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Macd. My children, too?

Enter LADY MACBETH, with a Taper. Rosse.

Wife, children, servants, all Lo you, here she comes ! This is her very guise ; That could be found.

Observe her; Macd. And I must be from thence! and, upon my life, fast asleep.

stand close. My wife kill'd too?

Doct. How came she by that light ?
I have said.

Gent. Why, it stood by her: she has light by Mal.

Be comforted :

her continually ; 'uis her command. Let's make us med'cines of our great revenge, Doct. You see her eyes are open. To cure this deadly grief.

Gent. Ay, but their sense is shut. Macd. He has no children.-All my pretty ones ? Doct. What is it she does now ? Look, how she Did you say, all ?-0, hell-kite !-All?

rubs her hands. What, all my pretty chickens, and their dam, Gent. It is an accustomed action with her, to At one fell swoop ?

seem thus washing her hands; I have known her Mal. Dispute it like a man.”

continue in this a quarter of an hour. Macd.

I shall do so ;

Lady M. Yet here's a spot. But I must also feel it as a man:

Doct. Hark, she speaks: I will set down what I cannot but remember such things were,

comes from her, to satisfy my remembrance the moro That were most precious to me. - Did heaven look

strongly. on,

Lady M. Out, damned spot ! out, I say!--Ono : And would not take their part ? Sinful Macduff,

Two: Why, then 'tis time to do'i :

--Hell is They were all struck for theo ! naught that I am,

murky !'-Fye, my lord, fye! a soldier, and a feard ? Nut for their own demerils, but for mine,

Whai need we fear who knows it, when none can Fell slaughter on their souls : Heaven rest them call our power to account ?-Yet who would have

now! Mal. Be this the whetstone of your sword : let thought the old man to have had so much blood in him?

Doct. Do you mark that? grief

Lady M. The thane of Fife had a wife : Whero Convert to anger; blunt not the heart, enrage it. is she now? -What, will these hands ne'er be

Macd. O, I could play the woman with mine eyes, clean ?-No more o' that, my lord, no more o'that: And braggart with my tongue !

-But, gentle you mar all with this starting. heavens,

Doct. Go to, go to: you have known what you Cut short all intermission :' front to front,

should not. Bring thou this fiend of Scotland, and myself; Gent. She has spoke what she should not, I am Within my sword's length set him ; if ho 'scape, sure of that: Heaven knows what she has known. Heaven forgive him too!

Lady M. Here's the smell of the blood sull: all Mal.

This tune“ goes manly. the perfumes of Arabia will not sweeten this little Come, go we lo the king: our power is ready ; hand. Oh! oh! oh! Our lack is nothing but our leave : Macbeth Doct. What a sigh is there! The heart is sorely Is ripe for shaking, and the powers above

charged. Put on their instruments.S. Receive what cheer Gent. I would not have such a heart in my bom you may ;

somn, for all the dignity of the whole body. The nighi is long that never finds the day.

Doct. Well, well, well,-. (Excunt.

Gent. 'Pray God, it be, sir.

Doct. This disease is beyond my practice: Yet

I have known those which have walked in their ACT V.

sleep, who have died holily in their beds. SCENE I. Dunginane. A Room in the Castle. Lady M. Wash your hands, put on your night

Enter a Doctor of Physic, and a Waiting Gen- gown, look not so pale : I tell you yet again, Bantlewoman.

quo's buried; he cannot come out of his grave. Doct. I have two nights watched with you, but

Doct. Even so ? can perceive no truth in your report. When was it

Lady M. To bed, to bed; there's knocking as she last walked ?

the gate. Come, come, come, come, give me your Gent. Since his majesty went into the field, I hand; What's done, cannot be undone : To bed, to have seen her rise from her bed, throw her night-bed, to bed.

