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Ireland, poor fpin




PURPL E discovered. App

I must add, hath almost always a share in our dircountry

e customs coveries, and all that attention can do is but sheets

care the to push luck to the improvement of naas in

! it will tural knowledge, as at play to the imthep

ing the provement of one's fortune. I observed 'greater ihat the buceira (for I would preserve to

these them their Latin name) were commonly e by A collected together round certain Itones, or heir under arches of land, wluch the sea bad in,

made hollow by washing away the fans! - people underneath. I remarked, I say, that the when they be- buccina were assembled fometimes in such in their wool and great quantities in these places, that you vely transported from any might gather them up in handfuls there, neland to any port in Great- whereas they lay widely dispersed every tain, and find that they may have a where else. I observed at the same time thigher price for both than they used to B that these stones or arches of land were Have from the French smugglers, they will covered with certain grains, whose figure all become zealous against allowing any somewhat resembled an oval. The length clandestine exportation to foreign parts ; of these grains was somewhat more than an instance whereof, a noble lord told us, three lines, and their thickness somewhat has already happened at Cork in Ireland. more than one ; they appeared to me to

As to this bill's having been hurried "contain a whitish liquor, inclining to a through the house, Sif, the Hon. gentle- yellow. This resemblance in colour to man who said so, did not certainly con- Cthe liquor of the buccinum, and the manner sider the time when it was moved for, in which the buccina were always afsembled "which was February the 27th, so that it round these little grains, gave me a notion will be a full month to-morrow fince it that there might be drawn from them a was first moved for; and such a short bill purple tincture, such as is drawn from which has been a month in passing thro' that fim : I must own that a conje&ture this house, cannot surely be laid to have can scarce have a more Night foundation : Geen hurried ; nor do I believe it either however I took some of the grains imhas, or ever will occalion any mobs mediately from the stones to which they anning the people : The late one at Nor. D were adherent, and making use of the wichi was occasioned by a combination first linen and the least coloured that preamong the workmen to raise their wages; sented itfelf at the instant, I squeezed and very probably thic riors at Bradford, foine of the juice upon the rules of my acid o:her places, were using to the same thirt; they appeared to me to be a little

; erule; for all sensible farmers, and all Toiled by it, but I saw no other colour maners of manufactures muft approve of than a yellowish cait, which I discerned this boib; and the mob never consider any with difficulty in certain places. Divers ching that does not immediately affed E objects that drew my attention made me Chem, which this bill certainly does not forget what I had done to my ruffles; I 2present, and, I believe, never will, thought no more of them, when casting as I have Thewn that the exportation of my eyes hy chance upon my ruffles a little our manufactures will probably increase, while after, I was struck with an agreeand consequently the wages of all work- able surprise ; I saw a very beautiful men in that way will rise, or greater purple colour on thiore places where the numbers of them will be employed, grains had been bruised. I could scarce which is a consequence every Britih sub- believe a change so quick and fo great ; I jest ought to wish for ; and therefore I am Frepeated the trial by wetting my ruftics for the bill's being patied into a law, with the juice of some others that I picke

{This JOURNAL 10 be continued in our out with care, as the whiteft or rather Magazine for January, 1754.)

leaft yellow ; I squeezed them on places of my ruffles untouched before, which at hrít gave no colour that approached to

red; yet I had scarce fixt my eyes on Tke Diljirtarien ibe Purple of the Anti- them two or three minutes, but I saw

ENTS, from Dr. TEMPLEMAN, con G them take a purple colour like that which rbied. Scep. 559.)

the former grains had given ; this purple W

HILST I was considering, says colour is at least as beautiful as what is

Mr. De Reaumur, the sell-hiih I drawn from the buccinum; my only fear have been mentionine, I chanced to find was that it would be more fading, and ou the sea hole a new tincture of purple, confequently lefs proper for dying. The wbieh I was noi in quest of. Chance


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1753 Experiments and Observations about it.

599 fea water served immediately to clear up on the plastering at the window ; fcarce this point, I wathed my ruffles in it as had I continued a few minutes to ob. much as I could, without perceiving any furve what eficct the liquor would produce, alteration in their new colour, and they but I saw the purple colour appear. Thš have preserved it, notwithstanding a great led me to conjecture, that it i placed the nnmber of washings through which they pieces of linen that I had wetted with have passed since ; I mult own, however, the liquor near the window, they also that each wahing weakens it, although it A miglit turn red like the plantering. doth not entirely remove it.

