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354 PROCEEDINGS of the POLITICAL CLUB, &c. Aug. as if the learned gentleman's doc- tised by the church of England, is trine should prevail, it might be a part of our establishment : Will contended, that the children of a any gentleman fay, that we ought not Jew, who had resided seven years in to allow any person to live amongst the plantations, could not be deemed us, that will not in every punailio natural born subjects, tho' all born conform to the profession and pracin our plantations, unless they de- A rice of the church of England ? clared themselves Christians, because Surely, Sir, I am not to look upon the aĉt does not say, that such per

every man as my enemy who differs sons and their pofterity shall be deem- from me in opinion upon any point ed his majesty's natural born subjects of religion. This would be a moft of this kingdom, notwithstanding unchristian way of thinking ; there. any law or custom to the contrary. sore I must think, that the Jews are If then by the law and the custom B in much the same case with the as it now ftands, a Jew born in his other diffenters from the church of majesty's dominions is to be deemed England : We ought not to look a natural born subject of this king- on them as enemies to our ecclefiardom, what mighty favour are we to tical establishment, but as men whose grant the Jews by the bill now before conscience will not allow them to us? Only that the father may, by an conform to it; therefore we may, act of naturalization, to be passed C in charity we ought to indulge them by some future parliament, and so far as not to endanger thereby which the parliament may refuse if our ecclesiastical establishment; and it pleases, enjoy those privileges, from them we have less danger to which his children would of course fear than from any other sort of disbe intitled to enjoy, if born in the senters, because they never attempt king's dominions, and which even to make converts, and because it the father might intitle himself io, D would be more difficult for them to by residing seven years in our plan- fucceed in any such attempt. Nay, tations, or by engaging in several we know, that by the strict tenets of forts of manufactures here at home. their religion, every man is excluIs this a favour which can be attend- ded from it who is not of the seed of ed with any dangerous consequences? . Israel ; and as they cannot intermarIs it not a favour which we ought to ry with a strange woman, we need grant, as it may, and in my opinion E not fear their having success in concertainly will, induce several rich verting our women. foreign Jews to come and reside in From the Jews therefore, Sir, we this country, which must necessarily have nothing to rear with respect to be attended with an increase not on- our ecclesiastical establishment, and ly of our trade and manufactures as to our civil establishment, they but also of our publick revenue. are by the laws now in being fuffici.

- As to what has been said, Sir, about Fently excluded from ever having any Christianity's being a part of our share in it ; for unless they become establishment, and that we ouglit Coristian, they cannot be so much as not to allow the professed enemies excisemen or custom-house officers. of our ecclesiaitical establithment to Confequently, Sir, as they can never come and live amongst us, no more have any fhare in the government of than we would allow ihe profefied this country, our indulging them fo enemies of our civil establishment to G far as to allow them to live amongst come and live amongst us, it is an us, and to enjoy the protection of argument that goes a great dead too our laws as to their persons and profar. Not only Chritianity, but perties, can no way interfere with Christianity as profetied and prac. any prophecy relating to them, nor 4



355 with the curse pronounced against that our having a great number of them, which plainly relates to their Jew merchants settled amorgftus being established as a people in a would increale our commerce and country which they could call their the export of our manufactures ; own, by having the government of and though I do not admit that the it in their own hands; and this, I Jews are the only brokers, or that think, it is plain they can never rea. A they have such weight with the refonably expect, until they have ac

tailers and consumers in any country knowledged Christ to be the Messias, as is contended for, yet I am of opi. and have embraced his religion. If nion, that it would be of great serthe indulgence proposed to be allow. vice 10 us, to have the Jew. brokers ed them in this country could contri- in all countries engaged both in intebute towards this desirable end, as I rest and inclination to recommend think it will, I hope every gentle. B our manufactures. This, I think, man will admit, that it is a strong cannot be disputed, and as little can argument in favour of the bill now it be disputed, that our pafing this under our consideration.

bill will contribute towards our ob. As to our foreign commerce, Sir, taining this desirable end, so far as and the export of our manufactuses, relates to the Jew-brokers in all fo. the very argument that has been reign countries. made use of against the Jews is, in C But supposing, Sir, that our hav. my opinion, a strong argument in ing Jew merchants settled amongst their favour. It has been said, that us could no way contribute towards by means of their interest among increasing our foreign commerce or the Jew.brokers in other countries, the export of our manufactures, yet they may ingross the whole trade to it is certain, that our having rich themselves, and exclude all other Jews come to settle here with their English merchants from having any d families will contribute towards inshare in it ; for if those Jew-brokers creasing our home consumption of have so much influence among the every fort, and, consequently, will natives where they reside, as to pre- increase both our home manufactures vail with them to buy from one mer- and our publick revenue. Suppose chant, or one house, rather than an- a Jew worth 100,00ol. Mould, upother, surely they may prevail with on passing this bill, come here to them to buy the manufactures of one settle with his family, and that he