(Ezil LADY MACBETH. gown upon her, uninck her closet, take forth paper,

Docl. Will she go now to bed ? fold it, write upon it, read it, afterwards seal it, and

Gent. Directly. again return to bed; yet all this while in a most fast Doct. Foul whisperings are abroad; Unnatural sleep.

deeds Doct. A great perturbation in nature ! to receive Do breed unnatural troubles : Infectod minds at once the benefit of sleep, and do the effects of To their deaf pillows will discharge their secrets. watching. In this slumbry agitation, besides her More needs she the divine, than the physician.walking, and other actual performances, what, at God, God, forgive us all! Look after her ; any time, have you heard her say ?

Remove from her the means of all annoyance, Gent. That, sir, which I will not report after hier. And still keep eyos upon her :-So, good night:

Doct. You may, to me; and 'tis most meet you My mind she has mated," and amaz'd my sight : should,

I think, but dare not speak. Gent. Neither to you, nor any one ; having no


Good night, good doctor. witness to confirm my speech.

(Exeunt. I 'At one fell scoop:' Swoop, from the verb to In so profound abysm I throw all care sloop or sweep, is the descent of a bird of prey on his of others' voices, that my adder's sense quarry

To critick and to flatterer stopped are, 2 i. e, contend with your present sorrow like a man. 7 Lady Macbeth, in her dream, imagines herself talk. 3 All interinission, all pause, all

intervening time. ing to her husbanl, who (she supposes) had just said 4 The old copy reads time. The emendation is Hell is murky (1. e. hell is a dismal place to go to in Rowe's

consequence of such a deed,) and repeats his words in 5 i. e encourage, thrust us their instruments forward contempt of his cowardice.- Hellis murky !-Fye, my against the tyrant.

lord, fye! a soldier, and a feard ?" This explanation is 6 Ay, but their sense is shut. The old copy reads by Steevens, and appears to me very judicious.

Ay, but their sense ure shut.' Malone has quoted other S“ You mar all with this starting. She is here again Instances of the same inaccurate grammar, according to alluding to the terrors of Macbeth when the Ghost broke mudern notions, from Julius Cæsar :

in on the festivity of the banquet. The posture of his blows are yet unknown.' g‘My mind she has mated.' Maled, or amated, And from the hundred and iwellth Sonnet of Shak. trom nulle, old French, signified to overcome, con speare:

I found, dismay, or make afraid.


SCENE II. The Country near Dunsinane. Enter,

Enter a Servant. uith Drum and Colors, MENTETH, CATHNESS, The devil damn thee black, thou crear-faced loon 11 ANGUS, Lenox, and Soldiers.

Were gou'st thou thai goose look ?
Ment. The English power is near, led on by

Serr. There is ten thousand-


Geese, villain ? His unele Siward,' and the good Macduff.


Soldiers, sir. Revenges burn in them: for their dear causes

Much. Go, prick thy face, and over-red thy fear, Would, to the bleeding, and the grim alarm,

Thou boly-liver'd bov. What soldiers, patch ?" Excite the mornited man.”

Death of thy soul! those linen cheeks of thine Ang.

Near Birnam wood

Are counsellors to fear.' What soldiers, wheye

face? Shall we well meet them;

that way are they coming. Cath. Who knows, if Donalbain be with his bro

Serv. The English force, so please you. ther?

Much. Take thy face hence.- Seytop !-I am len. For certain, sir, he is not: I have a file

sick at heart, Of all the geniry; there is Siward's son,

When I behold-Seyton, I say!—This push And many unrougha youths, that even now

Will cheer me ever, or disseai me now. Protest their first of manhood.

I have liv'd long enough: my way of life Ment.

What does the tyrant? is fali'n into the sear," the yellow leaf: Cath. Great Dunsinane he strongly forlities :

And that which should accompany old age,
Some say, he's inad; others, that lesser hate him, I must not look to have ; but, in their stead,

As honour, love, obedience, troops of friends,
Do call it valiant fury: but, for certain,
He cannot buckle his distemper'd cause

Curses, not loud, but deep, mouth-honour, breath, Within the belt of rule.

Which the poor lo art would sain deny, but dare not. Ang.