This conjeciure fuon ripened into cer. The reader will imagine, that my curi- tainty, for no sooner had I placed the liofity was roused at this new discovery, nen on the window, than I saw ic tinged and that I gathered up as many of these with a beautiful purple. grains as I could before the tide cane in, The cause of so sudden a change was in order to make experiments at home. theo casy to perceive ; that ince my No sooner was I got into my clcret than I linen had continued io preferve the white began to squeeze out the juice of some of colour of the liquor with which it was them upon different pieces of linen; but B wetted, while I left it in the middle of the success did not answer my expectation, my chamber, and on the contrary had and I had as much rearon now to be sur- taken a purp!c, when I put it in the winprized at the failure, as before at the pro- dow, this exfuit could be attributed only duction of so sudden a colour. In less to the different manner in which the air than two or three minutes my linen had acted upon ic in these diferent circumpassed from white to red in my first ex- Nances. Who couid have devited that a periments; and now at the end of two little more or a little leis circulation of air or three hours I did not perceive the least could have produced fo fuddenly such a alteration. I knew that there was nothing diversity of effects ? For it must be ob, which brought out the colour of the li- served likewise, that the casements of the quor of buccinum so speedily as the heat of chamber were all the time open : All the the fun or fire ; but I recolleted, that experiments I made afterwards confirmed there had been no fun-fhine at the time of this opinion, that it was the air alone my experiments on the sea thore. Howe which caused the difference. It happened ever, to be satisfied on this head, as there even when I exposed pieces of linen wetwas no fun-line at present, I placed the ted to the open air, in the midst of a linen that had been wetted with the liquor D court, and, to prevent the wind from of the grain very near the fire; they dried blowing them away, put fomc little stones there, but without any change of colour. upon the corners, that all the corners, on

Confounded, and not knowing what which the stones reiled, did not change elle to have recourse to, I was preparing their colour at all, whilst the rest of the to return to the sea fide, to see if the linen took a very beautiful purple ; the. grains I had brought from thence would effect of a greater or a less impression of resume their power, or had entirely loft the, air iewed itself in a very fenfible it by being transported; when casting my E manner, when I exposed some of this lie eyes by chance towards the window of quor in a glass or tea-cup on a place my room, I perceived some spors of a where the wind blowed freely ; all the beautiful red, such as I was seeking; upper surface was coloured red, whilst the these spots were on the plastering of the inferior remained whitish. wall of the window ; the liquor of some N. B. I cannot forbear throwing in a grains, that I had squeezed near the win- query, how far these experiments and dow, had spurted on the wall, and there observations may tend to give light taken the colour that had nipt away from into the nature of languification in me. In pursuing this Proteus, my first F animals, and to make it probable notion at the fight of this colour in the that air mixes with the blood in the window, was that the alkali of the lime lungs ? An useful reflection may he contributed to its production, and that drawn likewise from the great din my ruffles might retain, from their wash- versity of effects occafioned by a little ing, enough of that salt to produce the more or a little less air, which may effect. In order to assure myself con- solve many difficulties in the animal terning it, I took off a piece of the ceconomy, and new the mischief of plastering from the window, and having G a closer, and the benefit of a more put it on my table 1 wetted it with the

open air, cren in such small degrees liquor of the grains ; but it only served to as one mould otherwise have thought confound my reasoning, and to baulk my inconfiderabie. expectation, for no colour appeared. At Whatever experiments I have tried, says length I went and squeezed some grains Mi, de Reaumur, they have not been fucAppendix, 5753


