attempting to make such incution, which will certainly be im- croachments upon us, I think we mediately directed either against the Mould take care not to be obliged to house of Austria or against this na- stand alone in a war against the united tion; because the destruction of power of that house ; and this we can either would be an accomplishment only do by preserving the power of of her design, as it would then be B the house of Aufria, by continuing impossible for any potentate of Eu- that house in the poression not only rope, or even for any confederacy of all its present dominions, but that could be formed in Europe, to also of the imperial diadem, and by withstand the power of France, or cultivating as much as possible a to dare to disobey her orders.

cordial union between the head and This, Sir, the house of Austria the several members of the Germanick are fully sensible of, and therefore, C body. This union it has always been if we should ever be attacked by the business of France to interrupt : France or Spain, or by both at once, For this purpose she has omitted no we may depend upon it, that at our art, she has spared no expence; defire the whole power of that house, and on this account the is now more and of all the allies that either of, diligent, and at a greater experce, us could engage, would be em- than she ever was heretofore. Is ployed in attackiug France, or the Dthis therefore a time for us to berake Spanish branches of the house of ourselves to our own bottom, or to Bourbon settled in Italy, at land; grudge the expence of two or three and whilst this continues to be the small subsidies, when the fate of case, we have no occasion to be afraid

Europe, and consequently of this of being attacked, not even by all nation, hangs upon the single thread the branches of the house of Bour- of the present emperor's life; when bon together; for when they are E it is almost certain that this fate engaged in a heavy war at land, would be determined against us, if it will be easy for us to encounter we do not take care to attach to the them all together at sea. But I con- house of Aulria as many of the fels, I have not such an opinion princes of the empire, as we can even of our naval strength, as to posibly prevail with to embark in imagine that we should be able to that cause? carry on with success a naval war F This is so evident, Sir, and so against the united force of the house obvious to every gentleman who of Bourbon, if their force were no considers the present circumslances way diverted by a land war. And of Europe, that I was surprised to let us consider, Sir, that if they hear the least objection made to the Mould, by any accidental misfors treary or subsidy now under contune happening to us, become su. fideration ; and I am persuaded, perior to us but for one month or G that the opposition arises from gentwo at sea, we hould be undone ; tlemens not duly attending to the because in that time, France would great change that has been occasion. pour in her numerous armies up. ed in the late of affairs in Europe, en us, and by that mcans pus is by the whole Spanith monarchy's


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1753. Of Lim 2-Water's preventing Putrefaction.
being brought under the dominion of a he mixed fome calx ex conchis marinis.
branch of the house of Bourbon. Whilft But at the same time he notices, that
that monarchy was under the dominion they do not, like other salts, diffolve in
of a branch of the house of Austria, that water. Nam quemadmodum (says he) dicere
house was of itself a match for the loure

se particule falis, quee ex cineribus confici2nof Bourbon; and therefore it was not tur, pleræque omnes minima bumore dijlvusnecessary for this nation, or any of the tur, aut in aquofam commutantur Sulliantiara, other powers of Europe, to give themselves Afic particula" salis, ex calce provenientes

, ? much trouble about the quarrels between contrario in fummo humore obdurantur fire these two houses ; but the, Austrian scale rigefcunt, adeo ut eafdem rurfus in aquam is now become so light, and the other converti bumorem nunquam videri:n. fo heavy, that other fares, and in par- September the 7th I began the same ticular this nation, must upon every oc- experiment on fish, putting into each of cation throw themselves into the former; the phials a dram weight of a freth had. and the more of the states of Europe dock; there being in the one five ourses we can get to join with us in doing so, of thell lime-water, and as much founthe less of our own weight will it be E fain-water in the other. The fountainnecessary for us to throw in ; consequent- water itunk in two days time; but the ly, this treaty, with the sublidy atrend- lime-water smelled only of fresh fish, ing it, I muft look on as a piece of the and continued ro to do till January 1752, greatest economy, instead of being a piece when it was taken out as sve:t as ever ; of extravagance. It is a present expence

while that in the common water was of a few thousands, which may here- putrid enough, as may easily be imagined. after fave us the expen

of millions ; I mixed one part of filtered ten months for which reason I shall most heartily give cold herring-brine, which was of a deep it my concurrence.

reddish brown colour, and very transpa(This JOURNAL to be continued in our nex..] rent, with two parts of lime-water.

The mixture became immediately white 影迷送米米米

and turbid, without any observable

change of smell. But on adding two Ibe following Experiments lately published at

parts more of lime-water, it smelled of EDINBURGH in a little Tract, inuiled, A

the spirit of fal ammoniac. The mixture Dissertation on Quick-Lime, and LimeWater, by CHARLIS ALSTON, M. D. D and became as clear as water above :

precipitated a white mucous substance, very much deserve ibe Attention of the Peo.