Now does he feel Seylon !
His secret murders sticking on his hands;

Enter Serton.
Now minutely revolts upbraid his faith-breach;
Those he commands, move only in command,

Sey. What is your gracious pleasure ?
Nothing in love: now does he feel his title


What news more 3 Hany loose about him, like a giant's robe

Sey. All is confirm'd my lord, wbich was reUpon a dwarfish thief.

ported. Ment.

Who then shall blame Macb. I'll fight, till from my bones my flesh be His pesterd senses to rocoil, and siart,

hack?f. When all that is within him does condemn

Give me my armour. Itsell, for being there !

'Tis not needed yet. Cath. Well, march we on,

Macb. I'll put it on. To give obedience where 'tis truly ow'd :

Send out more horses, skirri? the country round; Meet we the medecin of the sickly weal;

Hang those that talk' of fear.-Give me mine ar-
And with him pour we, in our country's purge,
Each drop of us.

How does your patient, doctor?
Or so much as it needs,


Not so sick, my lord, To dew the sovereign flower, and drown the weeds. As she is troubled with thick-coming fancies, Make we our march towards Birnam.

That keep her from her rest. (Ercunt, marching. Macb.

Cure her of that

Canst thou not minister to a mind diseas'd ;13 SCENE II. Dunsinane. A Room in the Castle. Pluck from the memory a rooted sorrow; Enter MACBETH, Doctor, and Attendants.

Raze out the written troubles of the brain;

And, with some sweet oblivious antidote, Mach. Bring me no more reports; let them fly Cleanse the stuff'd bosom of that perilous stuff,

Which weighs upon the heart? Till Birnam wood remove to Dunsinane,


Therein the patient I cannot taint with fear. What's the boy Malcolm! Must minister to himself. Was he not born of woman? The spirits that know Macb. Throw physic to the dogs, I'll none of All mortal consequence, have pronounc'd me thus : Fear not, Macbeth ; no man, that's born of woman, Come, put mine armour on; give me my staff:Shall e'er have power upon thee. -Then fly, false Seyton, send out.-Doctor, the thanes fly from me: thanes,

Come, sir, despatch :-If thou couldst, doctor, cast And mingle with the English epicures :

The water of my land,'* find her disease,
The mind I sway by, and the heart I bear,
Shall never sagg with doubt, nor shake with fear.

9 Putch, an appellation of contempt, signifying fool or lou tercich,

10 i. e. they infect others who see them with cow. 1 Duncan had two sons by his wife, who was the ardice. In King Henry V. the King says to the conspidaughter of Siward, Earl of Northumberland.-Ho. rators, Your cheeks are paper.' linshed.

Sear is dry, withered. We have the same expres2 By the mortified man is meant a religious man; sion and senument in Spenser's Pastorals :one who has mortified his passions, is dead to the world, 'Also my lustful leaf is drie and scare." has abandoned it, and allihe affairs of it; an ascetic. For 'way of life: Johnston would read “May of life ;' in

3. And many unrough youths.' This odd expres. which he was followed by Steevens and others. Warsion means smooth.faced, unbearded.

burton contended for the original reading, and was fol. 41. e. when all the faculties of the mind are employ. lowed by Mason. At a subsequent period Steevens ed in self-condemnation.

acquiresced in the propriety of the old reading, way of 5 The medecin, the physician. In the Winter's Tale, life, which he interprets, with his predecessors, course Camillo is called by Perdita 'the medecin of our house. or progress. Malone followed the same traci. The

6 Shakspeare derived this thought from Holinshed: fact is that these ingenious writers have mistaken tha - The Scouish people before had no knowledge of nor phrase, which is neither more nor less than a simple understanding of fine fare or riotous surfeit; yet after periphrasis for life. they had once tasted the sweet poisoned bait ihereof,' 12 i. e. scour the country round. &c. those superfluities which came into the realıne of 13 The following very remarkable passage in the Am. Scotland with Englishmen.'-Hist. of Scotland, p. 179. adigi of Bernardo Tasso, which bears a striking resem.