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600 Of MEN who lived to an uncommon A Ġe. App.
cessful enough to discover to me what of the sea.coast (for instead of alii in the
those little grains are : I make no doubt, Latin, the Greek text gives it the flere
however, that they are the eggs or spawn men) consider it as the flower of the fucus,
of some fith, but in vain have I attempted from whence the alga aiterwards comes ;
to find what species of fish produces them; which is very conforınable to what our
they are all of such a determinate bigness fishermen think, who take it for the grains
as the egg, of the same species ihould na- or feed of the same plant.
turally be ; and in whatever reason you A Laftly, he adds, that the purple-filh
observe them, you find no change either derive their liquor from it ; for the ex.
in their length or thickness, which hinders preflion flos purpuræ in Aristotle means that
one from conceiving them any ways ve- liquor. Now this agrees well likewise

with our grains, from which we may As the buccinam appears commonly as- imagine the bucciru19 derives its liquors sembled in great numbers round about We have given their resemblances, and these eggs, it gave me great inclination to fhall now consider their disparities : believe them the spawn of that filh ; yet First, he says fir boc æfatis initio, whereas they appear somewhat too big to come Bour grains do not begin to appear until from so litile a fish : All the experiinents the end of summer, or rather the beginI have made, have not been able to clear ning of autumn. Next, these grains are up that point. In vain have I diffected roadherent to the stones, that they are not abundance of buccina at different times ; easily separated. We scarce ever find any I could never find such eggs in their body. removed from the place where they were I have shut up buccina in earthen pots put naturally fastened. Lastly, all chat Ari. into the sea, in such manner that the stotle says in this passage, may very well water had a free passage, and yet no such c be understood of some little species of the

eggs or spawn was to be found there, fucus tin&torius. Shell fish feed on it; and which I think must have happened, if it it being proper to give the dye, it was had truly been their spawn.

natural enough to think that the purpleThis, however, is certain, that those fish derived their colour from thence. grains are either the spawn, or the nourish- It is easy to conceive, that the liquor of ment of the buccina, which they are ex. these grains might have been squeezed out tremely fond of; for otherwise why in a manner infinitely more commodious Thould they affeinble so much about those than what the ancients made use of in grains ? But uncertain must we remain D order to get the liquor of the buccinum; whether the buccinum gives the purple li- all the labour requisite is to gather up the quor to these grains, or on the contrary grains, of which there is great plenty ; derives its own purple from them.

and after having washed them in the sea I have fought with great care in the water to clean away the filth, which writers of natural bistory, and particularly might otherwise by its mixture alter the in Aristotle and Pliny, to see if I could purple colour, to put them under little find any thing that could give light in this prelles, and squecze out all their liquor in fuhjeet; but have not found any paffage E an instant. The liquor of the buccinum, where they have spoken clearly of it. on the contrary, could not be drawn oef

One single passage in Aristotle appeared without employing a great deal of time. to me to have some relation to it, but having well considered the whole, I remain

An Account of some MEN wubo' lived 10 as ex. uncertain whether Arifotle meant to

traordinary AGE. speak of those grains that are the subject TTILA, king of the Huns, who of our enquiry. This paffage is at the end of the 13th chapter of the 6t!) book 124, and then died of his excers, on the of the history of animals, and I will give first night of his second nuptial, with onc it in the Latin version of Gaza.

of the most beautiful princeIcs of the age. Defirtur ex porte in hulle portuan purgamer- Piastus, king of Poland, who, from the tum quoddam illius maris, quid alie nomine rank of a peulant, was ra sed to that of a piscos appellant, colore pallidum, ficrem alça prince, A. D. 824, lived to be 120, and id elle ali i vc!urt, atq; ex co fueriam algam governed his subjects so prudently, that provenire : fir koc o futt's initio, cogi rumi he gained immortal glory amongst his 1 isciculi im ofreæ hujus loci aluttur ; pur- countrymen. Durum quoq; fuum firem kine trabere, non- Hippocrates, the best of physicians, sulli exifiimarit.

Glived to 104. But Asclepiades, a Persian There are in reality in this paffage doctor, reached 159. Galen lived, in un: several things which fein to agrec to the difturbed health, to 104. Sophocles, the grains we are speaking of. The pale tragick poet, to 130. Democritus, the colour lie gives to that species of fucus is pliiosopher, lived allo to 104. And Eus the same as of cur grains; the inhabitants



1753. Spinsters Remonstrance against the Marriage Act. 601 phrator taught his scholars at vpwards of tharine Milton, whom he got with child, 100. Finally, Epimenides, of Cicet, ac- and did penance in the church for it. cording to the teftimony of Theopompus, Some months before his death the earl of lived upwards of 157.