And the volatile alcali being driven off, ple of ibis Kingdom, and eberefore we it smelled only of well and recently cured bave given them a place in cur Magazine.

herrings. Old falted beef brine, treated IME-WATER, says this ingenious the same way, gave the very same phas

physician, prevents, or long pro- nomena, tracts the putrefaction of animal sub- And again, in answer to another phy. fances. The 22d January 1752, having fician upon the same subject, he says, in one phial stone lime-water, and in E Although by renewing the lime-water on another fountain-water, I put into each it, I believe flesh might be preserved from a little bit of fresh beef, and corked them corruption, I do not know how long ; up. I did not draw the corks till the ift and the same lime-water I found preventof February, when the fountain-water ed corruption more than three months ; was become very foetid, but the lime-wa- yet it is not to be expected, that it would ter not in the least tainted. And thus it never become fætid, But that “when continued till the ift of May, when I the putrefaction began, it became much cook both out. That in the fountain- more offenlive in this than in common. water was corrupted and abominably fce. F water," is what I never observed, but ra. tid ; but the other quite sound, and not ther the contrary, in every experiment i at all putrid, more than when put into made ; and particularly in the following the lime-water. There were adhering to the sides of this lime-waterphial, nu. April 20, 1752. I poured into one merous little crystalline bodies formerly phial a gill of chalk lime-water, and indescribed. Which are very different from to another as much of an infusion of ca. what Leeuwenhoek calls a salt, in his momile flowers in water, made as strong Obferuationes de figuris falis, p. 137–143: G as posible ; and put into each a diem Where he gives the figures of some small weight of fresh salmon. The infusion was particles, of the lime probably, which very fine and transparent, and of the his glaffes discovered, both in water colour of a tinilure of aloes. April 24, wherein he put sorme calx lapidea que

Leo- it was become turbid, somewhat farid, dio advebitur ; and also water with which and had some mouldy spots on its sur ace. February, 1753






€6 MISCHIEFS of GAMING and Routs.

Feb. April 28, more tubid, still fætid, mouldy to be hoped, the company will order them {pots goie. May 1, it smelled less foetida

to be made this next rearon. iy, and more of camomile ; the smell of

And as the game laws are now carried
the flowers much lessening, and sometimes so strictly into execution *, that those
as it were overcoming the foetor. Af. whose estates are at a distance from Lou-
ter five or six weeks, the scent became don, can never have any fresh game at
more disagreeable ; the infusion prccipi. their table, it would be worth their while
tated a good deal of niny stuif, but con- A to try this experiment ; for if it holds,
tinued turbid. After they had stood ma- we might then have all sorts of game
cerating for Gixty-eight days, I took both sent freth to London, even from Ireland
out. That which was in the intusion, and the northernmost parts of Scotland.
was of a dark brown colour, very ten- To which we shall add the advantage of
der and foetid ; neitlier colour, smell, our having fresh salmon, fresh trout, &c.
taste, nor confitence of salmon remain.

at a very moderate price here at London.
ing: Whereas the piece that was in the
lime-water, was quite sound, retaining To the AUTHOR of the LONDON

iis proper taste, smell, confiftence, and

colour ; being Nill reddish, and only a
little blanched, but not in the least foetid.
When I had kept both liquors about fix T is to be wished, that we had some
weeks longer, and the lime-water began publick paper of entertainment, that,
to itink, I filtered both ; and observed, free from politicks and party, might ani-
that the putrefaction of the insulion was madvert upon the irregularities, whicle
much more offensive than that of the from time to time are, apt to creep into
time-water. And having mixed une part the manners of a people ; I remember
of this fætid lime water with two parts the days of good queen Anne, when I
of freth lime-water, observed also, though was more in the great world than I have
the mixture was in a close corked pliial, been of late : I have heard it observed
that in a day's time it lost its fætor, re- then, as well as often fince, that the po-
taining only a filliy smell, which fome liteness, which distinguished that particu-
compared to that of crabs, others to that lar æra, was in a great measure owing to
of lobiters. If therefore lime water is tlie genteel raillery, which was conveyed
more antiseptic than a strong infution of p to the town in Papers then pablimed
camomile flowers, I leave it to my friend weekly under the titles of Tatlers and
to judge, whether it makes only “ some Spectators ; but as there are no checks
Imall refiftance to putrefaction.”

of that kind now, every person, so dil-
I never thoughé the virtues of lime. posed, plays the fool without fear or wit.
water consisted only in correcling putre- Gaming, which at best can produce no
faclion ; but I was very glad to find good consequences, is of late run into
that it had that quality ; and conse- luch a vice, that the happiness of the
quently was perfectly safe in such cates, married state is in a great measure de-
wherein otherwise it might have been E ftroyed by it ; the care of the family,
hurtful, and was generally reckoned so. and the education of the children while
And it gave me great pleasure to observe, they are young, which is the province of
that a small quantity of quick-lime the mother, are in hundreds of instances
could prevent the corruption of a great intirely given up and sacrificed to a game
deal of cominon water ; and consequent- a: cards. There is no moderation in the
ly be signally usuful to mariners in long pursuit of this pleasure, or let me call it
vy, ages, by contributing several ways to by its proper name, of this vice. Those
slic health of that valuable part of man-


riotous meetings, nor improperly called kind, on which thc prosperity of the na- routs t, were first begun by people of rion not a litile depends, and for whose quality. It is itrange, that any thing, fake criefly i have published this paper. that has such an affinity to mobbing,