7 To sag, or swag, is to hang down by its own blance to the words of Macbeth, was first pointed out in weighi, or by an overload.

Mr. Weber's edition of Ford :8 =cream-fac'd loon.' This word, which signifies Ma chi puole con erbe, o argomenti a base abject fellow, is now only used in Scotlaud ; it Guarir l'infermita del intelletto?: was formerly common in England, but spell luion, and

Cant, xxxvi. St. 37. is justly considered hy Horne Tooke as ihe past parui. 14 To cast the water was the empiric phrase for find ciple of to low or abase. Loret has the same origin. ing out disorders by the inspection of urine.


it :

And purge it to a sound and pristine Health, Sey. It is the cry of women, my good lord. I would applaud thee to the very echo,

Macb. I have almost forgot the taste of fears : That should applaud again.-Pull't off

, I say. The time has been, my senses would have coolid What rhubarb, senna, or what purgative drug, To hear a night-shriek; and my fello of hair Would scour these English hence ?-Hearest thou Would at a dismal treatise rouse, and stir of them?

As life were in't: I have supp'd full with horrors; Doct.. Ay, my good lord; your royal preparation Direness, familiar to my slaught'rous thoughts, Makes us hear something.

Cannot once start me.-Wherefore was that cry? Macb.

Bring it afier me. Sry. The queen, my lord, is dead. I will not be afraid of death and bane,

Macb. She should have died hereafter; Till Birnam forest come to Dunsinane. (Exit. There would have been a time for such a word.”

Doct. Were I from Dunsinane away and clear, To-morrow, and to•morrow, and to-morrow, Profil again should hardly draw me here. (Erit. Creeps in this petty pace from day to day, SCENE IV. Country near Dunsinane: A Wood And all our yesterdays have lighted fools

To the last syllable of recorded time;'' in view. Enter, with Drum and Colours, Mal. The way to dusly death. Oui, out, brief candle ! COLM, OL SIWARD and his Son, MacDUFF, Life's but a walking shadow ; a poor player, MENTETH, CATHNESS, Angus, Lenox, Rosse, That struts and frets his hour upon the stage,, and Soldiers, marching.

And then is heard no more: it is a tale
Mal. Cousins, I hope the days are near at hand | Told by an idiot, full of sound and fury,
That chambers will be safe.

Signifying nothing: -
We doubt it nothing.

Enter a Messenger.
Siw. What wood is this before us?

The wood of Birnam. Thou com’st to use thy tongue; thy story quickly.
Mal, Let every soldier how him down a bough, I shall report that which I say I saw,
And bear't before him; thereby shall we shadow

But know not how to do it.
The numbers of our host, and make discovery
Err in report of us.


Well, say, sir.
It shall be done.

Mess. As I did stand my watch upon the hill, Siw. We learn, no other, but the confident tyrant | The wood began to move.

I look’d toward Birnam, and anon, methought, Keeps still in Dunsinane, and will endure Our setting down before'í.


Liar and slave!11 Mal. 'Tis his main hope :

Mess. Let me endure your wrath, it't be not so: For where there is advantage to be given,"

Within this three mile may you see it coming i Both more and less“ have given him the revolt ;

I say, a moving grove.

Macb. And none serve with him but constrained things,

If thou speak’st false, Whose hearts are absent too.

Upon the next tree shalt thou hang alive, Macd.

Let our just censures Till famine cling'? thee: if thy speech be sooth, Attend the truo event, and put we on

I care not if thou dost for me as much,
Industrious soldiership.

I pall in resolution; and begin
The time approaches,

To doubt the equivocation of the fiend,
That will with due decision make us know

That lies like truth : Fear not, till Birnam wood What we shall say we have, and what we owe."

Do come to Dunsinane ;---and now a wood Thoughts speculative their unsure hopes relate;

Comes toward Dupsinane.--Arm, arm, and out But certain issue strokes must arbitrate : 6

If this, which he avouches, does appear, Towards which, advance the war.?