Arundel brought him to king Charles I. Pliny, the great naturalist, afsures us, at London ; but, through change of air, that in the city of Parma, there were and high living, he died soon after, on two of 130 years, three of 120 years ; the 15th of Nov. 1535, aged upwards of and that in many cities of Italy men lived A 150, fome lay, 152, and was buried in much older ; at Arminium especially, one Westminster Abbey. He nept away moft Marcus Apponius, who was 150.

of his time, and was over-grown witla In our own part of the world, Lau. hair, according to that of the old poet, rence Hutland lived, in the Orknies, to 170.

From head to heel, his body had all over, James Sands, towards the latter end of A quick-set, thick set, natiral hairy cover, the last century, died at 140, and his spouse at 120.-In Sweden it is common Henry Jenkins, of Yorkshire, was 169 to meet people of above an 100; and B when he died. (See his Hean, with a Rudbekius affirms, from the bills of particular account of him, p. 368.) mortality signed by his brother, who was Thomas Damme, of Leighton, near a bishop, that in the small extent of 12 Minihul, in the palatinate of Chester, parishes, there died in the space of 37 was 154 years of age when he died, and years 232 men betreen 100 and 140 years was buried at Min hul aforesaid, on the of age:--Yet, what are these to the na- 20th of February, 1648, as it appears by tive of Bengal, who according to Ferdi- his grave-flone, cut in words at length, nand Lopez de Castegneda, historiographer c not figures, and to prevent disputes, as royal) was near 340, when he was pre- the event is so remarkable, it is now to be sented to the vice-roy of the Indies ?- feun in the church regifler, signed by the And as the story is no less curious than Rev. Mr. Thomas Hoidford, vicar, and pleasant, I beg leave to add a few par- by Thomas Kennerly and John Warburticulars concerning this celebrated long ton, churchwardens, who were then livliver, as confirmed by the above-mention- ing. I thought proper to mention this ed author : He tells us, “ that the said relation, as it never was taken notice of native remembered that he had seen the by any chronologers ; tew know it, but city wherein he dwelt, and which was D it ought to be handed down to posterity. one of the most populous in the Indies, a very inconsiderable place ----That he had

The humble Remonftrance and Petition of several changed his hair, and recovered his teetli,

SPINSTERS of ibe County of Kent, (as four times ; when the vice-roy faw him,

inforted in tbe London Evening Poit) in his head and beard were black, but his

Bebalf of the mfilvis and many Thousand hair thin : That in the course of life he

orber dijtrefled Damsels of the jaid County, had 70 wives, some of which died; the

grievously complaining, jets forib, reft he put away.--The king of Portugal E THE

HAT the petitioners are now arrived caused a itrict search to be made into this at the proper age of answering the matter, and an annual account of the ends of their creation, by fulfilling the state of this man's health to be brought first commandment; and that the pehim by the return of the feet from India. titioners are alio very detirouxs of doing it. -This long liver was a native of Bengal, That the peritioners can with truth and and died at the age of 370.

sorrow of heart say, that they find the The relation is very curious, and I have men not so ready to obey the first, and, produced my authority for it. The reader as the petitioners conceive, the principal may put what faith in it he pleases. If commandment, as themselves. all finally speak of the three famous That the petitioners, being at church, English long livers, the ti ftimonies of were truck with gref and aitonishment which may be received us of undoubted on hearing the doctor read a paper, called, veracity.

An AEt to prevent clardifline Marr.dgs, And first, of old Parre. - This person which the petitioners appreherd will make was born at Winnington, in the county of the men till more averle to muiiimony, Salep, A. D. 14.83; ne palicd his youth and consequently rob them of all their in very hard labour ; and, what is no lefs Ghopes, and render thesr cafes quite defpeJaudable, in fobriety and chattity.- At 28 rate. he married his first wile Jane, by whom That the petitioners, not understanding he had two children, neither of which the ineaning of the word clandeine, die were long lived; the first died at the age apply to their Rev. paftor (who 4 a good of a month ; the other lived but a few man, and always ready to stand their Wars.--At 102 he fell in love with Ca- friend, as far as he is abie) wiio teidth

4 G 2

602 Spinsters Remonftrance against the Marriage Ac. App. that the meaning was, they must not The petitioners apprehend, this clause marry such men as they themselves lik’d, is neither equitable nor consistent with except their parents also approved of sacred scripture. By this clause, if them.