Beticies what the author has observed, should take its rife among those, from with reipect to the preserving of common whom we should expect a better taste. water on board our ships, these experi- But see the force of bad example, and ments deserve our attention, particularly how fond people are of imitating their si present, on two other accounts; for betters in their worst fashions. Thefo ii herrings could be preserved fresh for G routs have been spreading lower and lowfive or six weeks, without altering their er, till now they are come so low as delicious taste or high fiavour, it would among the bucaneers : People of this do-, be a great advantage to our herring fin. nomination have their routs, but with fry; and as the necessary experiments some improvements ; for out of a partimay be made a: lo small an expence, it is cular ambition to affront religion and

decency, • See our Magazine fos la Terr, p. 463, 599 † S« our Magazine for laft Teaty

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1753. FORMATION of the human FET U S. decency, they hold them on the Sabbath Seven days after the conception, we day. Perhaps nothing could happen fo may with the naked eye discover the first efeciually to put an end to them among lineaments of the fetus, but as yet withpeople of quality as this, which looks out any form. At the end of these seven like a burlesque upon rouis; I wish it may, days we can perceive only what may be but if they continue to spread among seen in an egg at the end of 24 hours of the lower people, they will have several incubation, a little lump of jelly almost bad eifces.

A transparent, which has already some folia I am an inhabitant of a quarter of dity, and in which we may distinguish the town where this enormity has ap- the head and the trunk, as it is of an oblong peared, and I beg you will give this a form, and the upper part, which replace in your Magazine, to try if it may presents the trunk, is longer and smaller prove a hint to the parties to drop it, in than the lower. We likewife see some which cale I shall drop it also ; but if it small fibres like a bird's tust, which grow is continucd, I hope you will give me out from the middle of the body of the leave to trouble you once more with some fætus, and end at that membrane in remarks upon a practice, which is so high B which it is inclosed, together with the an insult upon religion and good manners. , liquor that surrounds it. These fibres

afterwards form the umbilical vessel or

Sir, &c. Eavel-string. [The remarks our correspordens mentions, will A fortnight after conception, we begin be very acceptable. ]

to diftinguish the head, and to discover ile

most remarkable features of the face : The Toebe AUTHOR of the LONDON

nore is as yet but like a little prominent MAGAZINE,

C thread, and perdendicular to that line which SIR,

indicates the separation of the lips. We AVING already given you the may perceive two little black points in

the place of the eyes, and two little in the egs, and the various degrees by holes in that of the ears : The body which it arrives at perfection, I thall of the foetus has alto grown a little bignext give you from the same author, ger, and on the two sides of the upper the history of the formation of the human part of the trunk, and at the bottom fætus in the womb, as far as it can be collected from the observations of anatomifts.

of the lower part, we see little protuD

berances, which are the first traces of Our author, the learned Buffon, be. the legs and arms, and the length of gins with observing, that no such exact the whole body is tben about five lines. history can be given of the formation of A week afterwards, that is to say, the human fætus in the womb, as of at the end of three weeks, the body the formation of a chick in the egg, be- of the foetus has not grown but about cause opportunities for observation rel- a line longer, but the arms and legs, the dom occur, therefore we can know no hands and feet are apparent: The growth more of it than what may be gathered E of the arms is quicker than that of the from the writings of anatomits, surgeons, legs, and the fingers are separated before and midwives ; from which he tells us, the toes. At the same time the internal that in three or four days after concep- organization of the fetus begins to be tion, there appears to be in the matrix sensible: The bones are represented by or womb an oval bubble, whose long- little threads as fine as hairs, and the eit diameter is fix lines t in length, and ribs may be distinguished, which are as its shortest four. This bubble is formed yet but like threads regularly disposed by a membrane which is extremely fine, upon each side of the spine. The arms,

F and contains a limpid liquor very much the legs, the fingers and toes, are also resembling the white of an egg. In this represented by the same fort of threads. liquor there may already be perceived In a month's time the foetus is above a few small fibres united together, which an inch in length: In the fituation which are the first sketches of the foctus; and it naturally takes amidst the liquor with npon the surface of this bubble we fee which it is surrounded, it is a litrle bent : spread, a net of small fibres which covers The membrane which contains the whole one half of this bubble from one end is increased both in bigners and thickness: of the long axis as far as the middle of G The whole mass is itill of an oval fithe bubble, that is to say, as far as the gure ; and now its longest diameter is circle supposed to be formed by a re- about an inch and a half, and its borteft volution of the mort axis.

Thcse are

about an inch and a quarter. The hu. the first traces of the placenta.

man Mape of the fatus is no longer

doubriul Slecur Magazine for Left year, p. 458. | 1 lins in mcafure is the 12th part of an issb.

1 2

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