There is nor flying hence, nor tarrying aere. (Exeunt, marching. I'gin to be a-weary of the sun,

And wish the estate o' the world were now undone. SCENE V. Dunsinane. Within the Castle. En. Ring the alarum-bell :-Blow, wind ! come, wrack !

ter, with Drums and Colours, MACBETH, Ser. At least we'll die with harness's on our back. TON, and Soldiers.

(Exeunt. Maco. Hang out our banners on the outward walls ; The cry is stin, They come : Our castle's strength' SCENE VI. The same. Plain before the Cas Will laugh a siege to scorn: here let them lie,

tle. Enter with Drums and Colours, MALCOLM, Till famine and the ague, eat them up:

Old SIWARD, Macdurs, fc. and their Army, Were they not forc'd with those that should be ours,

with Boughs. We might have met them dareful, beard to beard, Mal. Now near enough; your leavy screens And beat them backward home. What is that

throw down,
noise ?
(A cry within, of women.

stroy the effect, and defeat the supposed purpose of the 1 What rhubarb, senna.' The old copy reads cyme. antecedent couplets. The emendation is Rowe's.

8'- my fell of hair,'my hairy part, my capilititium. ? A similar incident is recorded by Olaus Magnus, in Fell is skin, properly a sheep's skin with the wool on it

. his Northern History, lib. vii. cap. xx. De Strategemate 9 There would have been a time for such a word.' Hachonis per Frondes.

Macbeth might mean that there would have heen a more 3 “For where there is advantage to be given.' Dr, convenient time for such a word, for such intelligence. Johnson thought that we should read :

By a word certainly more than a single one was meant. where there is a runtage to be gone.' 10 The last syllable of recorded lime' seems to sig. 1. e, where there is an opportunity to be gone, all ranks nify the utmost period fixed in the decrees of heaven for desert him. We mighe perhaps read :

the period of life. The record of futurity is indeed no where there is advantage to be gained;' accurate expression ; but as we only know transactions, and the sense wonld be nearly similar, with less vio- past or present, the language of men affords no terın for lence to the text of the old copy.

the volumes of prescience in which future events may 4 i. e. Greater and less, or high and low, those of all be supposed to be written. ranks.

11 | Striking him ') says the stage direction in the 5 What we shall say we have, and what we owe.' margin of all the modern éditions : but this stage direc. I think, with Mason, that Siward only means to say, in tion is not in the old copies : it was first interpolated by more pompous language, that the time approached Rowe ; and is now omiued on the suggestion of the late which was to decide iheir fate.

Mr. Kemble. See his Essay on Macbeth and King 6 Arbitrate, determine.

Richard III. Lond. 1917, p. 111. 7 It has been understood that local rhymes were in 12 To cling, in the northern countics, signifies to troduced in plays to afford an actor the advantage of a shrivel, wither, or di y up. Clung.wood is wond of which more pointed exit, or to close the scene with additional the sap is entirely uried or spent. The same idea is force. Yet, whatever might be Shakspeare's motive for well expressed by Pope in his version of the nineteenth continuing such a practice, he often seems immediately Iliad, 166:-to repent of it, and in this tragedy, as in other places, Clung with dry famine, and with toils declinu." has repeatedly counteracted it by hemisticha, which de 13 Harness, armour.

a title

And show like those you are:- You, worthy uncle, On mine own sword? whiles I see lives the gashes
Shall, with my cousin, your right noble son, Do better upon them.
Lead our first battle: worthy Macduff, and we,
Shall take upon us? what else remains to do,

Re-enter Macdurr
According to our order.


Turn, hell-hound, turn. Siw. Fare you well.

Macb. Of all men else I have avoided thee : Do we but find the tyrant's power to-night, But get thee back, my soul is too much charg'd Let us be beaten, if we cannot fight.

With blood of thine already. Macd. Make all our trumpets speak; give them Macd.