woman was not only promised marriage That the petitioners, not at all pleased before witnesses, but even asked three with this explanation, did turn to the times in church, and made the publick marriage ceremony in their prazer books, talk of the parith ; the man may, notwhere they did not find that matrimony A withstanding, refuse her, and the be left was instituted for the pleasure of their without remedy or recompence. Man is parents, but that it was ordained for the by nature false, and weak woman too procreation of children, and for a remedy credulous and complying. Ungenerous against fornication.

man is but too apt to glory in his falleThat the petitioners do humbly con- hood, and to triumph in the most barceive thofe ends will not be answered by barous treachery ; there was no occasion this act. St. Paul (ays, It is better to marty to tempe him so be more perfidious by an than to burn; but, it they buin for one, act. How often has the cruel spoiler, by and are compelled to marry another, how B a well-diffembled parton, by fwearing that will their fiame be quenched ? Nor will the priest should at the holy altar join it, they apprehend, answer the purpose their hands, by fighs, and tears, and of

procreation near, so well as if they vows, and all the soft, but strong artillery married the men they like ; tho', pxrhaps, of love, forced the tender virgin's heart, it may tend to binder fornication, by bruke thro' the feal of virtue, cropp'd fubftituring in its roon adultery.

the fwcet flow; then fled, and left her The act says, “ That all marriages, to bewail the loss for life! Is not a rape where either of the parties are under the age of 21


of woman's body now death by law ? years (except widows or What are a man's warm proteftations of widowers) without con ent of parents or ciernal love, and calling all the heavenly guardians, shall be null and void to all powers to witness, he will surely marry a intents and purpofes whatsoever."

young woman, but a rape of her mind, a The petitioners cannot but think that forcing lier consent by a thousand per. this clause directly contraciets the word juries? And mail he go unpunished ? of God; for they find it writzen, Sc. And must the poor, deluded, injured Mark x. 7, 8, 9. For ibis cauje fall a man women have no court to apply to for releave bis faiber ord molber, and cleve te Dis D dress? Will the keeper of the king's

and they waint jnail be one forfh: So conscience say, this is equitable ? no, nor bin ebey are no more twain, but one flejh. is it consonant to sacred fcripture, which

:at iberefore God ba:b joined togeiber, let mot says, Exod. xxii. 16. And if a man entice man put ajunder. Now the petitioners are a maid that is not betrorbed, and lie witb ber, hun bly of opinion, that those pairs may be fball surely endow ber to be bis wife.. he most truly said to be joined together Whenever a virgin is deluded of her virtue by God, whose lazarts, whose souls, whole by a single man, it must, it ought, to be Ipints are, as well as their bodies, united presumed, that he prevailed upon her. and joined together. Will any man say, Echro the promise of marriage ; and therethat when a parent compcls a daughter to fore he thould be compelled to fulfil his murry the man the haies, that such a contract. This is equity ; this is scrips, cuupie arc joined together by God? No, ture ; and such petitioners with they such matches are made by the devil Mam- could say, this is law too : For, if it was, mon, and generally bcget a numerous and and proper care was taken to get rid of wretched olispring, called contention, all those poisonous vermin, the present. jealousy, adultery, murder, &c. If then common prostitutes, by providing for in fe, whose souls as well as bodies are F them, either at home or abroad, some united in mat:imony, are joined together method of getting their bread honctly by by God, and made one'fieih, why does labour, the town could no more be pe-, inan's ac strive to put them alunder, and stered with such abandoned incendiaries ; attempt to take them twain? Butindeed which would certainly prevent many rob. rettier th: act, por any other, can pure beries and murders, and be no small step. sily make luch marridges null and void to G towards a general reformation. all intents and purpolvo whatsoever ; be.

These petitioners upon the whole think caute the intent and purpose of piocie- this act much better calculated for the en107, which is the chiet end of matri

couragement of common prostitutes, than mony, will nevertheleis be answered. to make the honest, but poor, petitioners

The act lays farther, “ That no suit happy mothers of lawful children. mall be brought in the ecclebastical court, The petitioners therefore molt humbly to conpe' a'y marriage hy reason of any

pray, &c. Curitiact of matrimony,”.


wife ;

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