E country rather than those of any spent his whole income, or 3000l. other; consequently, they will prevail yearly : Can we suppole that less with them to buy the manufactures than 300l. of this annual expence sent from hence by their brethren, would be laid out in British manurather than the manufactures of any factures for the consumption of himother country whatever ; and as we self and family ? For, I believe, the have now forcign rivals in all sorts Jews are as little guilty of wearing

F of manufactures, this will always foreign manufactures as any set of prevent its being in the power of people whatever. Would not this our Jew merchants to exact too high be an increase of our home manu. a profit upon such of our inanufac. factures to the amount of 300l. yeartures as they send to foreign markets, ly? Then if we suppose that of eve. even supposing they fhould ingross ry 20s. spent by a man of easy for. to themselves alone the exportation G tune, there is acs. goes towards the of all our manufactures. Therefore, payment of taxes, would not this be Sir, if there be any truth in this fact, an addition of 1500l. a year to the the argument to be drawn from is is, gross produce of our publick reve


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356 PROCEEDINGs of the POLITICAL CLUB, &c. Aug. nue? And if by our passing this bill,

Mr. President, 40 or 50 such Jews should be induced to come and settle with their families in this kingdom, it is easy to HE bill which has been now compute what an increase it would read a second time to us, is de. make both to our manufactures and signed for putting an end to an evil the produce of our publick revenue. A which has been long and grievously

This advantage is so certain, so de- complained of, an evil by which monftrable, that I am surprised to many of our best families have often hear the bill opposed by any gentle. suffered, and an evil which our laws man who has ever complained of have ofíen endeavoured to prevent, the decay of our trade, or of the but always hitherto without success; insupportable burden of our debts and yet it is an evil which, one and taxes ; and I am the more fur- B would think, should rarely happen, prised, when I consider the chimeri. if we consider that duty and respect cal apprehensions upon which this which children ought to thew to oppofition is founded ; as if by na- wards their parents, and that indul. turalizing a few Jews our conftituti gence and affection parents ought to on was to be unhinged, our liberties have for their children, especially in facrificed, and the chriflian religion that affair of their marriage, which extirpated. I fould be extremely Cis generally the first ftep that people forry, Sir, if I thought that any of all ranks make into the world, genileman could be serious when he and a flep upon which their future endeavours to poffefs us with fuch happiness, prosperity and success alapprehenfions, because I should from moft entirely depends. In this step thence conclude, that both our reli- the happiness both of the parents gion and our constitution stood upon and children is so intimately cona very unstable foundation ; but as I D cerned, that children ought never am convinced that no man of sense to make it without the approbation can be serious when he talks so, I of their parents, nor ought the patear no danger to either from this rent to refuse his approbation, when bill; and as it will certainly be of the match proposed is not such as fome, and may be of very great ad. apparently tends to the dishonour of vantage to this country, I shall be his family, or may probably bring for its being passed into a law. E on the ruin of his child. Yet we

often find the passion called love triThe next most important Soljet, upon umphing over the duty of children wbiih we have lately had any


to their parents, and on the other bate in our Ciub, wus upon the Bill hand we fometimes find the paflion paljed lof Sillion into a Law, for of pride or avarice triumphing over the better preventing of clandestine the duty of parents to their children, Marriages ; and upon this Subject F And when a young gentleman or lawe had lo many and fuch long De' dy happens to be born to a good forbates, that to give you tbe Sub- tune, they are so beset with selfish fiance of all the excellent Speeches designing people, and so many arts made upon the Occasion would make made use of for engaging their af. a large Volume by itself alone; fection, that their innocence often rberifore i pall give you the Sub- becomes a pre'', perhaps, to the lowfance only of Jomie of the most re-G es and vileft seducer. How often mariable, biginning with that have we known the heir of a good made by Arrianas Maturius, which family reduced, and engaged in a

. was to this Fifc7 :

private and clandeftine marriage,
perhaps with a common ftrum pec?


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1753. PROCEEDINGS of the POLITICAL CLUB, &c. 357 How often have we known a rich mon law an information will lie, and heiress carried off by a man of low a punishment may be inflicted, for birth, or perhaps by an infamous

seducing a young man or a young farper ? What distress some of our woman away from their

parents, and best families have been brought into, getting


young man, or such what ruin some of their sons or young woman married, without the daughters have been involved in, A consent of the parents. by Tuch means, every gentleman Thus, Sir, by our old laws great may from his own knowledge recol

care has been taken to prevent young lect ; and every gentleman must al. gentlemen or young ladies from below, chat such misfortunes ought to ing seduced, or taken away and be prevented, if posible.