I have no words, all breath,

My voice is in my sword ;' thou bloodier villain Those clamorous harbingers of blood and death. Than terms can give thee out ! (They fight (Ereunt. Alarums continued. Macb,

Thou losest labour :

As easy mayst thou the intrenchant aire SCENE VII.

The same.

Another part of the With thy keen sword impress, as make me bleed: Plain. Enter MACBETH.

Let fall thy blade on vulnerable crests; Macb. They have tied me to a stake ; I cannot fly. To one of woman born.

I bear a charmed life,' which must not yield But, bearlike, I must fight the course. What's he,

Macd. That was not born of woman? Such a one

Despair thy charm; Am I to fear, or none.

And let the angel, whom thou still hast serv'd,

Tell thee, Macduff was from his mother's womb Enter Young SIWARD.

Untimely ripp'd. Yo. Siw. What is thy name?

Macb. Accursed be that tongue that tells me so, Mach.

Thou'lt be afraid to hear it. For it hath cow'd my better part of man: Yo. Siw. No; though thou call'st thyself a hot- And be these juggling fiends no more believ'd,

That palter' with us in a double sense ;
ter name
Than any is in hell.

That keep the word of promise to our ear,
My name's Macbeth.

And break it to our hope.--I'll not fight with theo. Yo. Siw. The devil himself could not pronounce And live to be the show and gaze 'o' the time.

Macd. Then yield thee, coward,
More hateful to mine ear.

We'll have thee, as our rarer monsters are,
No, nor more fearful.

Painted upon a pole ; and underwrit,

Here Yo. Siw. Thou liest, abhorred tyrant; with my

may you see the tyrant. sword


I'll not yield I'll prove the lie thou speak'st.

To kiss the ground before young Malcolm's foet, [They fight, and Young Siward is slain. And to be baited with the rabble's curse. Macb. Thou wast born of woman.

Though Birnam wood be come to Dunsinane, But swords I smile at, weapons laugh to scorn,

And thou oppos'd, being of no woman born, Brandish'd by man that's of a woman born. [Èxit. Yet I will try the last : Before my body

I throw my warlike shield ; lay on, Macduff; Alurums. Enter MACDUFF.

And damn'd be him that first cries, Hold, enough. 1 Macd. That way the noise is :--Tyrant show

(Exeunt, fighting. thy face : If thou be'st slain, and with no stroke of mine,

Retreat. Flourish. Re-enter, with Drum and Com My wife and children's ghosts will haunt me still.

lours, MALCOLM, Old SIWARD, Rosse, LENOX; I cannot strike at wretched kernes, whose arms

Angus, CATHNESS, MENTETH, and Soldiers, Are hir'd to bear their staves ; either thou, Macbeth, Mal. I would, the friends we miss were safe arOr else my sword, with an unbatter'd edge,

riv'd. I sheathe again undeeded. There thou should'st be ; Siw. Some must go off: and yet, by these I see, By this great clatter, one of greatest note,

So great a day as this is cheaply bought. Seems bruited :: Let me find him, fortune!

Mal. Macduff is missing, and your noble son. And more I beg not.

[Erit. Alarum. Rosse. Your son, my lord, has paid a soldier's Enter Malcolm and Old SIWARD.

debt ; Siw. This way, any lord ;—the castle's gently The which no sooner had his prowess confirm'd

He only liv'd but till he was a man: render'd: The tyrant's people on both sides do fight;

In the unsbrinking station where he fought, The noble thanes do bravely in the war ;

But like a man he died.

Sim. The day almost itself professes yours,

Then he is dead ? And litile is to do.

Rosse. Ay, and brought off the field : your cause

of sorrow Mal.

We have met with foes That strike beside us.

Must not be measur'd by his worth, for then

It hath no end.
Enter, sir, the castle.


Had he his hurts before ?
(Ereunt. Alarum.

Rosse. Ay, on the front,
Re-enter MACBETH.


Why then, God's soldier be he! Macb. Why should I play the Roman fool, and Had I as many sons as I have hairs, die

I would not wish them to a fairer death:10

And so his knell is knoll'd. 1 The first folio l'eauls upon's. 2 " But, bearlike, I must fight the course.'

9 To cry hold! was the word of yielding (according a phrase at bear-baiting. • Also you shall see two ten to Carew's Survey of Cornwall, p. 74,) that is when Jog rourses at the great bear."-Antipodes, by Brome. one of the combatants cries so. To cry hoid! when

3 Bruited is reported, noised abroad; from bruit, Fr. persons were fighting, was an authoritative way of sep

4'Why should I play the Roman fool, and die. Al arating them, according to the old military laws. This luding probably lo the suicide of Cato of Utica.

ja shown by the following passage produced by Mr 5 My voice is in my sword.' Thus Casca, in Julius Tollet: it declares it to be a capital offence 'Whosoevei Cæsar

shall strike stroke at his adversary, either in the heat "Speak, hands, for me.'

or otherwise, if a third do cry hold, to the intent to part 6. The intrenchant air,' the air which cannot be cut. them.'-- Bellay's Instructions for the Wars, 1599.

7. 'I bear a charmed life. In the days of chivalry, 10. When Siward, the martial Earl of Northumber the champion's arms being ceremoniously blessed, each land, understood that his son, whom he had sent against took an oath that he used no charmed weapons. Mac- the Scotchmen, was slain, he demanded whe his beth, in allusion to this custom, tells Maculuff of the se. wounds were in the fore part or hinder part of his hody. curity he had in the prediction of the spirit.

When it was answered, * in the fore part;" he replied, 8 That palier with us in a double sense.' Thal“ I am right glad ; neither wish I any other death to shule with ambiguous expressions.

me or mine."--Cuinden's Remaines.

This was


He's worth more sorrow, Which would be planted newiy with the timom And that I'll spond for him.

As calling home our exil'd friends abroad, Siw.

He's worth no more ;

That fled the snares of watchful tyranny; They say, he parted well, and paid his scoro: Producing forth the cruel ministers And so, God be with him !-Here comes newer of this dead butcher, and his fiendlike queen; comfort.

Who, as 'tis thought, by self and violent hands Re-enter Macduff, with Macbeth's Head on a That calls upon us, by the grace of Grace,

Took off her life ;-this, and what needful else Pole.'

We will perform in measure, time, and place: Macd. Hail, king! for so thou art; Behold, So thanks to all at once, and to each one, where stands

Whom we invite to see us crown'd at Scone. The usurper's cursed head: the time is free :

(Flourish. Exeunt. I see thee compass'd with thy kingdom's pearl, That speak my salutation in their minds ; Whose voices I desire aloud with mine,

This play is deservedly celebrated for the propriety of Hail, king of Scotland !

ils fictions, and solemnicy, grandeur, and variety of its

action ; but it has no nice discriminations of character: AU. Hail, king of Scotland !

the events are wo great to admit the influence of par.

(Flourish. ticular dispositions, and the course of the action necesMal. We shall not spend a large expenses of sarily determines the conduct of the agents. time,

The danger of ambition is well described ; and I Before we reckon with your several loves,

know not whether it may not be said, in defence of some And make us even with you. My thanes and kins-parts which now seem improbable, that in Shakspeare's 1

time it was necessary to warn credulity against vain men,

and illusive predictions. Henceforth be earls, the first that ever Scotland In such an honour nam'd, What's more to do,

The passions are directed to their true end. Lady Macbeth is merely detested ; and though the courage

of Macbeth preserves somne esteem, yet every reader 1- These words, on a pole, Mr. Steevens added to rejoices at his fall.

JOHNSON. the stage direction from the Chronicle. The stage di. rections of the players are often incorrect, and sometimes ludicrous.