married, without the consent of That this onght to be done, Sir, their parents or guardians ; and by the laws we have now in being are a B two late statutes clandestine marrifufficient testimony ; for not only by ages of all kinds have been expressly the canons, but by several statutes, prohibited ; for by an act of the 7th marriage without proclamation of and 8th of king William it is enactbanns, or a regular licence, is pro- ed, that if a parson shall marry any hibited ; and no licence ought ever person in any church or chapel, or to be granted unless oath be made, in any other place whatsoever, or if that the parties are of age, or that C he shall employ, or suffer any other the parents or guardians have given minifter

minister to marry any person in any their consent. Besides this, there are church or chapel to such parson beseveral penalties inflicted by the sta- longing, without publication of tutes, for by a ftuute so long since banns, or licence, he hall for every as in the 3d of Henry VII. it is such offence forfeit rool, the min 'made felony to take away, or to be so married shall forfeit rol. and the concerned in taking away, a woman D sexton or parish clerk, knowingly ashaving lands or goods, or that is heir sitting thereat, 5l. : This forfeiture, apparent to her ancestor, and to mar- to the parson so offending, was reTy or defile her, even though the enacted in the roth of queen Anne; should after being thus taken away and it was then further enacted, consent to be married or to be defi- that if the offender, at the time Jed by one of those concerned in tak. of the offence committed, should ing her away ; which statute is con- E be a prisoner in any prison, not firmed by a fatute of the 39th of being a county goal, he thould, Elizabeth, and all principals, procu. upon his conviction, be removed to rers or accessaries in any such offence the county goal, and there charged in are excluded the benefit of clergy ; execution with the said penalty, and and by a statute in the reign of Phi. with all the causes of his former im. lip and Mary, whoever thall take prisonment. Moreover, it was by away, or cause to be taken away, F this last act enacted, that if the even with her confent, any maid or keeper of any prison should be privy woman-child unmarried, being with- to, or knowingly permit any such in the age of 16, and deflower or marriage in his prison, he should for marry her without the consent of the every such offence forfeit 1ool. And father, or of the mother having the besides all these provisions by canon, custody of her, after the death of statute, and common law against the father, hall be fined or imprifon-G clandestine marriages, the court of ed for five years; and if such woman- chancery has always deemed it a child, being above 12 and under 16, contempt of that court to marry one Thi consent to such marriage, he of its wards without the consent of ihail be deprived of her inheritance the court, and has been in use to during her life. And even at com.


358 PROCEEDINGS of the POLITICAL CLUB, &c. Aug. commit the offenders to prison for tual against all sorts of clandestine that contempt during the pleasure of marriages ; because the several cafes the court.

cannot be properly distinguished, and It is therefore plain, Sir, that in a punishment that would be so severe the eye of the law a clandestine mar- as to be effectual in the most heinous riage has always been deemed an of.

and most tempting case, would be by fence which ought to be punished, A much too severe in all the others. and an evil which ought to be pre- Nothing can, in my opinion, Sir, vented. But when a young gentle- be effecival for preventing clandesman or young lady is intitled to a

tine marriages of every kind, but large eftate, the advantage to be got that of declaring all such marriages by marrying them is so great, and con

null and void to all intents and purfequently the temptation so ftrong, , poses whatsoever. This, I am perthat our laws have never as yet been B suaded, our ancestors were sensible able to prevent the evil ; for they of, but a superstitious opirion then are either such as may be easily evad- prevailed, that when a marriage beed, or the penalties are too small, tween two persons come to the age and the only proper penalty that has of consent was once solemnized by a ever as yet been inflicted is laid upon man in holy orders, it was so firmly the wrong person ; which juries are established by the divine law, that su feasible o?, that it would be very С it could not be annulled and made difficult to give so clear a proof, as void by any human law whatever. 30 prevail with them to bring in a Thank God! we have in this age verdict againit the defendant. When got the better of this, as well as we J say this, I fuppose it will be un- have of a great many other superfti. derfood, that I mean the statute of tious opinions ; and the reverend Philip and Mary, which deprives a bench in the other house will deserve young lady under 16 of her inheri- D the thanks of latest pofterity, for. tance, for consenting to a marriage, consenting to render Christianity conto which she has been seduced by fifent with common sense. I hope, fome deceitful betrayer. This is re- I shall not be mistaken : Primitive ally punishing the innocent, and add. and pure Christianity always was ing misfortunes innumerable to her confiftent with common sense ; but misfortune ; and therefore it would additions have been since made to it, be the height of cruelty to take ad- E many of which are inconfiftent with vantage of, or to carry this law into common sense, and of these I take execution, could it even be proved the old opinion relating to marriage to the satisfaction of a jury, that the to be one ; for I think nothing can had voluntarily and reely confented be more inconsistent with common to such a marriage ; but as this, as sense than to say, that the supreme I have said, can very seldom if ever legislature of a society cannot put be done, this law is no bar to the F contracts of marriage, as well as seducing a young lady of


every other contract, under what recore to clope from her parents or gulations they think most conducive guardiars, and to marry her betray.' to the good of that fociety. And I er; and the penalty or punishment, think it is ridiculous to say, that in. inficled upon him by that ftature is finis fhall have a power, when they not to severe as to deter him irom

come of age, to avoid and annul committing the crime. Indeed, I every contract they made, even for do not think that any punishments, G the inerelt trifle, while under age, either upon the parties contracting

without the consent of their parents the marriage, or upon the clergy or guardians, and yet if without conDian that perso; ms the ceremony, sent of father, or mother, or guarcan be made so levere as to be effic


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