4 Malcolm, immediately after his coronation, called Thy kingdom's pearl,' thy kingdom's wealth or a parliament at Fortair ; in the which he rewarded ornament. Rowe altered this to peers, without authority. them with lands and livings that had assisted him . 3 To spend an erpense of time is, it is true, an awk against Macbeth. Manie of them that were before ward expression, yet it is probably correct; for, in the thanes were at this time made earles ; as File, Menteith, Comedy of Errors, Act iii. Se. 1, Antipholus of Ephesus Atholl, Levenox, Murrey, Caithness, Rosse, and Ansays "This jest shall cost me some expense.'

gus.'— Holinshe's History of Scotland, p. 176.


PRELIMINARY REMARKS. THIS historical play was founded on a former drama, I do the deed, and the sententious brevity of the close, England, with the Discoverie of King Richard Corde. ledge of human character which are to be found in lion's base Son, vulgarly named the Bastard Fawcon- Shakspeare alone. But what shall we say of that bridge: also the Death of King John at Swinstead Abbey. heart-rending scene between Hubert and Arthur? a As it was (sundry times) publikely acted by the Queenes scene so deeply affecting the soul with terror and pity, Majesties Players in the hugourable Citie of London.' that even the sternest bosom must melt into tears; it

This piece, which was in two parts, was printed at would perhaps be loo overpowering for the feelings, London for Sampson Clarke, 1591,' without the author's were it not for the 'alleviating intluence of the innocence name: was again republished in 1611, with the letters and artless eloquence of the poor child. His death W. Sh. in the title-page; and afterwards, in 1622, with afterwaris, when he throws himself from the prison the name of William Shakspeare at length. It may be walls, excites the deepest commiseration for his hapless found by the curious reader among the Six Old plays fate. The maternal grief of Constance, moving the on which Shakspeare founded,' &c. published by Mr. haughty unbending soul of a proud queen and affection. Steevens and Mr. Nichols some years since.

ate mother to the very confines of the most hopeless Shakspeare has followed the old play in the conduct despair, bordering on madness, is no less finely con. of ils ploc, and has even adopted some of its lines. The ceived, than sustained by language of the most impas. number of quotations from Horace, and similar scraps sioned and vehement eloquence. How exquisitely of learning scattered over this motley piece, ascertain it beautiful are the following lines :to have been the work of a scholar. It contains likewise Grief fills the room up of my absent child; a quantity of rhyming Latin and ballad metre; and, in Lies in his bed; walks up and down with me; a scene where the Bastard is represented as plunder. Puts on his pretty looks, repeats his words, ing a monastery, there are strokes of humour which, Remembers me of all his gracious parts, from their particular turn, were most evidently produced Stuffs out his vacant garments with his form ; by another hand than that of Shakspeare. Pope altri Then have I reason to be fond of grief.' butes the old play to Shakspeare and Rowley conjointly ; Shakspeare has judiciously preserved the character but we know not on what foundation. Dr. Farmer of the Bastard Faulconbridge, which was furnished him thinks there is no doubt that Rowley wrote the old play ; by the old play, to alleviate by his comic humour the and when Shakspeare's play was called for, and could poignant grief excited by the too painful events of the not be procured from the players, a piratical bookseller tragie part of the play. Faulconbridge is a favourite teprinted the old one under his name.

with every one: he is not only a man of wit, but an Though, as Johnson observes, King John is not heroic soldier ; and we lean toward him from the first written with the utmost power of Shakspeare,' yet it for the good humour he displays in his litigation with has parts of preeminent pathos and beauty, and charac. his brother respecting the succession to his supposed ters highly interesting drawn with great force and truth. father : The scene between John and Hubert is perhaps one of He hath a trick of Cæ'ır de Lion's face, the most masterly and striking which our poet ever The very spirit of Plantagenet ! penned. The secret workings of the dark and turbulent This bespeaks our favour toward him : his courage, soul of the usurper, ever shrinking from the full de his wil, and his frankreng secure it. velopement of his own bloody purpose, the artful expres. Schlegel has remarked that, in this play, the politi sions of graceful attachment by which he wins Hubert to cal and warlike events are dressed out with solemn

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